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" C’est ainsi qne sont foi mees les families tr^s naturelles et generalement avouees. On extrait de 
tons les genres qiii composent chacune d’elles les caracteres conimnns i tons, sans excepter ceux qui 
ii’appartiennent pas i la fructification, et la reunion de ces caracteres commons constitue celui de la 
famille. Plus les ressemblances sont nombreuses, plus les families sont naturelles, et par suite le 
caractere general est plus charge. En procedant ainsi, on parvient plus surement au but principal de 
la Science, qui est, non de nommer une plante, mais de connoitre sa nature et son organisation enti^re.” 








1 Y AJ. 

AuKOI '■ 

I. |: - LI 1 ' 1.' 

Ex plantarum partium facie vires nancisci docuimus ; sequitur ergo ex his, ut qua? 
alterius effigie similis fuerit, et viribus quoque par, ut altera alterius loco cedat, quas Medici 
vicarias, vel succedaneas vocant. — Nec solum ex partium similitudine compares virtutes 
cognoscuntur, sed odoris, colcris, fructificandi modi, florescendi, crescendique. Baptists 
PoRTiE, Phytognomonica, c. 39. (1588). 

Veriim quod alias dixi illud hie repeto et inculco, non sperandam a me Methodum 
undequaque perfectam et omnibus suis numeris absolutam, quae et plantas in genera ita 
distribuat ut universae species comprehendantur, nulla adhuc anomala et sui generis reliquil, 
et unumquodque genus notis suis propriis et characteristicis ita circumscribat, ut nullae 
inveniantur species incerti, ut ita dicam, laris et ad plura genera revocabilis. Nec enim id 
patitur Natura rei. Nam, cum Natura (ut dici solet) non faciat saltus, neque ab extremo 
ad extremum transeat nisi per medium, inter superiores et inferiores, rerum ordines non- 
nullas mediae et ambiguae conditlonis producere solet, quae de utroque participent, et utrosque 
velut connectant, ut ad utrum pertineant omnino incertum sit. Praeterea eadem alma parens 
in methodi cujuscunque angustias coerceri repugnat, sed ad libertatem et avrovoixiav suam 
nullis legibus obnoxiam ostentandam in unoquoque rerum ordine nonnullas species creare 
solet, tanquam exceptiones a regulis generalibus, singulares et anomalas. Rah, Historia 
Plantarum, vol. 1. Preef. (1686). 

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The principles upon which the natural system of Botany is founded 
are to a great extent self-evident, and require little illustration. That 
those plants which are most alike should be arranged next each other, 
and that on the other hand those which have the smallest mutual resem- 
.blance should be placed at the greatest distance in the system, is ob- 
viously the method of classification pointed out by nature and reason. 
And accordingly we find that the oldest arrangements, rude and imper- 
fect as they may be, are founded exclusively upon this principle. When 
our forefathers spoke of ‘‘ grass, and herbs yielding seed, and fruit trees 
yielding fruit, of moving creatures that have life in the water, of fowl 
that fly above the earth, and cattle and creeping thing,” they employed 
the same principles of arrangement as are now in use, — rudely sketched, 
indeed, but not more so than was to be expected from the imperfect 
knowledge they possessed of science in general. At first no means ex- 
isted of appreciating the value of minute or hidden organs, the functions 
or even existence of which were unknown ; but objects were collected 
into groups, characterised by common, external, and obvious signs. From 
such principles no naturalists except botanists have deviated ; no one 
has thought of first combining under the name of the animal kingdom 
quadrupeds and birds, insects and fishes, reptiles and mollusca, and 
then of subdividing them by the aid of a few arbitrary signs, in such a 
way that a portion of each should be found in every group — quadrupeds 
among birds and fishes, reptiles amongst insects and mammalia ; but 
each great natural group has been confined within its own proper limits. 
Botany alone, of all the branches of natural history, has been treated 
otherwise ; and this in modern times. 

The first writers who acknowledged any system departed in no de- 
gree from what they considered a classification of plants according to 
their general resemblances. Theophrastus has his water-plants and 



parasites, pot-herbs and forest trees, and corn-plants ; Dioscorides, aro- 
matics and gum-bearing plants, eatable vegetables and corn-herbs ; and 
the successors, imitators, and copiers of those writers, retained the same 
kind of arrangement for many ages. 

At last, in 15^0, a Fleming, of the name of Lobel, improved the 
vulgar modes of distinction, by taking into account characters of a more 
definite nature than those which had been employed by his predecessors ; 
and thus laid the foundation of the modern mode of studying vegeta- 
tion. To this author succeeded many others, who, while they disagreed 
upon the value to be ascribed to the small number of modifications of 
structure with which they were acquainted, adhered to the ancient 
plan of making their classification coincide with natural affinities. 
Among them the most distinguished were Caesalpinus, an Itahan, who 
published in 1583, the celebrated Tournefort, and especially our coun- 
tryman, John Ray, who WTote in the end of the seventeentli century. 
The latter added so much to the knowledge of his predecessors, and 
had so clear and philosophical a conception of the true principles of 
classification, as to have left behind him in his Historia plantar uni the 
real foundation of all those modern views which, having been again 
brought forward, at a more favourable time, by Jussieu, are generally 
ascribed exclusively to that most learned botanist and his successors. 
Ray, however, laboured under the great disadvantage of being too far 
in advance of his contemporaries, who were unable to appreciate 
the importance of his views or the justness of his opinions ; and, who 
therefore, instead of occupying themselves with the improvement of his 
system, set themselves to work to discover some artificial method of ar- 
rangement, which should be to Botany what the alphabet is to language, 
a key by which the details of the science might be readily ascertained. 
With this in view, Ri\'inus invented, in 1690, a system depending upon 
the formation of the corolla ; Kamel, in 1693, upon the fruit alone; Mag- 
nol, in 1720, on the calyx and corolla; and finally, Linnseus, in 
on variations in the sexual organs. The method of the last author has 
enjoyed a degree of celebrity which has rarely fallen to the lot of human 
contrivances, chiefly on account of its clearness and simplicity ; and in 
its day it undoubtedly effected its full proportion of good. Its author 
however, probably intended it as a mere substitute for the Natural 
System, for w hich he found the world in his day unprepared, to be re- 
linquished as soon as the principles of the latter could be settled ; as, 
indeed, is obvious from his writings, in which he calls the Natural 



System et ultimum in botanicis desideratum. He could not have 

expected that his artificial method should exist when the science had 
made sufficient progress to enable botanists to revert to the principles o 
natural arrangement, the temporary abandonment of which had been 
solely caused by the difficulty of defining its groups. This difficulty 
no longer exists ; means of defining natural assemblages, as certain as 
those employed for limiting artificial divisions, have been discovered by 
modern botanists ; and the time has arrived when the ingenious expe- 
dient of Linnaeus, which could only be justified by the state of Botany 
when he first entered upon his career, must be finally relinquished. » We 
now know a great deal of the phenomena of vegetable life ; by modern 
improvements in optics, our microscopes are capable of revealing to us 
the structure and the combinations of the minutest organs ; repeated 
observations have explained the laws under which the external forms 
of plants are modified ; and it is upon these considerations that the 
Natural System depends. 

In the first edition of this work I entered into some explanation of the 
fallacy of the common opinion that the artificial system of Linnaeus is 
easy, and the Natural System difficult of application. Within the last 
five or six years, however, the sentiments of the public have undergone 
so great a change upon this subject that I no longer find it necessary to 
go into such details. All, therefore, that I propose to do on this occa- 
sion is to offer a few very general remarks upon the Natural System 

The principle upon which I understand the Natural System of Bo- 
tany to be founded is, that the affinities of plants may be determined 
by a consideration of all the points of resemblance between their various 
parts, properties, and qualities ; that thence an arrangement may be 
deduced in which those species will be placed next each other which 
have the greatest degree of relationship ; and that consequently the 
quality or structure of an imperfectly known plant may be determined 
by those of another which is well known. Hence arises its superiority 
over arbitrary or artificial systems, such as that of Linnaeus, in which 
there is no combination of ideas, but which are mere collections of iso., 
lated facts, not having any distinct relation to each other. 

This is the only intelligible meaning that can be attached to the term. 
Natural System, of which Nature herself, who creates species only, 
knows nothing. Our genera, orders, classes, and the like, are mere 
contrivances to facilitate the arrangement of our ideas with regard 



to species. A genus, order, or class, is therefore called natural, not be- 
cause it exists in Nature, but because it comprehends species naturally 
resembling each other more than they resemble any thing else. 

The advantages of such a system, in applying Botany to useful pur- 
poses, are immense, especially to medical men, with whose profession 
the science has always been identified. A knowledge of the properties 
of one plant is a guide to the practitioner, which enables him to substitute 
with confidence some other that is naturally allied to it ; and physicians, 
on foreign stations, may direct their inquiries, not empirically, but upon 
fixed principles, into the qualities of themedicinal plants which nature has 
provided in every region for the alleviation of the maladies peculiar to 
it. To horticulturists it is not less important : the propagation or cultiva- 
tion of one plant is frequently applicable to all its kindred ; the habits of 
one species in an order will often be those of the rest ; many a gardener 
might have escaped the pain of a poisoned limb, had he been acquainted 
with Natural affinity; and, finally, the phenomena of grafting, that 
curious operation, which is one of the grand features of distinction be- 
tween the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and the success of which is 
wholly controlled by ties of blood, can only be understood by the student 
of the Natural System. 

As to any difficulties that the student may encounter in the study of 
Botany upon the principles of the Natural System, it is to be observed 
ill the first place that they are only such as it is always necessary to re- 
move in all branches of human knowledge ; and secondly, that they 
have been very much exaggerated by persons who have written upon 
the subject without understanding it. 

It is said that the primary characters of the classes are not to be as- 
certained without much laborious research ; and that not a step can’ 
be taken until this preliminary difficulty is overcome. But it is 
hardly necessary to say, that in natural history many facts which have 
been originally discovered by minute and laborious research, are subse- 
quently ascertained to be connected with other facts of a more obvious 
nature, and of this Botany is perhaps the most striking proof that can 
be adduced. One of the first questions to be determined by a student 
of Botany, who wishes to inform himself of the name, affinities, and 
uses of a plant, appears to be, whether his subject contains spiral vessels 
or not, because some of the great divisions of the vegetable kingdom 
are characterised by the presence or absence of these minute organs. 
It is true, Ave have learned by careful observation, and multiplied mi- 



croscopical analyses, that some plants have spiral vessels, and others 
have none ; but it is not true, that in practice so minute and difficult an 
inquiry needs to be instituted, because it has also been ascertained that 
all plants that bear flowers have spiral vessels ; and that vegetables 
which have no flowers are usually destitute of spiral vessels, properly so 
called ; so that the inquiry of the student, instead of being directed 
in the first instance to an obscure but highly curious microscopical 
fact, is at once arrested by the two most obvious peculiarities of the 
vegetable kingdom. 

Among flowering plants two great divisions have been formed ; the 
names of which. Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons, are derived from 
the former having usually but one lobe to the seed, and the latter two, 
— a structure much more difficult to ascertain than the presence or ab- 
sence of spiral vessels, and more subject to exceptions. But no bota- 
nist would proceed to dissect the seeds of a plant for the purpose of 
detennining to which of these divisions it belonged, except in some 
special cases. We know that the minute organisation of the seed cor- 
responds with a peculiar structure of the stem, leaves, and flowers, the 
most highly developed, and most easily examined parts of vegetation ; a 
botanist, therefore, prefers to examine the stem, or the leaf of a plant, to 
see whether it is a Monocotyledon or a Dicotyledon, and does not find 
it necessary to anatomise the seed. 

The presence or absence of albumen, the structure of the embryo, 
the position of the seeds or ovules, the nature of the fruit, the modifica- 
tions of the flowers, are not to be brought forward as other difficult 
points peculiar to the study of the Natural System, because, whatever 
system is followed, the student must make himself acquainted with such 
facts, for the purpose of determining genera. The common Toad-flax 
cannot be discovered by its characters in any book of botany, without 
the greater part of this kind of inquiry being gone through. 

In the determination of genera, however, facility is entirely on the 
side of the Natural System. Jussieu has well remarked, that what- 
ever trouble is experienced in remembering, or applying the characters 
of natural orders, is more than compensated for by the facility of deter- 
mining'genera, the characters of which are simple in proportion as those 
of orders are complicated. The reverse takes place in arbitrary ar- 
rangements, where the distinctions of classes and sections are extremely 
simple and easy to remember, while those of genera are in proportion 
numerous and complicated.” 



But really all considerations of difficulty ought to be put aside when 
it is remembered how much more satisfactory are the results to which 
we are brought by the study of Nature philosophically, than those 
which can possibly be drawn from the most ingenious empirical mode 
of investigation. This will be sufficiently apparent from a brief expla- 
nation of the distinctions of the classes into which the vegetable king- 
dom is divided in the following pages. 

One of the first things that strikes an enquirer into the structure of 
plants, is the singular fact, that while all species are capable of propa- 
gating their race, the mode in which this important function is accom- 
plished is essentially different in different cases. The great mass of 
plants produces flowers which are succeeded by fruits, containing seed, 
which is shed or scattered abroad, and grows into new individuals. But 
in Ferns, Mosses, Mushrooms, and the like, neither flowers nor seeds 
properly so called, can be detected, but propagation is effected by the 
dispersion of grains or spores which are usually generated in the sub- 
stance of the plant, and which seem to have little analogy with true 
seeds. Hence the vegetable world separates into two distinct groups, the 
FLOWERING and the FLOWERLESS. Upon examining more 
closely into the respective peculiarities of these two groups, it is found 
that flowering plants have sexes, while flowerless plants have none ; 
hence the former are are also called SEXUAL, and the latter ASEX- 
UAL. Then again the former usually possess a highly developed system 
of spiral or other vessels, while the latter are either altogether destitute 
of them, or have them only in the highest orders, and then in a peculiar 
state ; for this reason flowering plants are also VASCULAR, and flow- 
erless plants CELL ULAR, More than this, all flowering plants, when 
they form stems, increase by an extension of their ends, and a distension 
or enlargement of their sides ; but flowerless plants appear to form their 
stems simply by the addition of new matter to their points ; for this 
reason while the former are principally EXOGENS or ENDOGENS, 
the latter are called ACROGENS. Flowering plants also are for the 
most part furnished with respiratory organs or stomates, while flowerless 
plants are to a great extent destitute of them. No one then can doubt 
that in the vegetable kingdom two most essentially distinct divisions 
exist, the FLOWERING and the FLOWERLESS, and that these 
differ not in one circumstance only, but are most essentially unlike in 
a number of points both of organization and physiology. 

In like manner, FLOWERING PLANTS are themselves divisible 



into equally well marked groups. Some of them grow by the addition of 
new woody matter to the outside of their stem beneath their bar k ; these 
are EXOGENS ; others grow by the addition of new woody matter to 
the inside of their stem near the centre : those are ENDOGENS. But 
Exogens have two or more cotyledons to their embryo, and hence are 
called DICOTYLEDONS, while Endogens have only one cotyledon, 
and are, therefore, MONOCOTYLEDONS. Exogens have the 
young external wood connected with the centre by medullary pro- 
cesses ; Endogens having no occasion for such a provision are destitute 
of it. In Exogens the leaves have their veins disposed in a netted man- 
ner ; in Endogens the veins run parallel with each other. The number 
of parts in the flower of an Exogen is usually five, or its multiples ; in 
an Endogen it is as usually three, or its multiples. In germination the 
young root of Exogens is a mere extension of the radicle ; but of En- 
dogens it is protruded from within the radicle ; hence the former have 
been named EXORHIZjD, and the latter ENDORHIZJE. In 
this case then, as in the last, we have two groups differing entirely from 
each other in their germination, the structure of their stem and leaves, 
their mode of growth, the arrangement of the parts of the flower, and 
in the organization of their embryo. It is impossible, therefore, not to 
recognize such groups also as natural. 

To this separation of the vegetable kingdom into Exogens, Endogens, 
and Acrogens, or by whatever synonymous names those groups may be 
known, many Botanists confine themselves. But there are two others, 
of subordinate importance perhaps, but nevertheless characterized by 
circumstances of a similar nature, and, therefore, I think to be esteemed 
of equal dignity with them. In true Exogens and Endogens the ferti- 
lizing principle of the pollen is communicated to the young seeds through 
the medium of a stigma which terminates a case or pericarp in which 
they are enclosed. But in some plants othervdse Exogens, the fertiliz- 
ing influence of the pollen is applied immediately to the seeds, without 
the intervention of any pericarpial apparatus, and they bear the same 
relation to other Exogens as frogs and similar reptiles to other animals. 
These plants, therefore, are separated as a distinct class under the name 
of GYMNOSPERMS. Like the other groups of the same grade, 
these are also found to possess peculiarities of a subordinate nature. 
For instance, they have in many cases more cotyledons than two, whence 
they have been called POLYCOTYLEDONS , their radicle usually 



adheres to the albumen in which their embryo lies, and that circum- 
stance has given rise to the name SYNORHIZM. The veins of their 
leaves, when they have any veins, are either simple or forked, in 
whicli respect they approach Endogens on the one hand, and Aero- 
gens on the other. And finally, their vascular system is very imper- 
fect compared with that of other Exogens of an equal degree of de- 

The other group, called RHIZANTHS, is far less correctly known, 
but it seems to stand as it were between-Endogens and Acrogens of 
the lowest grade, agreeing with the latter in the absence, or very im- 
perfect state of the vascular system, in a general resemblance to Fungi, 
and in the apparent seeds being mere masses of sporules ; but appa- 
rently according with Endogens in the ternary number of their floral 
envelopes, and in the presence of fully developed sexes. 

Certainly there is no possibility of obtaining such important primary 
groups as these by any kind of artificial contrivance. 

With regard to the groups subordinate to these, their nature will be 
found sufficiently explained in the body of the work. I would only 
here observe, that as the number of their characters is necessarily 
smaller than what are available for the higher classes, the distinctions 
between them are consequently less strongly marked, and apparently 
of a more artificial nature. It has, however, been a great object with 
me to render the groups as perfect as possible, in order, firstly, to 
simplify the explanation of vegetable affinity ; and secondly, to offer 
what facilities the subject will allow of in analyzing the natural orders. It 
is here, indeed, that Botanists have most to do ; and it is most earnestly 
to be hoped that those whose leisure and knowledge will allow them to 
do, so, will occupy themselves in defining, or at least, in limiting with 
all practicable accuracy, those collections of orders which are subordi- 
nate to the primary classes. My reasons for rejecting those of the 
French school have been already briefly explained in the Nixus plan- 
tarum, and will be the subject of special discussion in another place, 
where I shall have an opportunity of going into the general question 
of the principles to be observed in Botanical Classifications further 
than would be possible on the present occasion. This, therefore, and 
all similar considerations I abandon for the present, confining myself 
now to a general explanation of the points to which this edition differs 
from the last, the bulk of which it very considerably exceeds. 



The characters of the orders, &c. have been carefully revised and 
corrected, partly from my own observations, and partly from the 
suggestions or descriptions of others. 

I have availed myself of the numerous monographs, and other publi- 
cations that have appeared since 1830, for augmenting the work not 
only with many additions to the sensible properties of the different na- 
tural orders,but also with new, more correct, or more extensive views of 
their affinities and analogies. 

With reference to collecting the orders into alliances and other groups, 
in the hope of obviating some of the greatest inconveniences of a lineal 
arrangement, I have endeavoured to develope and illustrate those views 
which I first attempted to sketch in the Nixiis plantarum^ and subse- 
quently in the Key to Botany, Notwithstanding the assistance that 
I have occasionally derived from the similar attempts of Agardh and 
Bartling, I feel that this part of the work is exceedingly imperfect, and 
will require many great changes and improvements before it can be 
considered at all established. Nevertheless, I feel confident that even 
in its present state it will be found to be attended with numerous advan- 
tages, and that every step which may be taken in determining the limits 
of natural groups, subordinate to the primary classes, must be a decided 
gain to the science ; for I think there can be among Botanists only 
one opinion as to the absolute necessity of more attention being paid 
to the synthetical principles of classification. So rapid is the advance 
of our knowledge of the vegetable kingdom, and so numerous are the 
new types of structure that present themselves to the systematic Bota- 
nist, that it is to be feared lest another chaos should be brought on by 
the masses of imperfectly grouped species A\dth which the science will 
soon abound. 

In connection with this subject, I have ventured upon a reformation 
of the nomenclature of the natural system, by making all the names of 
divisions of the same value end in the same way. The orders are here 
distinguished by ending in acece^ the sub-orders in ece, the alliances in 
alesy and the groups in osce. To some it may seem that such altera- 
tions are fanciful, but I think it will be found that many advantages and 
conveniences will attend the establishment of uniformity in these mat- 
ters. I fear, however, that I have in some cases been obliged to offend 
against the laws of construction in order to carry this into effect ; but 
I trust it will be found that I have done so only in cases of inevitable 



The diagnoses which in the first edition were prefixed to the chai’ac- 
ters of the orders, are here struck out ; I have been disappointed in 
their utility, and I do not see how to improve them enough to render 
them much better. 

The analytical table has been entirely reconstructed, and I trust upon 
a better principle. One of the great faults of that prefixed to the first 
edition consisted in no provision being made by it to meet cases of ex- 
ceptional structure. This has now been attended to. 

Finally, I have collected under each natural order all the genera that 
I find referred to it in books ; to these I have added their synonyms ; and 
of the whole a copious index has been prepared. This has been a task 
of no small difficulty, and certainly could not have been executed with 
less assistance than I have received through the kindness of my friends 
and correspondents. When I state that the lists of Labiates and Scro~ 
phulariacecB have been furnished by Mr. Bentham, of Compositce by 
Professor De Candolle, of Algce by Dr. Greville, of Amaryllidacece by 
Mr. Herbert, of Ferns and Mosses by Dr. Hooker, of Lauracece^ 
Acanthacece, Graminacece^ and Hepaticce by Professor Nees v. Esen- 
beck, and finally, of Chamcelauciece by Mr. Schauer, of Breslau, it will 
at once be seen that some of the greatest impediments in the way of 
forming a complete list of genera have been removed for me. Never- 
theless, I am extremely apprehensive lest this part of my work should 
be found more defective than I expect; very defective it must neces- 
sarily be ; and I do hope that Botanists will do me the kindness to 
point out such errors or omissions as they are acquainted with, so that 
in a future edition a greater degree of accuracy may be ensured. 

As the lists of genera in some cases contain names which now appear 
for the first time, I have given the characters of such genera in an ap- 
pendix, referring to them by numbers affixed to the names. 

It was my wish to have added to these introductory remarks .^n 
abridgment of the characters of the classes, sub-classes, groups, alliances, 
and orders, so as to bring their resemblances and differences more closely 
into view. But I find that my matter already exceeds the limits of a work 
Avhich is chiefly intended as a class book ; so that I am constrained 
to refer the reader to the short characters already given in my Key to 
Botany; and to some general observations upon classification, of which 
I contemplate the speedy publication. 





Leaves reticulated. Stem with wood, pith, hark, and medullary rays. Floivers 
usually with a quinary division. Seeds in a pericarp. Cotyledons 2 or more, 


* PoLYANDROus. Stameus more than 20. 

§ Ovary inferior, or partially so. 
t Leaves furnished with stipules. 

+ Carp, more or less distinct [at least as to the styles) ; or solitary Pome.«, p. 145. 

Carpels wholly combined into a solid pistil, with morepla- 

[centas than one 

Placentas central. 

Leaves opposite ...... Rhizophorace.«, p. 40. 

Leaves alternate ; Flowers irregular . . . Lecythidace^, p. 46. 

Placentas parietal ...... Homaliace^, p. 55. 

tt Leaves without stipules. 

+ Carp, more or less distinct [at least as to the styles) ; or solitary 
Carpels 2, polyspermous, nearly superior 
Carpels numerous, quite inferior .... 
Carpels wholly combined into a solid pistil, with more pla- 

[centas than one. 

Placentas spread over the surface of the dissepiments 
Placentas parietal. 

Petals definite in number, distinct from calyx 
Petals indefinite in number, confused with the calyx 
Placentas in the axis. 

Leaves marked with little transparent dots 
Leaves dotless. 

Petals indefinite in number, very numerous 
Petals definite in number, 

narrow and strap-shaped . . . . 

round and concave . . . . . 

Bauerace^, p. 161. 
Anonaceaj, p. 18. 

NVMPHjEACEiE, p. 10. 

LoasacEjE, p. 53. 
CactacejE, p. 53. 

Myrtace^e, p. 43. 

Ficoideas, p. 56. 

Alangiaceae, p. 39. 
Philauelphace.e, p. 47. 

§§ Ovary wholly superior. 
t Leaves furnished with stipules. 

X Carp, more or less distinct [at least as to the styles); or solitary 
Stamens hypogynous. 

Leaves dotted 

Leaves without transparent dots 

. WlNTERACE^, p. 17. 

. Magnoliace-e, p. 16. 



Stamens perigynous. 

Styles from the apex of the carpels 
Styles from the base of the carpels 

Carpels wholly combined into a solid pistil, with more pla- 

\centas than one. 

Placentas parietal. 

Leaves marked with round transparent dots 

Leaves marked with round and linear transparent dots 


Placentas in the axis. 

Calyx with an imbricated aestivation. 

Flowers unisexual ..... 

Flowers hermaphrodite. 

Ovary 1 -celled. Sepals 2 ... . 

Ovary with more cells than one. 

Calyx double ..... 

Calyx single ..... 

Calyx with a valvate aestivation. 

Stamens monadelphous. Anthers 2-celled 
Stamens monadelphous. Anthers 1 -celled 
Petals lacerated. Anthers bursting by pores 
Stamens monadelphous. Calyx irregular and enlarged 

[in the fruit 

Stamens quite distinct ..... 

ft Leaves without stipules. 

J Carp, more or less distinct {at least as to the styles); or solitary 
Carpels immersed in a fleshy table-shaped disk 
Carpels not immersed in a disk. 

Stamens perigynous ..... 

Stamens hypogynous. 

Embryo very minute. 

Seeds with an aril ..... 

Seeds without an aril. Albumen fleshy 

Seeds usually without an aril. Albumen aromatic and 


Embryo nearly as long as seed. 

Calyx much imbricated. 

Seeds smooth 

Seeds hairy ..... 

Calyx but little imbricated. 

Carpels several ..... 
Carpel solitary ..... 
Carpels wholly combined into a solid pistil, loith more pla- 

[centas than one. 

Placentas parietal, in distinct lines. 

Anthers versatile. Juice watery .... 
Anthers innate. Juice milky . . . 

Placentas parietal spread over the lining of the fruit . 
Placentas spread over the dissepiments 
Placentas in the axis. 

Stigma large, broad, and petaloid. 

Stigma simple. 

Ovary 1 -celled, with free central placenta 
Ovary many-celled. 

Calyx much imbricated. 

Leaves compound ..... 
Leaves simple. 

Petals equal in number to sepals. 

Seeds few . . . . ' . 

Seeds numerous. Petals flat . 

Seeds numerous. Petals crumpled 
Calyx but little, or not at all, imbricated. 

Stamens perigynous. Calyx tubular 
Stamens hypogynous. Calyx many leaved 

RoSACEiE, p. 143. 

BiXACEiE, p. 72. 
Samydace^e, p. 64. 

Euphorbiace^, p. 112. 

PORTULACACE^, p. 123. 

Cheenace^, p. 90. 
CiSTACEiE, p. 91. 

Sterculiace.e, p. 9.1. 
MALVACEiE, p. 95. 

Dipterace^, p. 98. 
TiLIACEiE, p. 99. 

ROSACEiE, p. 143. 

DlLLENIACEiE, p. 20. 
Ranuncui.ace-e, p. 7. 

Anonace^, p. 18. 

Reaumuriace^, p. 91. 

SURIANACE.®, p. 142. 
Anacardiace^e, p. 166. 

Flacourtiace^, p. 70. 
Nymph^ace^, p. 10. 




Clusiace^, p. 75. 
Marcgraaviace^, p.j76. 
ClSTACE^, p. 91. 

LYTHRACEiE, p. 100. 
HuMIRIACEiE, p. 104. 



** Oligandrous. Stamens fewer than *20. 
§ Ovary inferior, or partially so. 
t Leaves furnished with stipules. 

Placentas parietal ..... 
Placentas in the axis. 

Flowers completely unisexual 
Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous. 

Stamens equal to the petals and opposite them . 
Stamens, if equal to the petals, alternate with them. 
Leaves opposite .... 

Leaves alternate .... 

. Homaliace^, p. 55. 

. Begoniace^, p.56. 

. Rhamnace^, p. 107. 

. RniZOPHORACEiE, p. 40. 
. Hamamelace^, p. 48. 

ft Leaves destitute of stipules. 

Placentas parietal. 

Flowers completely unisexual 
Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous 
Placentas in the axis. 

Flowers in umbels. Styles 2 . . . 

Flowers in umbels. Styles 3 or more 
Flowers not in umbels. 

Carpel solitary. 

Petals strap-shaped. Stamens distinct 
Petals very narrow. Stamens growing on them 
Petals oblong. Leaves insipid 
Petals oblong. Leaves balsamic 
Carpels divaricating at the apex 
Carpels parallel, combined. 

Calyx valvate. Petals opposite stamens 
Calyx valvate. Petals alternate with stamens 
Calyx not valvate. 

Stamens doubled downwards. Leaves ribbed 
Stamens doubled downwards. Leaves not ribbed 
Stamens only curved. Anthers short 

Leaves dotted .... 
Leaves not dotted. 

Parts of flower 4 . . . 

Parts of flower not 4. Seeds many 
Parts of flower not 4. Seeds few 

. Cucurbit A.CE.E, p. 51. 
. Grossulace.®, p. 26. 

. Apiace®, p. 21. 

. Araliace®, p. 25. 

. Alangiace®, p. 39. 

. Loranthace®, p. 49. 

. Combretace®, p. 38. 

. Anacardiace®, p. 166, 
. Saxifragace®, p. 162. 

. Rhamnace®, p. 107. 

. CORNACE®, p. 49. 

. Melastomace®, p. 41. 

. Memecylace®, p. 40. 

. Myrtace®, p. 43. 

. Onagrace®, p. 35. 

. Escalloniace®, p. 27. 

. Bruniace®, p. 28. 

§§ Ovary wholly superior. 
t Leaves furnished with stipules. 

J Carpels of the ovary distinct or solitary. 

Anthers with recurved valves .... 

Anthers with longitudinal valves. 

Style from base of carpel . . , . . 

Style from apex of carpel. Fruit leguminous 
Style from apex of carpel. Fruit drupaceous or capsular . 
Carpels of the ovary wholly combined ; with more placentas 

{than one. 

Placentas parietal. 

Flowers with a ring of appendages 
Flowers without any ring of appendages. 

Leaves with round and oblong transparent dots . 

Leaves dotless, circinnate when young . 

Leaves dotless, straight when young. Fruit capsular 
Leaves dotless, straight when young. Fruit siliquose . 
Placentas in the axis. 

Styles distinct to the base. 

Calyx in a broken whorl, much imbricated. 

Flowers calyculate ..... 

Flowers naked ..... 

Calyx but little imbricated, in a complete whorl. 

Flowers unisexual ..... 

Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous. 

Petals minute ..... 


Berberace®, p. 29. 

Chrysobalanace®, p. 158, 
Leguminos®, p. 148. 
Rosace®, p. 143. 

Passiflorace®, p. 67. 

Samydace®, p. 64. 
Droserace®, p. 66. 
ViOLACE®, p. 63. 
Moringace®, p. 65. 

Hugoniace®, p. 89. 
Elatinace®, p. 88. 

Euphorbiace®, p. 112. 

Illecebrace®, p. 127. 



. Malpighiace^, p. 121. 
Lvs. opposite CuNONiACEi®, p. 161. 

Lvs. alternate Saxifragace^, p. 162. 

. El^ocarpace^, p. 97. 

. . OCHNACEiE, p. 129. 

. Zygophyllace^, p. 133. 

Geraniace^, p. 137. 
OXALlDACEiE, p. 140. 

Petals obvious. Stamens hypogynous 
Petals obvious. Stamens perigynous. 

Petals obvious. Stamens perigynous. 

Calyx valvate ..... 

Styles more or less combined. Gynobasic. 

Gynobase fleshy .... 

Gynobase dry. Leaves regularly opposite 
Gynobase dry. Leaves alternate more or less. 

Fruit beaked ..... 

Fruit not beaked .... 

Styles more or less combined. Not gynobasic. 

Calyx much imbricated, in a broken whorl. 

Flowers spurred ... 

Flowers not spurred, calyculate 
Flowers not spurred, naked 
Calyx but little imbricated, in a complete whorl. 

Leaves compound. Sepals more than two 
Leaves simple. Sepals more than two 
Leaves simple. Sepals only two 
Calyx valvate or open. 

Stamens opposite with petals if equal to them in number. 

Perigynous ...... Rhamnaceje, p. 107. 

Hypogynous . • . . . Vitace.®, p. 30. 

Stamens alternate with petals if equal to them in number. 

Anthers opening by pores .... El®ocarpace®, p. 97. 

Anthers opening by slits. Petals split . . Chailletiaceje, p. 108- 

Anthers opening by slits. Petals undivided . Burserace®, p. 110. 

VOCHYACE®, p. 87. 
Chlenace®, p. 329. 
Sapindace®, p. 81. 

Staphyleace®, p. 121. 
Malpighiace®, p. 121. 
Portul.acace®, p. 123^. 

ft Leaves destitute of stipules. 

X Carpels of the ovary more or less distinct, or solitary. 

Anthers with recurved valves .... 

Anthers with longitudinal valves. 

Fruit leguminous. Radicle next hilum 
Fruit leguminous. Radicle remote from hilum 
Fruit not leguminous. 

Carpels each with an hypogynous scale . 

Carpels each with two hypogynous scales 
Carpels without hypogynous scales. 

Albumen very abundant. Embryo minute. 

Herbs. Albumen solid . . . . 

Shrubs. Albumen ruminate 
Albumen in small quantity or wholly wanting. 

Carpels several all perfect : 

enclosed in the tube of the calyx 
naked. Flowers hermaphrodite 
naked. Flowers unisexual 
Carpels solitary, or all but one imperfect. 

Leaves dotted . . . . . 

Leaves dotless . . . . . 

XX Carpels of the ovary combined into a solid pistil. 

Placentas parietal. 

Stamens tetradynamous . . . . . 

Stamens not tetradynamous. 

Flowers with a ring or crown of sterile stamens. 

Sexes distmct ...... 

Sexes combined. Placentae lining the fruit 
Sexes combined. Placentae in rows. Ovary stalked . 
Flowers without sterile stamens. 

' Hypogynous disk large. Stamens indefinite . 
Hypogynous disk large. Stamens definite 
Hypogynous disk small or wanting. 

Albumen veiy abundant. Embryo minute . 
Albumen in small quantity, or wholly wanting. 
Calyx 5 -leaved ..... 

Calyx tubular ..... 

Placentas covering the dissepiments .... 

Placentas in the axis. 

Berberace®, p. 29. 

Leguminos®, p. 148. 
CONNARACE®, p. 157 

Crassulace®, 163. 
Francoace®, p. 33. 

Ranunculace®, p. 5. 
Anonace®, p. 18. 

Calycanthace®, p. 159. 
CORIARIACE®, p. 141. 
Menispermace®, p. 214. 

Amyridace®, p. 165. 
Anacardiace®, p. 166. 

Brassicace®, p. 60. 

Papayace®, p. 69. 
Flacourtiace®, p. 70. 
Malesherbiace®, p. 71. 

Capparidace®, p. 61. 
Resedace®, p. 62. 

Pap AVERAGE®, p. 7. 

Turnerace®, p. 71. 
Frankeniace®, p. 67. 
Nymph® ace®, p. 10. 



Styles distinct to the base. 

Calyx in a broken whorl, much imbricated. 

Seeds hairy ...... 

Seeds smooth. Stamens polyadelphous 
Seeds smooth. Stamens monadelphous or free 
Calyx but little imbricated, in a complete whorl. 

Carpels each with an hypogjmous scale 
Carpels destitute of hypogynous scales. 

Carpels 2, divaricating at the apex . 

Carpels not divaricating at apex. Calyx tubular 
Carpels not divaricating at apex. Calyx many leaved 
Styles more or less combined. Gynobasic. 

Stamens arising from scales . . . . 

Stamens not arising from scales. 

Styles wholly combined. Flowers hermaphrodite 
Styles wholly combined. Flowers unisexual 
Styles divided at point. Flowers irregular 
Styles divided at point. Flowers regular 
Styles more or less combined. Not gynobasic. 

Calyx much imbricated, in a broken whorl. 

Flowers symmetrical . ... . 

Flowers unsymmetrical. 

Fruit indehiscent. Petals without appendages 
Fruit indehiscent. Petals with appendages 
Fruit indehiscent. Flowers papilionaceous 
Fruit dehiscent ..... 

Calyx but little imbricated, in a complete whorl. 

Carpels 4 or more. Anthers opening by pores 
Carpels 4 or more. Anthers opening by slits. 
Monadelphous. Seeds wingless 
Monadelphous. Seeds winged 
Leaves dotted. Fruit succulent 
Stamens perigynous. Disk veiy large 
Carpels fewer than 4. 

Flowers unisexual ..... 
Flowers hermaphrodite. 

Sepals 2 ..... 

Sepals more than 2. 

Stamens hypogynous. 

Seeds comose .... 

Seeds naked .... 

Stamens perigynous. 

Ovules ascending .... 

Ovules suspended .... 

Calyx valvate or open. 

Anthers opening by pores .... 

Anthers opening by slits. 

Stamens if equal in number to petals opposite them 
Stam. if equal in number to pet. alternate with them 
Leaves pinnate ..... 
Lvs. simple. Calyx tubular. Stam. hypogynous 
Lvs. simple. Calyx tubular. Stam. perigynous 
Lvs. simple. Sepals distinct or nearly so 

HyPERICACEiE, p. 77. 
Linages, p. 89. 

Crassulace.®, p. 163. 

Saxifragace.®, p. 162. 
SiLENACE®, p. 124. 
Alsinace®, p. 125. 

SiMARUBACE®, p. 129. 

Rutace®, p. 130. 
Xanthoxylace®, p. 135. 
Balsaminace®, p. 138. 
Limnanthace®, p. 142. 

Clusiace®, p. 75. 

Acerace®, p. 81. 
Sapindace®, p. 81. 
POLYGALACE®, p. 84. 
^SCULACE®, p. 84. 

Ericace®, p. 220. 

Meliace®, p. 101. 
Cedrelace®, p. 103. 
‘Aurantiace®, p. 105- 
Spondiace®, p. 106. 

Empetrace®, p. 117. 

PORTULACACE®, p. 123. 

Tamaricace®, p. 126. 
PiTTOSPORACE®, p. 31. 

Celastrace®, p. 119. 
Bruniace®, p. 28. 

Tremandrace®, p. 109. 

Rhamnace®, p. 107. 

Burserace®, p. 110. 
Olacace®, p, 32. 
Lythrace®, p. 100. 
Nitrariace®, p. 110. 


Achlamydeous. No calyx. 
t Leaves furnished with stipules. 

Ovules very numerous. 
Seeds winged 
Seeds comose 

Ovules solitary or very few. 
Flowers hermaphrodite. 
Stamens unilateral 
Stamens whorled 

. Balsamace®, p. 188. 
. Salicace®, p. 186. 

. Chloranthace®, p. 183 
. Saururace®, p. 184. 



Flowers unisexual. 

Carpels solitary Ovule erect 
Carpels solitary. Ovule pendulous 
Carpels triple 

. MYRICACEiE, p. 179. 

. PLATANACEiE, p. 187. 

. EuPHORBIACEiE, p. 112. 

ft Leaves destitute of stipules. 

Ovules very numerous .... 

Ovules solitary or very few. 

Flow-ers hermaphrodite .... 

Flowers unisexual. 

Flowers naked. Carpel single 

Flowers naked. Carpels double 

Flowers in an involucre. Anther-valves recurved 

Flowers in an involucre. Anther-valves slit . 

. PODOSTEMACE^, p. 190. 

. PlPERACE^, p. 185. 

. Myricace^, p. 179. 


. Atherospermace^e, p. 189. 
. MoNIMIACEiE, p. 188. 

** Monochlamydeous. a calyx present. 

§ Ovary inferior, or partially so. 
t Leaves furnished with stipules. 

Flowers hermaphrodite ..... Aristolochiace^, p. 205. 

Flowers unisexual. Fruit in a capsule . . . Corylace^e, p. 170. 

Flowers unisexual. Fruit naked .... Begoniace.e, p. 56. 

tt Leaves destitute of stipules. 

Flowers unisexual, amentaceous. 

Leaves simple, alternate 
Leaves simple, opposite 
Leaves compound 

Flowers unisexual not amentaceous. 

Seeds immersed in pulp 
Seeds dry ..... 
Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous. 

Leaves with transparent dots 
Leaves without dots. 

Ovary 3-6-celled, polyspermous 
Ovary 1 -celled. Anther-valves recurved 
Ovary 1 -celled. Anther-valves slit. 
Embryo straight ; cotyledons convolute 
Embryo straight ; cotyledons flat 
Albumen none. 

Albumen fleshy 

Embryo curved ; cotyledons flat 
Ovary 1 -celled. Anther many-celled 
Ovary with more cells than 1, but neither 3 
Embryo straight 
Embryo curved 

. Myricace^, p. 179. 

. Garryacea:, p. 173. 

. JUGLANDACE.E, p. 180, 

. CucurbitacejE, p. 51. 

. D.\tiscace^, p. 182. 

. MYRTACEiE, p. 43. 

. Illigerace^, p. 202. 

. CoMBRETACE^, p. 38. 

. Onagrace^, p. 35. 

. SANTALACE.E, p. 193. 

. Chenopodiace^e, p. 208. 

. Loranthace^, p. 49. 

nor 6. 

. ONAGRACEiE, p. 35. 

. Tetragoniacea:, p. 209. 

§§ Ovary supei'ior. 
t Leaves furnished with stipules. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. 

Sepals 2 . 

Sepals more than 2. 

Carpels more than J, combined into a solid pistil. 
Stamens hypogj’nous. Placentas parietal 
Stamens hypogynous. Placentas in the axis. 

Calyx valvate. Stamens monadelphous 
Calyx valvate. Stamens distinct 
Czilyx imbricated. Fruit beaked 
Calyx imbricated. Fruit not beaked 
Stamens perigynous. Placentas parietal 
Stamens perigynous. Placentas in the axis. 

Leaves opposite. Stamens more than sepals 
Leaves alternate. Stamens alternate with sepals 
Leaves alternate. Calyx membranous and ragged 
Carpels solitary, or quite separate. 

Calyx membranous (Stamens hypogynous) 

. Portulacace^, p. 123. 

. BIXACE.E, p. 72. 

. Sterculiace^, p. 92. 

. Tiliace^, p. 99. 

. Geraniace^, p. 137. 

. Malpighi ACE^, p. 121 

. CUNONIACE^, p. 161. 

. Rhamnace^, p. 107. 

. Ulmacea:, p. 178. 

. Illecebrace^, p. 127. 



Calyx firm and herbaceous. 

Styles from the base of carpels 
Styles terminal ; one to each ovary. 

Fruit leguminous . . . . 

Fruit not leguminous . . . . 

Styles terminal ; three to each ovary. 

Stipules ochreate . . . , 

Stipules simple .... 
Flowers unisexual. 

Carpels more than 1, combined into a solid pistil. 

Flowers amentaceous. Seeds arillate 
Flowers amentaceous. Seeds not arillate 
Flowers amentaceous. Seeds numerous. Plac. parietal 
Flowers not amentaceous. . . . , 

Carpels solitary. 

Cells of anthers perpendicular to the filament 
Cells of anthers parallel with the filament 

Chrysobalanace.®, p. 158. 

Leguminos®, p. 148. 
Rosace®, p. 143. 

POLYGONACE®, p. 211. 
Petiveriace®, p. 212. 

SCEPACE®, p. 171. 
Betulace®, p. 171. 
Lacistemace®, p. 183. 
Euphorbiace®, p. 112. 

Stilaginace®, p. 179. 
Urticace®, p. 175. 

ft Leaves destitute of stipules. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. 

Sepals 2 . 

Sepals more than 2. 

Carpels more than 1, combined into a solid pistil. 
Placentas pafietal, in lines 
Placentas parietal, lining the pericarp 
Placentas in the axis. 

Ovary with a very small number of ovules. 

Calyx short, herbaceous. Gynobasic 
Calyx short, herbaceous, not gynobasic. 

Embryo curved round mealy albumen 
Embryo straight 
Calyx tubular coloured . 

Ovary with numerous ovules. 

Two divaricating carpels 

Carpels not divaricating. Stamens hypogynous. 
Leaves opposite. Calyx tubular 
Leaves opposite. Calyx 5-leaved 
Leaves alternate 

Carpels not divaricating. Stamens perigynous. 
Fruit 1 -celled .... 

Fruit many-celled 
Carpels solitary or quite separate. 

Carpels several. Stamens hypogynous 
Carpels several. Stamens perigynous 
Carpels single. 

Anther- valves recurved. Leafy 
Anther-valves recurved. Leafless . 

Anther-valves slit. 

Fruit a legume .... 

Fruit not a legume. 

Calyx long or tubular, with a hardened base 
Calyx long or tubular, with a hardened tube 
Calyx long or tubular, no where hardened. 
Stamens in the points of the sepals . 
Stamens not in the points of the sepals. 
Ovules erect 
Ovules pendulous. 

Fruit 2-valved . 

Fruit indehiscent. Calyx calyculate 
Fruit indehiscent. Calyx naked 
Calyx short, not tubular, or but little so. 
Leaves dotted 

Leaves not dotted. Flowers in involucels 
Leaves not dotted. Flowers naked. 

Calyx dry and coloured . 

Calyx herbaceous . 

. Portulacace®, p. 123. 

. Papaverace®, p. 7. 

. Flacourtiace®, p. 70. 

. Rutace®, p. 130. 

. Phytolaccace®, p. 210. 

. Celastrace®, p. 119. 

. Pen®ace®, p. 203. 

. Saxifragace®, p. 162. 

. Silenace®, p. 124. 

. Alsinace®, p. 125. 

. Podostemace®, p. 190. 

. Primulace®, p. 223. 

. Lythrace®, p. 100. 

. Ranunculace®, p. 5. 

. Cephalotace®, p. 14. 

. Laurace®, p. 200. 

. Cassythace®, p. 202. 

. Leguminos®, p. 148. 

. Nyctaginace®, p. 213. 

. Scleranthace®, p. 213. 

. Proteace®, p. 197. 

. El®agnace®, p. 194. 

. Aquilariace®, p. 196. 

. Hernandiace®, p. 195. 

. Thymelace®, p. 194. 

. Amyridace®, p. 165. 

. PoLYGONACE®, p. 212. 

. Amarantace®, p. 207. 

. Chenopodiace®, p. 208. 



Flowers unisexual. 

Carpels more than one, combined into a solid pistil. 
Ovules indefinite in number. 

Stamens distinct .... 

Stamens columnar 
Ovules definite in number. 

Leaves opposite .... 

Leaves alternate, dotted 
Leaves alternate, not dotted 
Carpels solitary, or quite separate. 

Calyx tubular trifid .... 

Calyx open, carpels several 
Calyx open, carpel solitary 

. Hensloviace^, p. 173. 

. Nepenthace^, p. 204. 

. Trewiace.®, p. 174. 

. Xanthoxylace®, p. 135. 
. Euphorbiace®, p. 1127 

. Myristicace®, p. 15. 

. Menispermace®, p. 214. 

. Casuarace®, p. 181. 


* Ovary superior. Flowers regular. 

:J; Ovary 3-4-5-lobed. 

Leaves dotted .... 

. . Rutace®, p. 130. 

Leaves dotless. Infiorescence gyrate 

Leaves dotless. Inflorescence straight. 

, Boraginace®, p. 274. 

Corolla with a plaited aestivation 

Corolla with a flat aestivation 

. Nolanace®, p. 229. 

. . Stackhousiace®, p. 118. 

It Ovary not lobed. 

Carpels from 4 to 5, or none. 

Anthers opening by pores. 

Seeds winged. Herbs 

Anthers 2-celled. Seeds wingless. Shrubs 
Anthers 1 -celled. Shrubs 

. . Pyrolace®, p. 219. 

. Ericace®, p. 220. 

. . Epacridace®, p. 222. 

Anthers opening by slits. 

Stamens equal in number to petals and opposite. 

Shrubs .... 

. Myrsinace®, p. 224. 

Herbs .... 

. Primulace®, p. 223. 

Stamens not opposite the petals if of the same 


Seeds indefinite. 

Carpels distinct 

Carpels combined. 

. Crassulace®, p. 163. 

Shrubs .... 

, . Brexiace®, p. 218. 

Brown parasites . 

. Monotropace®, p. 219. 

Seeds definite. 

Carpels distinct 

Carpels combined. 

. Anonace®, p. 18. 

Ovules erect. 

yEstivation of corolla imbricate 
^Estivation of corolla plicate 

. Sapotace®, p. 225. 

. Convolvulace®, p. 281. 

Ovules pendulous. 

Stamens twice as numerous as petals 

. Ebenace®, p. 226. 

Stamens same number as petals 

. Aquifolia.ce®, p. 228. 

Carpels usually three. 

Inflorescence gyrate 

Inflorescence straight. 

. . Hydroleace®, p. 234. 

Seeds winged .... 

Seeds wingless. 

. . Fouquierace®, p. 118. 

An h^TDOg^mous disk , 

. . POLEMONIACE®, p. 232. 

No hypogynous disk . 

. . Diapensiace®, p. 233. 

Carpels only two. 

. . Oleace®, p. 307. 

Diandrous. Corolla valvate 

Diandrous. Corolla imbricate 

■ . . Jasminace®, p. 308. 

Stamens 4 or more. Inflorescence gyrate. 

Fruit 1- celled .... 

. . Hydrophyllace®, p. 271 

Fruit 2-celled. Style bifid 

. . Ehretiace®, p. 273. 

Fruit 2-celled. Style dichotomous - 
Stamens 4 or more. Inflorescence straight. 

. . CORDIACE®, p. 272. 

Flowers symmetrical. Carpels O- 

. . Cestrace®, p. 296. 

Corolla valvate 

Corolla plicate 

. . SOLANACE®, p. 293. 



Flowers symmetrical. Carpels (). 

Anthers grown to stigma 
Anthers free from stigma. 

Corolla imbricated . 

Corolla valvate 
Corolla contorted 

Flowers symmetrical. Cotyledons plaited. 
Corolla plaited 
Corolla imbricated . 

Flowers unsymmetrical. 

Leaves with stipules 
Leaves without stipules 
Carpel single. 

Stigma with an indusium . 

Stigma without an indusium 
Style single. 

Fruit spuriously 2-celled 
Fruit 1 -celled, 1 -seeded 
Styles 5 ... . 

, Asclepiadace^, p. 302. 

. GENTIANACEiE, p. 296. 

. SPIGELIACEiE, p. 298. 

. APOCYNACEiE, p. 299. 


. CUSCUTACE^, 230, 

. Loganiace^, p. 30.^. 

. POTALIACE-E, p. 306. 

. BRUNONIACEiE, p. 266. 

. Plantaginace^, p. 267. 
. Salvadorace^, p. 269. 

. Pl.UMBAGINACE^, p. 269, 

** Ovary superior. Flowers irregular. 

X Ovary A-lohed .... 

U Ovary undivided. 

Carpel solitary .... 

Carpels two. 

Fruit nucamentaceous 4-celled. 

Radicle inferior 
Radicle superior 
Fruit nucamentaceous, 2-celled. 

Anthers 1 -celled 
Anthers 2-celled 
Fruit capsular or succulent. 

Seeds with neither albumen nor hooks. 

Seeds winged .... 

Fruit hard and horny. Seeds wingless 
Placentae four. Seeds wingless 
Seeds numerous with albumen, without hooks. 
Ovary partly inferior . 

Ovary quite superior, leafy 
Ovary quite superior, leafless . 

Seeds with albumen and hooked appendages 
A free central placenta 

. Labiate, p. 175. • 

. Globulariace^, p. 268. 

. Verbenace^, p, 277. 

. MyopoRACEiE, p. 279. 

. Selaginace^, p. 279. 
. STILBACEiE, p. 280. 

. BiGNONIACEiE, p. 282. 

. Pedaliace^, p. 281. 

. Cyrtandrace^, p. 283. 

. Gesnerace^, p. 286. 

. Orobanchace^, p. 287. 

. Acanthace-e, p. 284. 

. Lentibulari^, p. 286. 

*** Ovary inferior. 

X Carpels solitary. 

Anthers syngenesious . . . . . 

Anthers free. 

Carpel quite solitary . . . . . 

Carpel with two additional abortive ones . 

J J Carpels more than one. 

Anthers syngenesious . . . . . 

Anthers free. 

Stamens only 2 . 

Stamens more than 2. 

Anthers opening by pores .... 

Anthers opening by slits. 

Stipules absent. Seeds indefinite. Stigma naked. 
Pentandrous or Tetrandrous 

Polyandrous . . . . . 

Gynandrous . . . . 

Stip. absent. Sds. indefinite. Stig. with an indusium. 
Stip, absent. Sds. definite. Stig. with an indusium 
Stipules absent. Seeds definite. Stigma naked. 
Leaves alternate . . . . . 

Leaves opposite, and whorled. Stem square, rough 
Leaves opposite. Stem round, smooth 

COMPOSITiE, p. 251. 

Dipsace^, p. 264. 
Valerianace^, p. 265. 

Lobeliaceas, p. 235. 

C0LUMELLIACE.E, p. 239. 

Vaccinace^, p. 221. 

Belvisiace^, p. 239. 
Stylidiace^, p, 240. 
Goodeniace^, p. 241. 
SCiEVOLACE.®, p. 242, 

Ebenace^e, p. 226. 
Stellate, p. 249. 



Stipules between the leaves. 

Albumen abundant . . “ . Cinchonace.®, p. 243. 

Albument absent . . * . LvGODYSODEACEiE, p. 247. 


Leaves with parallel or forked veins. Stem with wood, pith, bark, and medullary 
rays. Floral envelopes absent. Seeds naked. Cotyledons 2 or more, opposite. 

Stems without articulations. 

Stem conical with numerous buds and branches. 
Fruit single .... 

Fruit in cones .... 

Stem cylindrical unbranched 
Stems articulated. 

Flowers complete .... 
Flowers very incomplete 

. Tax ACE.®, p. 316. 

. Conifer®, p. 313. 

. CyC ADAGE®, p. 312. 

. Gnetace®, p. 311. 

. Equisetace®, p. 317. 


Leaves with parallel veins. Stem without any distinction of wood, pith, bark, and 
medullary rays. Flowers usually with a ternary division. Seeds in a pericarp. 
Cotyledons solitary, or if two, unequal and alternate with each other. 

* Flowers complete (having distinct floral envelopes). 
§ Ovary inferior. 
t Flowers gynandrous. 

Ovary 1 -celled. Seed-coat loose 
Ovary 1 -celled. Seed-coat tight 
Ovary 3 -celled 

. Orchidace®, p. 335. 

. Vanillace®, p. 341. 

. Apostasiace®, p. 342. 

ft Flowers not gynandrous. 

Veins of leaves diverging from the midrib. 
Anther 1, with 1 cell 
Anther 1, with 2 cells 
Anthers 5 or 6 

Veins of leaves parallel with midrib. 

Stamens 3. 

Anthers turned outwards 
Anthers turned inwards. Fruit winged 
Stamens 6. 

Leaves flat. 

Fruit 3-celled. Sepals corolline 
Fruit 3-celled. Sepals calycine 
Fruit 1 -celled 
Leaves equitant 
Stamens more than 6 
Veins of leaves reticulated 

§§ Ovary superior. 

Leaves with parallel veins. 

Sepals calycine, or glumaceous. 

Carpels separate, more or less. 

Placentae spread over the dissepiments 
Placentae narrow .... 

. Marantace®, p. 324. 

. ZiNGIBERACE®, p. 322. 
. Musace®, p. 326. 

. Iridace®, p. 332. 

. Burmanniace®, p. 330. 

. Amaryllidace®, p. 328. 

. Bromeliace®, p. 334. 

. Taccace®, p. 331. 

. H®modorace®, p. 330. 

. Hydrocharace®, p. 335. 
. Dioscoreace®, p. 359. 

. Butomace®, p. 355. 
. Alismace®, p. 355. 



Carpels combined in a solid pistil. 

Petals quite distinct from the calyx 
Petals undistinguishable from the calyx 
Sepals corolline. 

Carpels more or less separate. 

Seeds solitary .... 
Seeds numerous. 

A-nthers turned outwards 
Anthers turned inwards. 

Floral envelopes 6 
Floral envelopes 2 
Carpels combined in a solid pistil. 

Petals rolled inwards after flowering . 
Petals not rolled inwards after flowering. 
Flowers with external appendages. . 
Flowers without external appendages. 
Leaves equitant . 

Leaves flat 

Leaves with netted veins. 

Fruit 1 -celled . . . . 

Fruit 3 -celled .... 

. CoMMELINACE^, p. 354. 
. JuNCACEiE, p. 356. 

. Palmace/E, p. 343. 

. Melanthace^, p. 347. 

. BUTOMACEiE, p. 355. 

. Philydrace^, p. 357. 

. PONTEDERACE^, p. 347. 

. GiLLIESIACEiE, p. 348. 

. HiEMODORACE^, p. 330. 

. LlLIACEiE, p. 351. 

. Roxburghiace^, p. 360. 
. Smilace^, p. 359. 

** Floiver incomplete (having no distinct floral envelopes except leaves). 
§ Flowers glumaceous. 

Stems hollow 
Stems solid. 

Carpel solitary. Seed erect 
Carpel solitary. Seed pendulous 
Carpels several, distinct 
Carpels several, combined. 
Placentae parietal 
Placentae central 

. Graminace^, p. 369. 

. Cyperace^, p. 384. 

. Restiace^, p. 386. 

. Desvauxiace^, p. 386. 

. Xyridace^, p. 388. 

. Restiace^, p. 386. 

§§ Flowers naked; or with a few verticillate leaves. 
t Flowers on a spadix. 

Flowers in spires alternately male and female 
Flowers not in spires. 

Fruit drupaceous .... 
Fruit berried. Leaves in the bud convolute 
Fruit dry. Leaves in the bud equitant 
Fruit dry. Anthers clavate on weak filaments 

. Cyclanthace^, p. 362. 

. Pandanace^, p. 361. 

. Arace^, p. 363. 

. Acorace^, p. 365. 

. TYPHACEiE, p. 365. 

ft Flowers not on a spadix. 

Floaters. Ovules pendulous .... Naiadace^, p. 366. 

Terrestrial. Ovules erect ..... JuNCAGiNACEiE, p. 367. 
Floaters. Ovules erect ..... Pistiace^e, p. 367. 


Leaves, if any, scale-like. Stem homogeneous, with scarcely any trace of a vas- 
cular system. Flowers with sexes. Seeds having no embryo, but consisting of 
a homogeneous sporuliferous mass. 

Sepals several. Placentae parietal 
Sepals 4. Placentae parietal . 

Sepals 0, Stamens combined. Placentae central 
Sepals 0. Stamens distinct. Placentae central 

. Rafelesiace^, p. 392. 

. Cytinace^, p. 392. 

. BalanophoracejE, p. 393. 
. Cynomoriace^e, p. 394. 





Sexes absent. Sporules in lieu of leaves. 

§ With a distinct axis of growth ; 

Thecse seated on the leaves. 

Ring of the thecae vertical . . . . 

Ring of the thecae transverse . . . . 

Ring wanting. 

Thecae 1 -celled, veinless . . . . . 

Thecae 1 -celled, ribbed . . . ’ . 

Thecae as if many-celled . . . . 

Thecae arising from the stem. 

Thecae enclosed in involucres. 

Involucres of the same form . . . . 

Involucres of two different forms 
Thecae naked. 

Thecae sessile in the axil of leaves or bracts 
Thecae stalked. 

Thecae valveless, with an operculum 

Thecae opening into valves, with an operculum 

Thecae opening into valves, without an operculum 


POLYPODlACEiE, p. 400. 
GleicheniacejE, p. 401. 

Ophioglossace^, p. 402. 
OsMUNDACEiE, p. 402. 
DANiEACE^, p. 402. 

Marsileace^, p. 404. 
Salviniace^, p. 405. 

Lycopodiace^e, p. 403. 

Bryace^e, p. 407. 
Andr^ace^, p. 411. 

§§ With a distinct axis of growth ; leafless. 

Charace/e, p. 415. 

§§§ With no distinct axis of growth. 

Surface with stomates. 

Thecae opening into valves, with an operculum 
Thecae valveless, wuthout an operculum 
Surface without stomates. 

Aquatics ..... 
Terrestrial or aerial. 

With a thallus .... 
Without an evident thallus 

. Marchantiace^, p. 412. 

. Algace^, p. 430. 

. Lichenace.e, p. 42G. 

. FUNGACEiE, p. 419. 




Dicotyledones, Juss. Gen. 70 . ( 1789 ) ; Desf. Mem. Inst. 1 . 478 . ( 1796 ). — ExoRHizEi® 
and SynorhizejE, Rich. Anal. ( 1808 .) — Dicotyledones or Exogens, DC. Theor. 
p. 209 . ( 1813 .) — Phanerocotyledones or Seminifers, A^ardh. Aph. 74 . ( 1821 ). 

Essential Character. Elementary organs consisting of both cellular and vascular 
tissue, a portion of the latter being elastic spiral vessels. Cuticle with stomates. Trunk 
more or less conical, consisting of three parts, one within the other ; viz. bark, wood, and 
pith, of which the wood is enclosed between the two others ; increasing by an annual deposit 
of new wood and cortical matter between the wood and bark. Leaves always articulated 
with the stem, often opposite, their veins, if present, composed in part at least of spiral 
vessels, and branching and reticulated. Flowers, if with a distinct calyx, often having a 
quinary division. Propagation effected by the agency of stamens and pistils, which are 
analogous to the sexes of animals. Ovules always enclosed before fertilization in a pericarp, 
and fertilized by the action of pollen upon a stigma ; finally becoming seeds, containing an 
embryo with two or more opposite cotyledons, which often become green and leaf-like after 
germination ; radicle naked, i. e. elongating into a root without penetrating any external 

The plants belonging to this class constitute by far the most considerable 
portion of the Vegetable Kingdom ; and they may be considered to be in some 
respects the most highly developed ; not that they possess any organs which 
are not found elsewhere, but because of the much greater diversity of combi- 
nations into which their organs enter, and because of the more complicated 
nature of their woody and venous systems. While Gymnosperms have no 
vasiform cellular tissue {See Introduction to Botany, 2d Edit. p. 15), only a small 
supply of spiral vessels, and but an imperfectly constructed sexual apparatus. 
Exogens have an abundance of both these elementary organs, and their parts of 
reproduction are in the most complete condition. Endogens on the other hand, 
in which the latter are equally perfect, have their woody system arranged in a 
confused manner, and not disposed in the symmetrical way which is characte- 
ristic of Exogens. As to Rhizanths, the very imperfect state of their vas- 
cular system and reproductive organs places them lower down in the scale of 
structure than either of the others ; while the total absence of sexes, the 
general want of a vascular system, except in such highly developed orders as 
the Filical and Lycopodal fiances, the gradual loss in the lowest tribes of 
even symmetrical form, till at last in the simplest forms of Algacese and Fun- 
gacese the very elementary parts are disintegrated, reduce Acrogens to little 
more than a mere vesicular state of existence, and place the vegetable king- 
dom not only in contact with the microscopic animalcules of the animal world, 
but even bring it to the limits of inorganic matter. 

Practically their reticulated leaves distinctly articulated wdth the stem, 
usually distinguish Exogens from Endogens, from which they are also known 
by the following points ; Exogens have a distinct deposition of pith, wood, 
and bark ; Endogens have aU these parts confounded : Exogens, if trees, are 
conical and branched (as an Oak); Endogens are cylindrical and simple- 
stemmed (as a Palm). Besides which, the following characters deserve atten- 
tion : Exogens in germination protrude their radicle at once ; while in Endo- 
gens it is contained within the substance of the embrvo, through which it 



ultimately bursts : Exogens have two or more cotyledons : Endogens have but 
one. In this country the trees and shrubs, and larger herbaceous plants, are 
nearly all Exogenous; while our native Endogens are chiefly confined to 
grasses, sedges, orchises, bulbs, and submerged water-plants. To this it may 
be added, that the flowers of Exogens are usually formed upon a quinary or 
quaternary type, while those of Endogens are most commonly ternary. 

Although the difference between Exogens and the other four classes is in 
general very precise, yet there are certain points at which the distinctive cha- 
racters become less obvious than usual ; and where, in fact. Exogens seem to 
be in a state of transition to other parts of the system. For instance, some 
species of Ranunculus are strikingly similar to the genus Alisma, both in gene- 
ral appearance and in structure, and thus establish a transition to Endogens ; 
Nymphseacese on the one hand, and Hydrocharacese on the other, Menisper- 
macese and Smilaceee, Aristolochiaceae and Araceae, are further examples of the 
same fact ; while Callitrichaceae or Ceratophyllese are instances of a reduced 
state of organization in Exogens, analogous to that of Pistiaceae among Endo- 
gens ; and all these three, especially the last, connect their several classes 
more or less obviously with those forms of Acrogens, which like Marchantiaceae 
have their stems and leaves all fused as it were into one homogeneous mass. 

It is a point of great difficulty to form any good natural divisions of Exo- 
gens which shall at the same time be tolerably weU defined, and yet not offer 
violence to strong natural affinities. The Monopetalous, Apetalous, or Poly- 
petalous structure of the flowers, is what is generally adopted ; but it must 
be confessed that the numerous exceptions which occur to the characters of 
these divisions, render them sometimes embarrassing to the student. For 
instance, Stackhousiacese, which are by common consent placed in the vicinity 
of the Polypetalous Rhamnaceae, and Euphorbiacese, are to all appearance 
Monopetalous ; Glaux, again, which is Apetalous, is unquestionably a genus of 
the Monopetalous Primulaceous order ; and the cases of Apetalous genera and 
species belonging to Polypetalous orders are extremely numerous. Yet I 
doubt whether any better method of division than that of Polypetalae, Apetalse 
or Incompletae, and Monopetalse, is likely to be devised ; and at all events 
nothing with the slightest claim to adoption has as yet been brought before 
the public. I therefore adhere to the customary division in the following 
arrangement, premising only that the various exceptions that have just been 
mentioned produce in a much greater degree theoretical than practical diffi- 
culties, and that the student will do well to dismiss them altogether from his 
mind until he has become in some degree familiar with his subject. 

Sub-Class I. POLYPETAL^. 

Essential Character. — Floral envelopes consisting of both calyx and corolla ; the 
latter composed of distinct petals. 

MTiatever reasons there may be for adhering to the characters of the 
French school for the sub-classes of Exogens, there does not appear to me to 
be any sufficient motive for following their system in regard to the groups 
subordinate to the sub-classes. In Polypetalse there are only two, or at the most 
three, distinguished by the origin of the stamens ; which are either hypogynous, 
perigynous, or epigynous. Now such groups have neither the merit of being 
well defined, nor of fomiing natural combinations, nor of breaking up the orders 
into assemblages of small extent ; on the contrary they abound in exceptions, 
and are practically liable to much uncertainty ; they place side by side plants 
having but slight affinity, as Papaveracese and Crucifera', which coiTespond in 
little excej)t the form of the fruit of certain species, they separate orders like 


Ranunculaceae and Umbelliferee, or Euphorbiacese and Rhamnaceae, which are 
often scarcely distinguishable, and they break up the orders generally so very 
little, as to afford by no means so much assistance in the analysis of the sub- 
class, as is to be desired. 

For these reasons I have ventured to propose an abandonment of the old 
mode of subdivision, and the adoption of some new principles ; in particular, I 
have altogether neglected the distinctions between hypogynous and perigy- 
nous stamens, considering them practically as the same thing, except in cer- 
tain special cases, and in fact comprehending them both under the general 
term hypogynous. The presence or absence too of albumen in seeds, is 
viewed as a matter of altogether subordinate value, unless when the quantity 
of albumen is so great as to become apparently a subject of physiological im- 
portance. The new characters are derived from the parietal or central mode 
of placentation, from the syncarpous or apocarpous state of the pistil, and 
from the nature of the arrangement of the calycine leaves ; all very obvious cir- 
cumstances, and readily ascertained. The groups they give rise to are the 
following ; which in general are obviously natural, and which, I trust to be 
able to prove are so in those cases also where the close natural affinity of the 
orders collected under them is less apparent. I would only beg the reader 'to 
dismiss from his mind those prejudices which unfortunately sometimes stick 
as closely to the skirts of abstract scientific qnestions, as to other matters 
whether social or political. 

1. 9lIbumiitO0ae* Embryo very considerably shorter and smaller than the 

2. (IBpiepno0ae* 

3. lPaneto 0 ae. 

4. eralrco0ae* 

Ovary inferior, usually having an epigynous disk. 
Placentation parietal. 

Calyx incompletely whorled ; two of the sepals being ex- 

5. Spncarpo0ae* None of the characters of the other groups, and with the 

carpels compactly united. 

6. (Sgnoba0eO0ac* Carpels not exceeding 5, diverging at the base, arranged in 

a single row around an elevated axis or gynobase. Sta- 
mens usually separate from the calyx. 

7. 3pocarpo0ae4 None of the characters of the other groups, but with the 

carpels distinct ; or separable by their faces ; or solitary. 

Group I. HlbummoiSfie* 

Essential Character. — The albumen very considerably larger than the embryo, and 
forming the great mass of the seed. 

The first and last parts of this group consist of a portion of De Candolle’s 
thalamiflorous cohort of Polypetalous Exogens, the central part is taken from 
out of his Calyciflorous cohort. The presence of a very considerable quantity 
of albumen seems to indicate a need, on the part of the emffiryo of these plants, 
of some efficient source of nutriment before it is able to extract its food from 
the soil ; a remarkable physiological fact, which is by no means to be con- 
founded with those instances in which a small quantity, a sort of casing, of 
albumen is left around an embryo, when it appears to be a mere residuum 
instead of a great vital deposit. Tlie former is to all* appearance of little phy- 


siological importance, and its once supposed systematic value is daily diminish- 
ing more and more , the latter is apparently of as much systematic as physio- 
logical interest. 

If we consider what the plants are which are brought together by this 
circumstance, we shall find that they are obviously in many cases very clearly 
akin, and that in others they leave the series of orders from which they are 
extracted far more natural than while they were among them. Moreover, 
plants are thus brought together which although they have the closest possible 
relationship cannot be grouped together upon any other known principle. For 
instance, Umbelliferas are so nearly the same as Ranunculacese, as wiU be shewn 
under the former order, that they are in reality little more than epigynous or 
hypogynous forms of each other, and yet they are most widely divided by the 
French school. So again with Vitacese and Araliaceae, and with Pittosporacese 
and Dilleniacese. These orders, which are mutually connected by so many 
diflferent characters, are not, so far as I know, capable of being even approxi- 
mated, except by taking the peculiarity of the albumen into account. It may 
appear paradoxical enough to place the Vine in the same category with the 
Crowfoot, and the Gooseberry with Celery ; but it is to be remembered that 
resemblances or differences, affinities or discrepancies, are not to be measured 
in science by the standard of popular prejudice, but by the cool investigation 
of actual structure. It appears most strange to an ordinary observer that the 
Nettle and the Fig should be associated in the same natural order ; but the Bo- 
tanist is well aware how slender the structural differences between these plants 
really are, and consequently how extremely close their relationship undoubtedly 
is. What discrepancies or anomalies are to be found in this albuminous group 
are certainly not appreciable by any but a Botanist. They chiefly attach 
to the genus Dionsea and to Francoaceae, whose relationship to the orders 
with which they are associated is less evident than could be wished. But in 
addition to what is stated under those plants in the proper place, it is to be 
remembered that the group is by no means complete, and that there is nothing 
very violent in the supposition that the links which may be wanted to connect 
the plants in question with their neighbours stiU remain to be discovered. 

It may be m-ged that if the presence of a very large quantity of albumen is 
reaUy so important a physiological circumstance as it is here represented to be, 
I ought, to be consistent, to have added to the albuminous group those orders of 
Incompletse and Monopetalse in which albumen is equally abundant. I am by 
no means disposed to deny the justice of such an observation : on the contrary, it 
is unquestionable that Cinchonaceae, Stellatae, Caprifoliaceae, Menispermaceae, 
and Piperales, to which the observation would principally apply, would be 
better associated with Albuminosae than with the groups in which they at 
present stand. But I confess myself for the present unprepared to work out 
the principle to its full extent, and I hope that it is no objection to the arrange- 
ment I am proposing, that whatever merit it may possess it is capable of being 
rendered better. 

Alliance I. RANALES, 

Essential Character. — Herbaceous, rarely woody, plants, either with the carpels 
more or less distinct ; or if that is not the case, with parietal placentae. 

This alliance may be considered to be in some respects little more than an 
herbaceous form of Anonales, from which it is almost impossible to separate 
it by any very positive character. 


Order I. RANUNCULACE.E. The Crow-Foot Tribe. 

Ranunculi, Juss. Gen. (1789.) — RANUNCULACEiE, DC. Syst. 1. 127. (1818) ; Prodr. 1. 2. 

(1824) ; Lindl. Synops. p. 7. (1829) ; Bartling. Ord. 253. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-6, hypogynous, deciduous, generally imbricate in 
aestivation, occasionally valvate or duplicate. Petals 3-15, hypogynous, in one or more 
rows, distinct, sometimes deformed. Stamens definite or indefinite in number, hypogynous ; 
anthers adnate. Carpels numerous, seated on a torus, 1 -celled or united into a single many- 
celled pistil ; ovary one or more seeded, the ovules adhering to the inner edge ; style one to 
each ovary, short, simple. Fruit either consisting of dry akenia, or baccate with one or 
more seeds, or follicular with one or two valves. Seeds albuminous ; when solitary, either 
erect or pendulous. Embryo minute. Albumen corneous. — Herbs, or very rarely shrubs. 
Leaves alternate or opposite, generally much divided, with the petiole dilated and forming a 
sheath half clasping the stem. Stipules occasionally present. Hairs, if any, simple. In- 
florescence variable. 

Anomalies. — In Garidella and Nigella, the carpels cohere more or less. In Thalictrum, 
some species of Clematis, and some other genera, there are no petals. Pseonia has a per- 
sistent calyx. Some species of Casalea have a definite number of stamens. 

Affinities. This order has a strong affinity with some others which are 
v/idely apart from each other. Its most immediate resemblance is with 
Dilleniacese, Magnoliaceee, and their allies, to which it approaches in the 
position, number, and structure of its parts of fructification generally, differing 
however in an abundance of particulars ; as from Dilleniacese, in the want of 
aril, deciduous calyx, and whole habit; from Magnoliaceae, in the want of 
stipules, and sensible qualities ; from Papaveraceae and Nymphaeaceae, in the 
distinct, not cefncrete, carpels ; watery, not milky, fluids ; acrid, not narcotic, 
properties. More distant analogy may be traced with Rosaceae, with which 
Ranunculaceae agree in their numerous carpels, the number of their floral divi- 
sions and indefinite stamens ; but differ in those stamens being hypogynous 
instead of perigynous, in the presence of large albumen surrounding a minute 
embryo, want of stipules and acrid properties. With Umbelliferae they accord 
in the last particular, and also in their sheathing leaves, habit, and abundant 
albumen, with a minute embryo ; but those plants differ in their calyx being 
concrete with the ovary, and in their stamens being invariably definite. 
Another analogy has been indicated by botanists between this order and 
Alismaceae, with which it agrees in its numerous carpels, in habit, and some- 
times in the ternary structure of the flowers ; but that order is monocotyledo- 
nous. Many of the genera are destitute of petals, but in such cases the calyx 
is so highly developed, that it evidently performs the combined functions of 
itself and the corolla. A great peculiarity of Ranunculaceae consists in the 
strong tendency exhibited by many of the genera to produce their sepals, petals, 
and stamens, in a state different from that of other plants ; as, for example, in 
Delphinium, Aquilegia, and Aconitum, in which the petals are furnished with 
a spur, and in Ranunculus itself, which has a nectariferous gland at the base of 
the petals. An instance is described of the polypetalous regular corolla of 
Clematis viticeUa being changed into a monopetalous irregular one, like that of 
Labiatae. Nov. Act. Acad. N. C. 14. p. 642. t. 37. 

The Clematideous section is remarkable for its apetalous flowers and 
opposite leaves. In these plants, however, the calyx is developed as much as 
a corolla usually is. 

Geography. The largest proportion of this order is found in Europe, 
which contains more than l-5th of the whole ; North America possesses about 
l-7th, India l-25th, South America l-17th; very few are found in Africa, 
except upon the shores of the Mediterranean ; eighteen species have, accord^ 


ing to De Candolle, been discovered in New Holland. They characterise a 
cold damp climate, and are, when met with in the Tropics, found inhabiting 
the sides and summits of lofty mountains : in the lowland of hot countries they 
are almost unknown. 

Properties. Acridity, causticity, and poison, are the general characters 
of this suspicious order, which, however, contains species in which those 
qualities are so little developed as to be innoxious. The caustic principle is, 
according to Krapfen* as cited by De Candolle, of a very singular nature ; it is 
so volatile that, in most cases, simple drying, infusion in water, or boiling, are 
sufficient to dissipate it : it is neither acid nor alkaline : it is increased by acids, 
sugar, honey, wine, spirit, &c. and is only effectually destroyed by water and 
vegetable acids. The leaves of Knowltonia vesicatoria are used as vesicatories 
in Southern Africa. Ranunculus glacialis is a poweiffil sudorific ; Aconitum 
Napellus and Cammarum are diuretic. The Hepatica, Actsea racemosa, and 
Delphinium consolida, are regarded as simple astringents. DC. The roots of 
several Hellebores are drastic purgatives ; those of the perennial Adonises are, 
according to Pallas, emmenagogues ; and those of several Aconitums, especially 
Napellus and Cammarum, are acrid in a high degree. Ibid. The root of the 
Aconitum of India, one of the substances called Bikh, or Bish, is a most 
virulent poison. Trans. Med. and Phil. Soc. Calc. 2. 407. According to 
Hamilton, the Bishma, or Bikhma, is a strong bitter, very powerful in the 
cm*e of fevers : the Bish, Bikh, or Kodoya Bikh, has a root possessing poi- 
sonous properties of the most dreadful kind, whether taken into the stomach, 
or applied to wounds : the Nir Bishi, or Nirbikhi, has no deleterious properties, 
but is used in medicine. Brewster, 1. 2.50. For some important informa- 
tion on this Bffih, Vish, Visha, or Ativisha, which WaUich considers his 
Aconitum ferox, see Plant. As. Rar. vol. 1. p. 33. tab. 41., and especially 
Royle’ s Illustrations, 40. The root of Pseony is acrid and bitter, but is said to 
possess antispasmodic properties. Ranunculus flammula and sceleratus are 
powerful epispastics, and are used as such in the Hebrides, producing a blister 
in about an hour and a half. Their action is, however, too violent, and the 
blisters are difficult to heal, being apt to pass into irritable ulcers. Ed. Ph. J. 
6. 156. Beggars use them for the pui-pose of forming artificial ulcers, and also 
the leaves of Clematis recta and flammula. The root of Ranunculus Thora is 
reported to be extremely acrid and poisonous, its juice having been formerly 
used by the Swiss hunters of wild beasts to envenom their darts, whose wound 
by that means became speedily fatal and incurable. Smith in Rees. From the 
seeds of Delphinium staphysagria, the chemical principle called Delphine was pro- 
cured by Lassaigne and Fenuelle ; it exists in union with oxalic acid. Ed. 
Ph. J. 3. 305. The root of Hydrastis canadensis has a strong and somewhat 
narcotic smell, and is exceedingly bitter ; it is used in North America as a tonic, 
under the name of Yellow root. Barton, 2. 21. Tlie root of Coptis trifolia, 
or Gold-thread, is a pure and powerful bitter, devoid of any thing like 
astringency ; it is a popular remedy in the United States for aphthous affec- 
tions of the mouth in children. Ibid. 2. 100. The wood and bark of Xanthor- 
hiza apiifolia are a very pure tonic bitter. The shrub contains both a gum and 
resin, each of v/hich is intensely bitter. Ibid. 2. 205. The seeds of NigeUa 
sativa were formerly employed instead of pepper; those of Delphinium 
Staphisagria are vermifugal and caustic ; those of Aquilegia are simply 
tonic. DC. 


§ 1. CLEMATiDEai, DC. Naravelia, DC. Tetractis. 

Clematis, L. § 2. Anemone^e, DC. Anemone, L. 

Atragma, L. Thaiictrum, L. Pulsatiiia, Bauh 

Hepatica, Dill. 
Hydrastis, L. 
Wamf^ria, Mill. 


Knowltonia, Salisb. 
Anamenia, Vent. 
Adonis, L. 

Hamadryas, Comm, ' 
§ 3. Ranuncule^EjDC. 
Myosurus, L. 

Casalea, A. St. H. 
Aphanostemma, ASH, 
Ranunculus, L. 
Ceratocephalus, M. 
Batrachium, Presl. 
Krapfia, DC. 

Hecatonia, Lour. 
Ficaria, Dill. 

Call ianth emu m, Mey. 

■ 4. Hellebore.®, DC. 
Platystemon, Benth. 
Caltha, L. 

Trollius, L. 

Gaissenia, Rafin. 
Eranthis, Salisb. 
Koellea, Bir. 

Robertia, Merat. 
Helleborus, L. 

Chrysocoptis, Nutt. 
Pterophyllum, Nutt. 
Coptis, Salisb. 

Chrysa, Rafin. 
Isopyrum, L. 

Olfa, Adans. 
Enemion, Rafin. 
Garidella, L. 

Nigella, L. 
Nigellastrum, Mnch 
Aquilegia, L. 

Delphinium, L. 
Aconitum, L. 

§ 5. PiEONiEAi:, DC. 
Actoea, L. 

Botrophis, Raf. 

Macrotis, Raf. 
Actinospora, Turcz. 
Trautvetteria, F. & M, 
Cimicifuga, L, 

, Xanthovrhiza, Marsh. 
Pseonia, L. 

From these is by some distinguished the following 

Sub-Order. PODOPHYLLE^E. The May Apple Tribe. 

PoDOPHYLLACE^, § Podophyllcae, DC. Syst. 2. 32. (1821); Prodr. 1. 111. (1824); Von 
Martins H. Reg. Monac. (1829) ; a sect, of Papaveracece. — Podophylle^, Mart. 
Conspect. No. 111. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3 or 4, deciduous or persistent. Petals in two or three 
rows, each of which is equal in number to the sepals. Stamens hypogynous, 12-18, ar- 
ranged in two, three, or more rows ; filaments filiform ; anthers linear or oval, terminal, 
turned inwards, bursting by a double longitudinal line. Torus not enlarged. Ovary 
solitary ; stigma thick, nearly sessile, somewhat peltate. Fruit succulent or capsular, 
1 -celled. -Seeds indefinite, attached to a lateral placenta, sometimes having an aril; em- 
bryo small, at the base of fleshy albumen. — Herbaceous plants. Leaves broad, lobed. Flowers 
radical, solitary, white. 

These seem to differ in no solid character from Ranunculaceaa, and are 
perhaps best considered a transition group to Papaveracese with which Von 
Martins formerly associated them. They are nearly allied to the herbaceous 
genera of Berberacese, from which they scarcely differ, except in the dehiscence 
of their anthers. From Papaveracese they are known by their watery, not milky 
juice, by their solitary unilateral placentse, and by their fleshy, not oily, albumen 

Geography. All inhabitants of the marshes of North America. 

Properties. The root of the May Apple, Podophyllum peltatum, is one of 
the most safe and active cathartics that is known. Barton, 2. 14. Jefferso- 
nia is also purgative. JDC. These properties appear to be in both cases 
owing to the presence of irritating qualities like those of Ranunculacese pro- 
per, only in a milder form. 


Podophyllum, L. Jeffersonia, Bart. 

Order II. PAPAVERACE.^. The Poppy Tribe. 

Papaveracea;, Juss. Gen. 236. (1789) in part ; DC. Syst. 2. 67. (1818) ; Prodr. 1. 117. 

(1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 16. (1829) ; Bernhardi in Linnaea. 8. 401. (1833). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 2, deciduous. Petals hypogynous, either 4, or some 
multiple of that number, placed in a cruciate manner. Stamens hypogynous, either 8, or 
some multiple of 4, generally very numerous, often in 4 parcels, one of which adheres to the 
base of each petal ; anthers 2-celled, innate. Ovary solitary ; style short, or none ; stigmas 
alternate with the placentae, 2 or many ; in the latter case stellate upon the flat apex of the 
ovary. Fruit 1 -celled, either pod-shaped, with 2 parietal placentae, or capsular, with several 
placentae. Seeds numerous; albumen between fleshy and oily; embryo minute, straight, at 
the base of the albumen, with plano-convex cotyledons. — Herbaceous plants or shrubs, with a 


milky juice. Leaves alternate, more or less divided. Peduncles 1 -flowered; fiowci's 
never blue. 

Anomalies. — Bocconia has no petals, and a monospermous capsule. Macleaya has 3 or 
even 4 cotyledons (Bernh.) Eschscholtzia has perigynous stamens. 

Affinities . The siliquose-fruited genera, such as Glaucium and Eschscholt- 
zia, have been supposed to indicate the near affinity of this order to Cruciferae ; 
but the totally different structure of their seeds is such as to neutralize what 
little affinity may be indicated by the form of the fruit. Through Papaver the 
order approaches Nymphseacese, and through Sanguinaria Podophyllese, from all 
which it is distinguished with facility. To Cistacese an unexpected relation- 
ship has been estabhshed by the discovery of Dendromecon. The greatest 
affinity is, however, with Ranunculacese, from which it is sometimes extremely 
difficult to know this order, without ascertaining that the juice is milky and 
narcotic. Platystemon is the connecting link between the two orders. Bem- 
hardi indeed denies that true Papaveracese are universally lactescent plants, 
and he quotes Hunnemanna, Eschscholtzia, and Glaucium, as instances to the 
contrary ; but in reality they are aU furnished with milk, as every gardener well 
knows. The anomahes in the order are of little importance, with the excep- 
tion of Eschscholtzia, which has its stamens arising from the throat of a flatly 
campanulate calyx, instead of being hypogynous. A comparison of the struc- 
ture of Papaveracese and Cruciferee, by Mirbel, is to be found in the Ann. des 
Sc. 6. 266. 

Geography. Europe, in aU directions, is the principal seat of Papaver- 
acese, almost two-thirds of the whole order being found in it. Two species 
only are, according to De Candolle, peculiar to Siberia, three to China and 
Japan, one to the Cape of Good Hope, one to New Holland, and six to Tro- 
pical America. Several are found in North America, beyond the tropic ; and 
it is probable that the order will yet receive many additions from that re- 
gion. Most of them are annuals. The perennials are chiefly natives of moun- 
tainous tracts. 

Properties, Every one knows what narcotic properties are possessed by 
the poppy, and this character prevails generally in the order. The seed is 
universally oily, and generally in no degree narcotic. The oil obtained from 
the seeds of Papaver somniferum is found to be perfectly wholesome, and is, in 
fact, consumed on the continent in considerable quantity. It is also employed 
extensively for adulterating olive oil. Its use was at one time prohibited in 
France by decrees issued in compliance with popular clamour ; but it is now 
openly sold, the government and people having both grown wiser. See Ed. 
P. J. 2. 17. Meconopsis napalensis, a Nipal Plant, is described as being ex- 
tremely poisonous, especially its roots. Don. Prodr. 98. The Sangmnaria 
canadensis, or Puccoon, is emetic and purgative in large doses, and in smaller 
quantities is stimulant, diaphoretic, and expectorant. Barton, 1 37. The 
seeds of Argemone Mexicana are however said to be narcotic, especially if 
smoked with tobacco. Gardener s Mag. 6. 315. They are used in the West 
Indies as a substitute for ipecacuanha ; and the juice is considered by the na- 
tive doctors of India as a valuable remedy in ophthalmia, dropt into the eye 
and over the tarsus ; also as a good application to chancres. It is pur- 
gative and deobstruent. Ainslie, 2. 43. The Brazilians administer the 
juice of this plant, their Cardo santo, to persons or animals bitten by serpents, 
but, it would appear, without much success. Prince Max. Trav. 214. The 
narcotic principle of opium is an alkahne substance, called Morphia. The same 
drug contains a peculiar acid, called the Meconic ; and a vegetable alkali, named 
Narcotine, to which the unpleasant stimulating properties are attributed by 
Magendie, Tm'ner, 647. 



Papaver, L. Sanguinaria, L, 

Argemone, L. Bocconia, L. 

Meconopsis, DC. Macleaya, R. Br. 

Stylophorum, Nutt. Roemeria, Medic. 

It is usual to distinguish the following as a special natural order, on account 
of the irregularity of the flowers, the diadelphous stamens, and watery sap. 
But Auguste de St. Hilaire, and Moquin Tandon (Ann. Sc. 20. 324), have long 
since recommended the combination of Fumariacese and Papaveraceae on ac- 
count of the genus Hypecoum, and more recently Bernhardi has followed those 
botanists in a special memoir upon this subject {Linncea, 8. 401). 

Glaucium, Tourn. Hunnemannia, Sweet. 

Chelidonium, L. Dendromecon, Benth. 

Eschcholtzia, Cham. Platystigma, Benth. 

Sub-Order. FUMARIE^. The Fumitory Tribe. 

FuMARiACEiE, DC. Syst. 2. 105. (1821) ; Prodr. 1. 125 (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 18 (1829) ; 

Martins Conspectus. No. 205. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 2, deciduous. Petals 4, cruciate, parallel ; the 2 outer, 
either one or both, saccate at the base ; the 2 inner callous and coloured at the apex, where 
they cohere and enclose the anthers and stigma. Stamens G, in 2 parcels, opposite the outer 
petals, very seldom all separate; anthers membranous, the outer of each parcel 1 -celled, 
the middle one 2 -celled. Ovary superior, 1 celled ; ovules horizontal ; style filiform ; stigma 
with two or more points. Fruit various ; either an indehiscent 1 or 2-seeded nut, or a 
2-valved or succulent indehiscent polyspermous pod. Seeds horizontal, shining, crested. 
Albumen fleshy. Embryo minute, out of the axis ; in the indehiscent fruit straight ; in 
those which dehisce somewhat arcuate. — Herbaceous plants, with brittle stems and a watery 
juice. Leaves usually alternate, multifid, often with tendrils. Flowers purple, white, or 

Affinities. The following are De Candolle’s remarks upon this sub- 
ject (Syst. 2. 106.) : “ Fumariacese are very near Papaveracese, on account 

of their two-leaved deciduous calyx, of the structure of the fruit of such spe- 
cies as dehisce, and of their fleshy albumen ; but they difier, firstly, in their juice 
being watery, instead of milky ; secondly, in their petals being usually irregu- 
lar and in cohesion with each other ; thirdly, in their diadelphous stamens, 
which bear indifferently 1- and 2-celled anthers.” I am, however, inchnedto 
suspect, that the floral envelopes of Fumariese are not rightly described. I 
am by no means sure that it would not be more consonant to analogy to con- 
sider the parts of their flower divided upon a binary plan ; thus understanding 
the outer series of the supposed petals as calyx, and the inner only as petals ; 
while the parts now called sepals are perhaps more analogous to bracts ; an 
idea which their arrangement, and the constant tendency of the outer series to 
become saccate at the base, which is not uncommon in the calyx of Cruciacese, 
but never happens, as far as I know, in their petals, would seem to confirm. 
Of this, some further evidence may be found in the stamens. Those organs 
are combined in two parcels, one of which is opposite each of the divisions of 
the outer series, and consists of one perfect 2-celled anther in the middle and 
two lateral 1 -celled ones : now, supposing the lateral 1 -celled anthers of each 
parcel to belong to a common stamen, the filament of which is split by the 
separation of the two parcels, an hypothesis to which I do not think any ob- 
jection can be entertained, we shall find that the number of stamens of Fuma- 
rieae is 4, one of which is before each of the divisions of the flower ; an ar- 
rangement which is precisely what we should expect to find in a normal flower 
consisting of 2 sepals and 2 petals, and the reverse of what ought to occur 
if the divisions of the flower were really all petals, as has been hitherto be- 

The economy of the sexual organs of Fumariese is remarkable. The sta- 




mens are in two parcels, the anthers of which are a little higher than the 
stigma ; the two middle ones of these anthers are turned outwards, and do 
not appear to be capable of communicating their pollen to the stigma ; the four 
lateral ones are also naturally turned outwards, hut by a twist of their filament 
their face is presented to the stigma. They are all held firmly together by 
the cohesion of the tips of the flower, which, never unclosing, offer no appa- 
rent means of the pollen being disturbed, so as to shed upon the stigmatic sur- 
face. To remedy this inconvenience, the stigma is furnished with two blunt 
horns, one of which is inserted between and under the cells of the anthers of 
each parcel, so that without any alteration of position on the part of either 
organ, the mere contraction of the valves of the anthers is sufficient to shed 
the pollen upon that spot where it is required to perforin the office of fecunda- 
tion. The arguments of Bernhardi for the combination of Papaveracese and 
Fumarieae are remarkably unsatisfactory, and certainly have produced no im- 
pression upon my mind. But the seeds, and very often the fruit, of these plants 
are so much the same, and the genus Hypecoum, is so exactly intermediate 
between the two, that I think it is more advisable on the whole to consider 
Fumariese a reduced and irregular form of Papaveracese than a distinct natural 
order. If, however, it should be thought better to retain them separate, it 
will be requisite that the characters of Fumarieee should be so far enlarged as 
to comprehend Hypecoum. 

Fumarieee offer every gradation, from monospermous to polyspennous fruit, 
and between indehiscence, as in Fumaria itself, and dehiscence, as in Corydalis. 

Geography. Their principal range is in the temperate latitudes of the 
northern hemisphere, where they inhabit thickets and waste places. Two are 
found at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Properties. The character of Fumarieae is, to be scentless, a little bitter, 
in no degree milky, and to act as diaphoretics and aperients. D C. The root 
of Fumaria cava and Corydalis tuberosa has been found to contain a peculiar 
alkali called Corydalin. Turner, 653. 

Hypecoum, L. Cucullaria, Rafin. 

Chiazospermum, Brnh.Adlumia, Rafin. 
Dielytra, Rorkh. Cysticapnos, Boerh. 
Dicentra, Borkh. Corydalis, Vent. 
Capnorchis, Borkh. Neckeria, Scop. 

Eucapnos, Bernh. 
Bulbocapnos, Bernh. 
Dactylicapnos, Wall. 
Macrocapnos, Royle ( 1 ) 

Platycapnos, Bernh. 


Phacocapnos, Bnh. 
Sarcocapnos, DC. 
Discocapnos, Cham. 
Fumaria, L. 

Order III. NYMPH^ACE^. The Water Lily Tribe. 

NYMPHiEACEiE, SuUshury, Ann. Bot. 2. p. 69. (1805); DC. Propr. Med. ed. 2, p. 119. 
(1816); Syst. 2. 39. (1821) ; Prodr. 1. 113. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 15. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals and petals numerous, imbricated, passing gradually 
into each other, the former persistent, the latter inserted upon the disk which surrounds 
the pistil. Stamens numerous, inserted above the petals into the disk, sometimes forming, 
with the combined petals, a superior monopetalous corolla; filaments petaloid; anthers 
adnate, bursting inwards by a double longitudinal cleft. Disk large, fleshy, surrounding 
the ovary more or less. Ovary polyspermous, many-celled, with the stigmas radiating 
from a common centre upon a sort of flat urceolate cap. Fruit many celled, indehiscent. 
Seeds very nnmerous, attached to spongy dissepiments, and enveloped in a gelatinous aril. 
Albumen farinaceous. Embryo small, on the outside of the base of the albumen, enclosed 
in a membranous bag ; cotyledons foliaceous. — Herbs, with peltate or cordate fleshy leaves, 
avising from a prostrate trunk, growing in quiet waters. 

Affinities. There exists a great diversity of opinion among botanists 


as to the real structure of this order, and, consequently, as to its atHnities. 
This has arisen chiefly from the anomalous nature of the embryo, which 
is not naked, as in most plants, but enclosed in a membranous sac or bag. 
By some, among whom was the late L. C. Richard, this sac or bag was con- 
sidered a cotyledon, analogous to that of grasses, and enveloping the plumule; 
and hence the order was referred to Endogens, or Monocotyledons, and 
placed in the vicinity of Hydrocharacese. By others, at the head of whom 
are Messrs. Mirbel and De Candolle, the sac is considered a membrane of 
a peculiar kind ; and what Richard and his followers denominate plumule, 
is for them a 2-lobed embryo, wherefore they place the order in Exogens, 
or Dicotyledons. I do not think it worth citing all the arguments that have 
been adduced on each side the question, as botanists seem now to be gene- 
rally agreed upon referring Nymphaeacese to Dicotyledons. I observ'e more- 
over that Von Martins who once adhered to the opinion that Nymphaeaceae 
are monocotyledonous, and nearly related to Hydrocharaceae, (see Hortus 
Regius Monacensis, p. 25.) now places the order in its true position near Ra- 
nunculaceae (see Conspectus, No. 188.) Those who are curious to investigate 
the subject are referred to De Candolle’s Memoir, in the first volume of the 
Transactions of the Physical and Natural History Society of Geneva. In this 
place it will be sufficient to advert briefly to the proof that is supposed to 
exist of Nymphaeaceae being Dicotyledons. In the first place, the struc- 
ture of the stem is essentially that of Exogens, according to Mirbel’s examina- 
tion of the anatomy of Nuphar luteum, in the Annates du Museum, vol. 16, 
p. 20 ; and of Nelumbium, the close affinity of which with Nymphaeaceae no 
ofie can possibly doubt, in the same work, vol. 13, t. 34. In both these 
plants the bundles of fibres are described as being placed in concentric circles, 
the youngest of which are outermost; but they aU lie among a great quantity 
of cellular tissue : between each of these circles is interposed a number of air- 
cells, just as is found in M)Tiophyllum and Hippuris, both undoubted Dicoty- 
ledons in the opinion of every body except Link, who refers the latter to 
Endogens (see Gewdchsk, 6, p. 288). Secondly, the leaves are those of Dico- 
tyledons, and so is their convolute vernation, which is not known in Monoco- 
tyledons, and their insertion and distinct articulation with the stem. Thirdly, 
the flowers of Nymphaeaceae have so great an analogy generally with Dico- 
tyledons, and particularly with those of Magnoliaceae, and their fruit with 
Papaveraceae, that is difficult to doubt their belonging to the same group. 
Fourthly, the reasons which have been offered for considering the embryo 
monocotyledonous, hpwever plausible they may have appeared while we were 
unacquainted with the true structure of the ovule of other plants, have no 
longer the importance that they were formerly supposed to possess. The sac, 
to which I have already alluded, to which so much unnecessary value has been 
attached, and which was mistaken for a cotydelon by Richard, is no doubt 
analogous to the sac of Saururus and Piper, and is nothing more than the 
remains of the innermost of the membranous coats of the ovule, usually indeed 
absorbed, but in this and similar cases remaining and covering over the 
embryo. Brown {Appendix to King's Voyage) considers it the remains of the 
membrane of the amnios. De Candolle assigns a further reason for consider- 
ing Nymphaeaceae Dicotyledons, that they are lactescent, a property not 
known in Monocotyledons. But in this he is mistaken ; Limnocharis, a genus 
belonging to Butomaceae, is lactescent. It must moreover be observed, that 
the arrangement of the woody matter of Nuphar luteum is far less obviously 
exogenous than would be supposed from the manner in which it is described 
by Mirbel. 

Independently of the peculiarities to which I have now alluded, this order 


is remarkable in some other respects. It offers one of the best examples 
which can be adduced of the gradual passage of petals into stamens, and of 
sepals into petals : if attentively examined, the transition will be found so insen- 
sible that many intermediate bodies will be seen to be neither precisely petals 
nor stamens, but both in part. The developement of the disk, which is so 
remarkable in Nelumbiaceae, takes place here in various degrees. In some, as 
in Nuphar, it is merely an hypog\Tious expansion, out of which grow the sta- 
mens and petals ; in others, as Nymphsea, it elevates itself as high as the top 
of the ovary, to the surface of which it is adnate, and as the stamens are car- 
ried up along with it, we have these organs apparently proceeding from the 
surface of the ovary : in the genus Barclaya, the petals are also carried up 
^vith the stamens, on the outside of which they even cohere into a tube, so 
that in this genus we have a singular instance of aji inferior calyx and a supe- 
rior corolla in the same plant. 

Supposing this order to be exogenous and dicotyledonous, a fact about 
which there appears to me to be no doubt, its immediate affinity wUl be with 
Papaveracese, with some genera of which it agrees in the very compound nature 
of the fruit, from the apex of which the sessile stigmas radiate, in the presence 
of narcotic principles and a milky secretion, and in the great breadth of the 
placentae. Nymphaeaceae are also akin to Magnoliaceae, with which they agree 
in the imbricated nature of the petals, sepals, and stamens ; to Nelumbiaceae 
their close resemblance is evident ; with Ranunculaceae they are connected 
through the tribe of Paeonies, wdth which they agree in the dilated state of 
of the disk which, in Paeonia papaveracea and Moutan, frequently rises as high 
as the top of the ovaries, and in the indefinite number of their hypogynous 
stamens ; but in Ranunculaceae the placentae only occupy the edge of each of 
the carpels of which the fruit is made up ; so that in NigeUa, in which the 
carpels cohere in the centre, the seeds are attached to the axis, while in Nym- 
phaeaceae the placentae occupy the whole surface of each side of the individual 
carpels, of which the fruit is composed. But if such are the undoubted imme- 
diate affinities of Nymphaeaceae, it is certain that some strong analogies exist 
between them and Hydrocharaceae, to the vicinity of which they are referred 
by those who believe them to be Monocotyledonous. Taking Nelumbiaceae 
for a transition order, they have some relation to Alismaceae, the only mono- 
cotyledonous order in which there is an indefinite number of carpels in each 
flower, and to Hydrocharaceae, with which they agree in the structure, though 
not the vernation, of their leaves, and their habit. An analogy of a similar 
nature 'wfith this last may be also traced between them and the monopetalous 
sub-order Menyantheae. 

Geography. Floating plants, inhabiting the whole of the northern 
hemisphere, occasionally met with at the southern point of Africa, but gene- 
rally rare in the southern hemisphere, and entirely unknown on the continent 
of South America. ! 

Properties. The whole of this order has the reputation of being anti- 
aphrodisiac, sedative, and narcotic, properties not very clearly made out, but 
generally credited. Their stems are certainly bitter and astringent, for which 
reason they have been prescribed in dysentery. They contain a considerable 
quantity of faecula, and after repeated washings, they are capable of being 
used for food. DC. A. R. The seeds are eagerly sought after in times of 
scarcity, by the wild people in whose countries they grow. They taste like 
poppy seeds, and are used either boiled or raw like Millet. The stems are 
esteemed by the negroes of Senegal, who roast and eat them like Potatoes 
(FI. Senegamb. 1, 17). In India the farinaceous seeds are eaten either in a 
raw state, or after having been roasted in heated sand (Royle , 65). It is 


said that the stems of Nymphsea alba, are better than oak galls for dying 
gray ; they have also been long employed advantageously for tanning leather ; 
and a tolerable sort of beer has been prepared from them. Fee, 1, 412. 


Euryale, Salisb. Nymphaea, li. Nuphar, Sibth. Barclaya, Wall. 

Anneslea, Andr. Castalia, Scdisb. Nenuphar, Hayne. 


CABOMBEiE, Rich. Anal. Fr. (1808.) — Podophyllace^, § Hydropeltideae, DC. 

Syst. 2. 36. (1821); Prodr. 1. 112. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3 or 4, coloured inside. Petals 3 or 4, alternate with 
the sepals. Stamens definite or indefinite, hypogynous, arising from an obscure torus ; 
anthers linear, turned inwards, continuous with the filament. Ovaries 2 or more, termi- 
nated by a short style. Fruit indehiscent, tipped by the hardened style. Seeds definite, 
pendulous ; embryo fungilliform, seated at the base of firm, somewhat fleshy albume7i . — 
Aquatic plants, with floating leaves. Flowers axillary, solitary, yellow or purple. 

Affinities. These appear to be in reality nothing more than Nymphsea- 
ceous plants with definite seeds and distinct carpels. From Podophyllese, to 
which they are united by De Candolle, they difibr in their floating habit, 
definite seeds, and numerous ovaries. According to Richard, Cabomba is a 
monocotyledon : Hydropeltis is clearly related closely to Caltha. 

Geography. American water-plants, found from Cayenne to New 

Properties. Unknown. 


Cabomba, Aubl. Hydropeltis, Mich. 

Nectris, Schreb. Brasenia, Pursh. 


NYMPH.®ACEiE, § Nelumboneae, DC. Syst. 2. 43. (1821) ; Prodr. 1. 113. (1824) — Nelum- 
BONE^, Martius Conspectus. No. 187. (183.5.) 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 or 5. Petals numerous, oblong, in many rows, 
arising from without the base of the disk. Stamens numerous, arising from within the 
petals, in several rows ; filaments petaloid ; anthers adnate, bursting inwards by a double 
longitudinal cleft. Disk fleshy, elevated, excessively enlarged, enclosing in hollows of its 
substance the ovaries, which are numerous, separate, monospermous, with a simple style 
and stigma. Nuts numerous, half buried in the hollows of the disk, in which they are, 
finally, loose. Seeds solitary, or rarely 2 ; albumen none ; embryo large, with two fleshy 
cotyledons and a highly developed plumule, enclosed in its proper membrane. — Herbs, with 
peltate, fleshy, floating leaves arising from a prostrate trunk, growing in quiet waters. 

Affinities. The relationship of this order to Nymphaeacese is so obvi- 
ous, that no one ever thinks of disjoining them. And yet its numerous dis- 
tinct ovaries are quite diflJerent from the fruit of Nymphaeaceae, and the seeds 
have no albumen. This latter circumstance forms the only important excep- 
tion to the character of the Albuminous group. 

Geography. Natives of stagnant or quiet waters in the temperate and 
tropical regions of the northern hemisphere, both in the Old and the New 


World ; most abundant in the East Indies. They were formeidy common in 
Egypt, but are now extinct in that country, according to Delile. 

Properties. Chiefly remarkable for the beauty of the flowers. The 
fruit of Nelumbium speciosum is believed to have been the Egyptian bean of 
Pythagoras. The nuts of all the species are eatable and wholesome. The 
root, or, more properly, the creeping stem, is used as food in China. 


Nelumbium, Juss. 

Nelumbo, Gaertn. 

Cyamus, Salisb. 


Cephalote^, R. Brown, Phil. Mag. (1832); Martins Conspectus, No 178. (1835). — 
Cephalotace^, Lindl. Key, No. 5. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx coloured, six parted, with a valvate aestivation. 
Corolla 0. Stamens 12, those opposite the sepals shortest, inserted into the edge of a 
deep glandular perigynous disk ; anthers with a thick granular connective. Carpels 6, dis- 
tinct, one seeded; ovule erect. Akenia membranous, opening by the ventral suture, sur- 
rounded by the persistent calyx and stamens. Seed solitary (very seldom two) erect. 
Embryo minute, in the base of the axis of a fleshy friable somewhat oily albumen. — A stem- 
less herb with exstipulate leaves, among which are mingled operculate pitchers. Scape sim- 
ple, bearing a compound terminal spike. Flowers small. 

Affinities. Allied according to LabiUardiere to Rosaceae, and according 
to Jussieu, to Crassulaceae ; according to Brown the order should be placed 
between Crassulaceae and Francoaceae. Its very copious albumen and apocar- 
pous fruit seem however to flx it far from the former of those orders, in the 
Ranal alliance, from which it forms a natural transition to Francoaceae in the 
Pittosporal alliance, and through those plants to Sarraceniaceae, in which the 
leaves are in like manner transformed into pitchers. The paradoxical genus, 
Dionaea, where in like manner a strong tendency exists to the foraiation of 
pitcher, does really seem to be the type of an order difiering in little from 
Cephalotaceae except in the presence of petals, and in the syncarpous fruit with 
the seeds collected upon a flat central placenta. 

Geography. Marsh plants, found in New Holland, (and the southern 
states of North America ?) 

Properties. Unknown. 


§ ? DlONiEACEiE. 

Cephalotus, R. Br. Dionaea, L. 

Alliance IL ANONALES. 

Essential Character. — W oody plants in all cases, often trees, with the fruit com- 
posed of distinct carpels, which occasionally grow together into a solid mass. The valves of 
the anthers separating by a perpendicular line. 

This alhance is hardly to be separated from Ranales by any better general 
character than its constantly woody and often arborescent stems ; to which may 
be added a great tendency to be aromatic. It is known from Berberales by 
the dehiscence of its anthers, from Pittosporales by its apocarpous fruit, and 
from the Umbellal and Grossal alliances by its stamens being hypogynous. 


llie genus Eupomatia is however an exception to this, hut the great number 
of the carpels of that genus distinguishes even it from the two last-mentioned 
alliances. Magnoliaceae are probably the most immediately akin to Ranuncu- 
lacese, and Dilleniacese to Pittosporacese ; while Schizandrese tend towards the 
far distant (?) Menispermacese ; and Anonacese themselves assume something 
the state of Berberaceae in the genus Bocagea. 

Order VI. MYRISTICACE^. The Nutmeg Tribe. 

Myristice^, i?. Bmcn, Protir. 399. (1810). Bartling, Ord. Nat. 244. (1830); Martins 
Conspectus, No. 78. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Flowers completely unisexual. Calyx trifid, rarely qua- 
drifid; with valvular aestivation. Male. Filaments either separate or completely united 
in a cylinder. Anthers 3-12, 2-celled, turned outwards, and bursting longitudinally : either 
connate or distinct. Female. Calyx deciduous. Ovary superior, sessile, with a single 
erect ovule ; style very short ; stigma somewhat lobed. Fruit baccate, dehiscent, 2-valved. 
Seed nut-like, enveloped in a many-parted aril ; albumen ruminate, between fatty and 
fleshy ; embryo small ; cotyledons foliaceous ; radicle inferior ; plumule conspicuous. — 
Tropical trees, often yielding a red juice. Leaves alternate, without stipules, not dotted, 
quite entire, stalked, coriaceous ; usually, when full grown, covered beneath with a close 
down. Inflorescence dcsixWdixy ox terminal, in racemes, glomerules, or panicles; the flowers 
often each with one short cucullate bract. Calyx coriaceous, mostly downy outside, with 
the hairs sometimes stellate, smooth in the inside. — R. Br. chiefly. 

Affinities. Usually placed, on account of their apetalous flowers, in the 
vicinity of Lauracese, from which they are distinguished by the structure of 
their calyx, anthers and fruit. Brown places them between Proteaceae and 
Lauracese, remarking, that they are not closely akin to any other order. They 
appear, however, to be in reality an apetalous form of Anonacese, with which their 
trimerous flowers, arillate seed, ruminated albumen, minute embryo, and sen- 
sible properties almost identify them ; to say nothing of their resemblance to the 
Schizandreous section of Anonaceae in their unisexual flowers. Bocagea, which is 
usually considered as a connecting link between the latter and Berberacese, 
must also be looked upon as one of the cases of transition from Anonacese to 
Virola among Myristicacese . Another and much more interesting instance is 
afforded by Wallich’s Anonaceous genus Ryalostemma, which would be al- 
most an involucrated Myristica if it had an aril. That plant has unisexual 
apetalous flowers, and a trifid calyx surrounded by an involucre of six 
subulate bracts. 

This view was suggested in the first edition of the present work, and about 
the same time by Bartling, who however is silent as to the motives which led 
him to bring Myristicacese and Anonacese into contact. 

Geography. Natives exclusively of the tropics of India and America. 

Properties. The bark abounds in an acrid juice, which is viscid and stains 
red ; the rind of the fruit is caustic ; the aril and albumen, the former known 
under the name of Mace, and the latter of Nutmeg, are important aromatics, 
abounding in a fixed oil of a consistence analogous to fat, which, in a species 
called Virola sebifera, is so copious as to be extracted easily by immersing the 
seeds in hot water. The common Nutmeg is the produce of Myristica mos- 
chata ; but an aromatic fruit is also borne by other species. The Nutmeg of 
Santa Feis the Myristica Otoba. Humh. Cinch. For. p. 29. Eng. ed. Ano- 
ther species is the M. tomentosa, and a third the M. officinalis, which is 
reckoned in Brazil an energetic tonic. Fee. 


Myristica, L. Knema, Lour. 

Virola, Aubl. Horsfleldia, Willd. 


Order VII. MAGNOLIACE^. The Magnolia Tribe. 

MAGNOLiiE, Juss. Gen. 280. (1789); MAGNOLiACEiE, DC. Syst. 1 439.(1818) Prodr. 

1. 77. (1824.) ; BlumeFl.Jav. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-6, deciduous. Petals 3-27, hypogynous, in several 
rows. Stamens indefinite, distinct, hypogynous. Anthers adnate, long. Ovaries nume- 
rous, simple, arranged upon the torus above the stamens, 1 -celled ; ovules either ascending 
or suspended ; styles short ; stigmas simple. Fruit either dry or succulent, consisting of 
numerous carpels, which are either dehiscent or indehiscent, distinct or partially connate, 
always numerous, and arranged upon an elongated axis, sometimes terminated by a mem- 
branous wing. Seeds solitary, or several attached to the inner edge of the carpels, from 
which, when ripe and open, they often hang suspended by a delicate umbilical chord. 
Embryo minute, at the base of fleshy albumen. — Fine trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, 
not dotted, coriaceous, articulated distinctly with the stem : with deciduous stipules, which, 
when young, are rolled together like those of Ficus. Flowers large, solitary, often strongly 
odoriferous. Scales of the leaf bud formed of stipules either placed face to face or rolled up. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Dilleniacese, from which, they are chiefly 
distinguished by the ternary, not quinary, arrangement of the parts of the 
flower ; from Anonaceee, to which they also approach, the stipules and solid 
albumen separate them. Their stipulation points out an analogy with Urti- 
cacese ; their imbricate petals and sepals, and numerous ovaries, with Caly- 
canthacese, and through them with Monimiacese. According to Blume, the 
umbilical chord which is so remarkably extensible in these plants, is wholly 
composed of a multitude of delicate spiral vessels. (FI. Jav. 8.) 

Geography. The focus of this order is undoubtedly North America, 
where the woods, the swamps, and the sides of the hills, abound with the spe- 
cies. Thence they straggle, on the one hand, into the West India Islands, and, 
on the other, into India, through China and Japan. Brown remarks f Congo, 
465J, that no species have been found on the continent of Africa, or any of the 
adjoining islands. 

Properties. The general character of the order is to have a bitter tonic 
taste, and fragrant flowers. The latter produce a decided action upon the 
nerves, which, according to De Candolle, induces sickness and headache from 
Magnolia tripetala, and on the authority of Barton, is so stimulating on the 
part of Magnolia glauca as to produce paroxysms of fever, and even an attack 
of inflammatory gout. The bark has been found to be destitute of tannin and 
gallic acid, notwithstanding its intense bitterness. The bark of the root of 
Magnolia glauca is an important tonic. Barton, 1. 87. The same property 
is found in Liriodendron tulipifera, which has even been said to be equal to 
Peruvian bark. Michelia Doltsopa is one of the finest trees in Nipal, yielding 
an excellent fragrant wood, much used in that country for house-building. 
Don. Prodr. 226. Magnolia excelsa has a valuable timber called Champ, at 
first greenish, hut soon changing into a pale yellow ; the texture is fine. Wal- 
lich. Tent. 7. The cones of Magnoha acuminata yield, in Virginia, a spirituous 
tincture, which is employed with some success in rheumatic affections ; and the 
seeds of most species are remarkable for their bitterness : those of M. Yulan 
are employed in China as febrifuges, under the name of Tsin-y. DC. Blume 
remarks that Magnoliaceae are absolutely known from Dilleniacese by their bit- 
ter aromatic properties ; the latter never being any thing beyond styptics. FI. 


Michelia, L. Aromadendron, Bl. Magnolia, L. Talauma, Juss. 

Manglietia, Bl. Sphenocarpus, Wall. Gwillimia, Rottl. Liriodendron, Juss. 


Order VIII. WINTERACE^. The Winter’s Bark Tribe. 

WiNTE REiE, i2. Broit'n in De Cand. Syst. 1. 548. (1818.) — Illicie^e, DC. Prodr. 1. ?7. 
(1824.) a section of Magnoliaceae. 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual. Sepals 2-6, some- 
times not distinguishable from the petals, either deciduous or persistent. Petals 2-30, in 
several rows when more than 5. Stamens short, indefinite, hypogynous, distinct. Anthers 
adnate. Ovaries definite, arranged in a single whorl, 1 -celled, with several suspended or 
erect ovules, which are attached to the suture. Stigmas simple, sessile. Fruit either dry 
or succulent, consisting of a single row of carpels, which are either dehiscent or indehis- 
cent, and distinct. Seeds solitary or several, with or without aril. Embryo very small, 
straight, in the base of fieshy albumen. — Shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate, dotted, 
coriaceous, persistent, with convolute deciduous stipules. Floivers solitary, often brown 
or chocolate^ colour, and sweet-scented. 

Anomalies. The flowers of Tasmannia are dioecious or polygamous, and the carpels 

Affinities. Closely related to Magnoliaceae, from whicli they differ 
chiefly in their dotted leaves and aromatic qualities. A. de St. Hilaire, how- 
ever, states that some Michelias ha’se dotted leaves, and so destroy the limits 
between this order and Magnohaceae. {FI. Bras. 1. 27.) According to St. 
Hilaire, the supposed stipules of Winteraceae are only imperfectly developed 
leaves which enfold the buds. PI. Usuelles, no. 26-28. But what are sti- 
pules except starved leaves ? The same author remarks, that Bonpland con- 
sidered the embryo as destitute of albumen, which was, however a mistake, it 
being undoubtedly as it is here described. For several good remarks upon 
Drimys, see the PI. Usuelles as quoted. 

Geography. A small order, with an extensive range. Of the 10 species 
enumerated by De Candolle, 2 are found in New Holland, 2 in the hotter 
parts of America, 2 in the southern and 2 in the northern territories of the 
same continent, 1 in China and Japan, and 1 in New Zealand. 

Properties. All that writers have stated about the aromatic stimulant 
properties of Magnoliaceae should be applied to this order, formerly confounded 
with them. The seeds of Illicium anisatum are considered in India to be 
powerfully stomachic and carminative. The fruit of that plant is the star-anise 
of the shops. A very fragrant volatile oil is also obtained from the seeds. The 
Chinese bum them in their temples, and Europeans employ them to aromatise 
certain liquors, such as the Anisette de Bourdeaux. Drimys Winteri yields 
the Winter’s Bark, which is known for its resemblance to that of cinnamon. 
A. R. A bark called Melambo Bark, possessing similar properties, is de- 
scribed by Cadet in the Journal de Pharmacie, 1815, p. 20. The bark of 
Drimys granatensis, called Casca JAnia in Brazil, is much used against colic. 
It is tonic, aromatic, and stimulant, and resembles, in nearly £iU respects, the 
Drimys Winteri, or Winter’s Bark. Plantes Usuelles, 26-28. 


Illicium, L. Drimys, Forst. Tasmannia, R. Br. 

Temus, Mol. Wintera, Murr. 

Winterana, Sol. 




Anon.®, Juss. Gen. 283. (1789.) — Anonace.®, Rich. Anal. Fr. 17. (1808) ; Dunal 
Monogr. (1817); DC.Syst. 1.462. (1818); Prodr. 1. 83. (1824); Bl. FI. Jav.; 
Alph. De Cand. in Mem. Phys. Genev. (1832.) — Glyptosperm^e, Vent. Tabl. 3. 75. 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-4, persistent, usually partially cohering. Petals 6, 
hypogynous, in two rows, coriaceous, with a valvular aestivation, sometimes united in a 
monopetalous corolla. Stamens indefinite or definite, covering a large hypogynous torus, 
packed closely together, very rarely definite. Filaments short, more or less angular. An- 
thers adnate, turned outwards, with an enlarged 4-cornered connective, which is sometimes 
nectariferous. Ovaries usually numerous, closely packed, separate or cohering, occasionally 
definite; Styles short; stigmas simple ; ovules solitary, or a small number, erect or ascend- 
ing. Fruit consisting of a number of carpels, which are either succulent or dry, sessile or 
stalked, i-or many seeded, distinct or concrete into a fleshy mass. Seeds attached to the 
suture in one or two rows, sometimes furnished with an aril ; testa brittle ; embryo minute, 
in the base of hard, fleshy, ruminate albumen. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, 
almost always entire, without stipules. Flowers usually green or brown, axillary, solitary, 
or 2 or 3 together, shorter than the leaves ; the peduncles of abortive flowers sometimes 
indurated, enlarged, and hooked. 

Anomalies. Monodora has a solitary carpel. In Hyalostemma the flowers are dioe- 
cious, apetalous, with an involucre. In Anona palustris the ovaries are not distinct. Rol- 
linia, &c. have the petals united. Stamens and carpels definite in Bocagea. Flowers pen- 
tamerous in Hentschelia. Ovaries inferior in Eupomatia. 

Affinities. No doubt can be entertained of the close affinity of this 
order to Magnoliacese, from which, however, it differs in the want of stipules, 
in the fonn of the anthers, and in the peculiar condition of the ovary : agree- 
ing^ in the ternary division of the parts of fmctification, and the indefinite 
stamens and ovaries. An affinity has been pointed out between them and 
Menispennacese ; but it appears to me to be very weak. The great feature of 
the order is its ruminated albumen, to which there is no exception, and scarcely 
any parallel. The parietal insertion of ovules, ascribed to this order by De 
Candolle, is not universal. Tlie ovules are erect in Anona, Guatteria, and 
Anaxagorea. A. St. H. in PI. Usu. 33. A remarkable plant is described by 
Brown, in the Appendix to Flinders’s Voyage, under the name of Eupomatia 
laurina, in which the stamens are manifestly perigynous, and the tube of the 
calyx coherent with the ovaries. I have remarked in Anona laurifolia that the 
poUen is arranged in two distinct rows in each cell of the anther, and that 
when that organ bursts, the grains of pollen faU out, cohering in a single row, 
so as to have the appearance of a necklace. Supposing Winteraceae not to be 
stipulate, as St. Hilaire asserts, this order will be more nearly related to them 
than to Magnoliacese. Connected with Berberacese through Bocagea. I also 
think there can be no doubt of the close alliance of this order to Myidsticaceae 
(see that order); as has already been indicated by Blume fFl. Jav.) who, 
however, does not attach so much importance to the resemblances as I do. 

Geography. The tropics of the old and new world are the natural land 
of these plants : thence they spread, in a few instances, to the northward and 
the southward. 

Properties. The general character is, to have a powerful aromatic taste 
and smell in all the parts. The bark of Uvaria tripetaloidea yields, being 
tapped, a viscid matter, which hardens in the form of a fragrant gum. PC. 
The flowers of many species, especially of Artabotrys odoratissima and 
Guatteria virgata, are exceedingly fragrant. The dry fruits of many species 
are very aromatic ; those of Habzelia aromatica are the Piper sethiopicum of 
the shops, and are commonly used as pepper by the African negroes. FI. 
Seneg. 1.9. The leaves of Anona squamosa have a heavy disagreeable odour. 


and the seeds contain a highly acrid principle fatal to insects, on which account 
the natives of India use them powdered and mixed with the flour of Gram, or 
Cicer urietimm, for occasionally washing their hair. Royle. Xylopia sericea, 
a large tree found in forests near Rio Janeiro, where it is called Pinddiha, bears 
a highly aromatic fruit, with the flavour of pepper, for which it may be advan- 
tageously substituted. Its bark is tough, and readily separated into fibres, 
from which excellent cordage is manufactured. Plantes Usuelles, no. 33. 
Blume remarks that the Javanese species require, notwithstanding their 
powerful properties, to be employed with caution ; for if they are administered 
for too great a length of time, or in too large doses, they produce vertigo, 
haemorrhage, or even abortion, in pregnant women. The carpels are chewed 
after dinner in Java for dispelling flatulence. (See Blume.) Of some species 
the fruit is succulent and eatable, containing a sugary mucilage, which pre- 
dominates over the slight aromatic flavour that they produce. Of this kind are 
the Custard Apples of the East and West Indies, the Cherimoyer of Peru, and 
others. In Asimina triloba an acid is present of a very active nature, accord- 
ing to Duhamel ; but this is not certain. Tlie Anona sylvatica, called Araticu 
do mato, in Brazil, has a light white wood, very fit for the use of turners, and 
for the same pui*poses as the lime-tree of Europe. Its fniit is described as 
good for the dessert. Plantes Usuelles, 29. The wood of the root of 
A. palustris is employed in Brazil for corks. Ib. 30. The Indians on the 
Orinoco, particularly in Atures and Maypura, have an excellent febrifuge, 
called Frutta de Burro, which is the fruit of Uvaria febrifuga. Humboldt, Cinch. 
Forests, p. 22. Eng. ed. 


Anona, h. Unona, L. 

Rollinia, A. St. H. Bulliarda, Neck. 

Lobocarpus, W. et A. Krockeria, Neck. 

Monodora, Dun. Desmos, Lour. 

Uvaria, L. Melodorum, Lour. 

Asimina, Adans. Marenteria, Nor. 

Orchidocarpum, Mx. Artabotrys, R. Br. 
Porcelia, R. et P. Habzelia, A. DC. 
Mitraphora, Bl. 

Blume distinguishes 

Coelocline, A.DC. 
Xylopia, L. 
Anaxagorea, A. St. H 
Hexalobus, A.DC. 
Miliusa, A.DC. 
Orophea, Bl. 

Bocagea, A. St. H. 
Trigynaea, Schlecht, 

Polyalthia, Bl. 
Duguetia, A. St. H. 
Guatteria, R. P. 
Aberemoa, Aubl. 
Cananga, Aubl. 
Hentschelia, Presl. 
Hyalostemma,Wall. (2) 

Eupomatia, R. Br. 


From Anonaceae and some other orders in the following manner. They 
differ fi'om Magnoliaceae in their unisexual flowers, and in the form of their 
stamens, which in Magnoliaceae are never monadelphous ; moreover the different 
nature of the vegetation and the diflerent properties form a great distinction 
between the two orders. For Magnoliaceae are erect trees or shrubs with gem- 
maceous stipules and entire leaves, and bitter aromatic properties, while on 
the other hand Schizandreae are trailing shrubs, destitute of stipules and con- 
stantly having toothed leaves, and have no aromatic or bitter proper- 
ties, but abound in vegetable mucus. In this last property and their toothed 
leaves they diflnr from Anonaceae, which approach them in the want of stipules 
and in their occasional sarmentose habit ; Schizandreae difier moreover from 
Anonaceae, 1st, in the less constant number of the floral envelopes ; 2nd, in 
their stamens usually combined ; and 3rd, in their even, not mminated, albu- 
men. (FI. Jav.J 

It is highly probable that they do in fact form a peculiar order, allied most 
nearly to Arionaceae, but also exhibiting a manifest tendency to the monadel- 
phous unisexual structure of Myristicaceae, Their supposed resemblance to 
Menispermaceae, of which mention is made by authors, is of a very slight na- 



Kadsura, J. Sphaerostema, Bl. 

Sarcocarpon, Bl. Schizandra, Mx. 


Dilleniace^, DC. Syst. 1. 395. (1818) ; Prodr. 1. 67. (1824) ; A. St. B. FI. 

Bras. 1. 23. (1825.) 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, 2 exterior, 3 interior. Petals 5, deci- 
duous, hypogynous in a single row. Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, arising from a torus, 
either distinct or polyadelphous, and either placed regularly around the pistil or on one 
side of it. Filaments dilated either at the base or apex. Anthers adnate, 2-celled, usually 
bursting longitudinally, always turned inwards. Ovaries definite, more or less distinct, 
with a terminal style and simple stigma ; ovules ascending. Fi'uit consisting either of from 
2 to 5 distinct unilocular carpels, or of a similar number cohering together ; the carpels 
either baccate or 2-valved, pointed by the style. Seeds fixed in a double row to the 
inner edge of the carpels, either several or only 2, occasionally solitary by abortion; sur- 
rounded by a pulpy aril. Testa hard. Embryo minute, lying in the base of solid fleshy 
albumen. — Trees, shrubs, or under-shrubs, rarely herbaceous plants. Leaves usually alter- 
nate, almost always without stipules, very seldom opposite, most commonly coriaceous, 
and with strong veins running straight from the midrib to the margin, entire or toothed, 
often separating from the base of the petiole, which remains adhering to the stem. Flowers 
solitary, in terminal racemes or panicles, often yellow. 

Anomalies. In several genera of the section Delimaceae there is but one carpel ; and 
in Dillenia and Colbertia the carpels partly cohere. 

Affinities. These are nearly akin to Magnoliacese, from which they are 
distinguished by their want of stipules and the quinary arrangement of the 
parts of fructification ; and to Ranunculacese, from which their persistent calyx, 
stamens, and whole habit in general, divide them. They are universally cha- 
racterised by the presence of aril ; a peculiarity which certainly exists in Hib- 
bertia, notwithstanding De Candolle’s definition of that genus. The most ge- 
nuine form of the order is known by the veins of the leaves running straight 
from the midrib to the margin. Some of the genera are remarkable for having 
the stamens developed only half way round the pistil, so that the central 
part of the flower has a one-sided appearance. In this respect they tend to- 
wards Pittosporacese, where Cheiranthera has also dechnate stamens. To 
Anonaceae they also approach in a variety of ways, especially in the genus 
Acrotrema, whose albumen is irregularly indented upon the surface, as if it 
were approaching to a ruminated state. 

Geography. According to De Candolle, 50 of this order are found in 
Australasia, 21 in India and its neighbourhood, 3 in equinoctial Africa, and 21 
in equinoctial America ; but since the publication of the Sy sterna several have 
been added both to the Indian and South American species. 

Properties. Dilleniacese are generally astringent. The Brazilians make 
use of a decoction of Davilla rugosa in swellings of the legs and testicles, very 
common maladies in hot and humid parts of South America. PI. Jjsuelles, 
no. 22. Davilla elliptica is also astringent, and furnishes the vulnerary called 
Cambdihinha in Brazil. Ibid. 23. In Curatella Cambaiba the same astrin- 
gent principle recommends its decoction as an excellent wash for wounds. 
Ibid. 24. The young calyxes of Dillenia scahrella and speciosa have a plea- 
santly acid taste, and are used in curries by the inhabitants of Chittagong and 
Bengal. Wallich. Almost all Delimese have the leaves covered with aspe- 
rities, which are sometimes so hard that the leaves are even used for polishing. 



§ 1. Delimk^e, DC. Davilla, Vand. 

§2. Dillenie^, DC. Actinidia. (3.) 

Tetracera, L. Doliocarpus, Rol. 

Euryandra, Forst. Calinea, Aubl. 

Wahlbomia, Thunb. Soramia, Aubl. 

Ti^area, Aubl. Delima, L. 

Rhinium, Schreb. Trachytella, DC. 

Pinzona, Mart. ReifFerschicdia, Pr 

Empedoclea, A. St.H. Curatella, E. 

Trachytella, DC. Adrastaea, DC. 
Reifferschicdia, Presl. Hibbertia, Andr. 

Adrastaea, DC. Acrotrema, Jack. 

Pachynema, R. Br. Colbertia, Salisb. 
Hemistemma, Juss. Dillenia, 1^. 

Pleurandra, La Bill. Capellia, Blume. 
Candollea, La Bill. Othlis, Schott. 

*Burtoma, Salisb. Schumacheria, Vahl. 
Wormia, Rottb. ? Dasynema, Schott. 
Lenidia, Poir. 

Recchea, Sesse. 


Essential Character. — Flowers usually disposed in umbels. Calyx superior. Disk 
epigynous, very thick, in two or more pieces. Carpels always one-seeded. Stems usually 

ITie only other albuminous alliance with a superior calyx is the Grossal, 
and that is readily known by its solid stems, and flowers never being arranged 
in regular umbels, while there is generally more seeds than one, usually many, 
in each carpel. The leaves too of this alhance are almost always dilated, and 
sheathing at the base, as in Ranunculaceae. The motives which induced me 
to place Myristicacese in the same alliance as Anonaceae have led me to group 
Umbelliferse in the vicinity of Ranunculacese, contrary to the opinion and prac- 
tice of the greatest of our living authorities. If we consider fairly the respec- 
tive organization of Ranunculacese and UmbeUiferae, especially of such genera 
as Thalictrum in the one, and Pimpinella in the other, we shall find that no 
positive mark of discrimination between them can be pointed out except the 
superior carpels of the former, and the inferior ones of the latter ; for the in- 
definite stamens of Ranunculaceae are no longer capable of furnishing a dis- 
tinctive character since the discovery of Casalea. As for Thalictrum foenicu- 
laceum, any one would take it for an Umbelliferous plant, without attentive 
observation. Now it is impossible to acknowledge any system to be natural 
in which, under these circumstances of almost identity in structure and in sen- 
sible properties, two such orders are disjoined ; and I consider the restoration 
of UmbeUiferae and Ranunculacese to their true relative positions, one of the 
strongest arguments in favour of the necessity for this albuminous group. 

On the other hand, Umbelliferae are but little difibrent from Vitaceae, except 
in their superior calyx and pendulous ovules ; for Aralia racemosa has quite as 
much the appearance ' of a Cissus, and its structure also, except in those re- 
spects, as it has of a plant of the Umbellal alliance. 

Umbelliferous Tribe 

Umbellifer^, Juss. Gen. 218. (1789) ; Koch in N. Act. Bonn. 12. 73. (1824) ; Lindl. Sy~ 
nops. 111. (1829); DC. Memoire (1829); DC. Prodr. 4. 55. (1830); Tausch. in 
Bot.Zeit. (1834); Ann. 5C. w. s.4. 41. (1835). Umbellace®, LindZ. Key, no. 11, (1835), 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, either entire or 5-toothed. Petals 5, 
inserted on the outside of a fleshy epigynous disk ; usually indexed at the point; aesti- 
vation imbricate, rarely valvate. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals, incurved in aestiva- 
tion. Ovary inferior, 2-celled, with solitary pendulous ovules; crowned by a double fleshy 


disk; styles 2, distinct ; stigmas simple. Fruit consisting of 2 carpels, separable from a 
common axis, to which they adhere by their face {the commissure) ; each carpel traversed 
by elevated ridges, of which 5 are primary, and 4, alternating with them, secondary ; the 
ridges are separated by channels, below which are often placed, in the substance of the 
pericarp, certain linear receptacles of coloured oily matter called vittce. Seed pendulous, 
usually adhering inseparably to the pericarp, rarely loose ; embryo minute, at the base of 
abundant horny albumen; radicle pointing to the hilum. — Herbaceous plants, with fistular 
furrowed stems. Leaves usually divided, sometimes simple, sheathing at the base. Flowers 
in umbels, white, pink, yellow, or blue, generally surrounded by an involucre. 

Anomalies. Sometimes there are three carpels. The leaves, or rather the dilated 
leafless petioles of some, as Er^nigium, have the appearance of those of Endogens. Leaves 
opposite in Spananthe. 

Affinities. I trust I have sufficiently proved already the near relation 
of this order to Ranunculacese ; its affinity to- Araliacese is such that the two 
orders hardly differ, except in the number of the parts of the flower. With 
Saxifragacese, Umbelliferse agree in habit, if Hydrocotyle is compared with 
Chr}^sosplenium, and if the sheathing and divided leaves of the two orders are 
considered. To Geraniaceee, De Candolle remarks that Umbelliferae are allied, 
in consequence of the cohesion of the carpels around a woody axis, and of the 
umbellate flowers which grow opposite the leaves, and also because the affinity 
of Geraniacese to Vitacese, and of the latter to Araliacese, is not to be doubted. 
The resemblance of Umbelliferae to Geraniaceae is however veiy feeble compared 
with the likeness they bear to Vitaceae. The arrangement of this order has 
only within a few years arrived at any very definite state ; the characters upon 
which genera and tribes could be formed having been for a long while unset- 
tled ; it is, however, now generally admitted that the number and develop- 
ment of the ribs of the fruit, the presence or absence of reseiwoirs of oil called 
vittae, and the fomi of the albumen, are the leading peculiarities which require 
to be attended to. Upon this subject see Koch’s Dissertation, Lagasca in the 
Otiosas Espanolas, and De Candolle’s Mt'moire, especially the last. The clas- 
sification of De Candolle has, however, been recently attacked by Tausch, in 
the places above quoted, who asserts that the albumen is a fallacious guide. 
He says that some species of Bupleurum are campylospennous, and others or- 
thospermous, and the same is true of many other genera. He adds, that in 
Hasselquistia the fruit of the ray is orthospermous, while that of the disk is 
coelospennous. The arrangement which this author proposes to substitute has 
not yet been examined critically. 

Geography. Natives chiefly of the northern parts of the northern hemis- 
phere, inhabiting groves, thickets, plains, marshes, and waste places. They 
appear to be extremely rare in all tropical countries, except at considerable 
elevations ; where they gradually increase in number as the other parts of the 
vegetation acquire an extra-tropical, or mountain character. Hence, although 
they are hardly knowui in the plains of India, they abound on the mountains 
of the Himalaya. 

Properties. The properties of this order require to be considered under 
two points of view : firstly, those of the vegetation ; and, secondly, those of 
the fmctification. The character of the fonner is, generally speaking, suspicious, 
and often poisonous in a high degree ; as in the case of Hemlock, Fool’s Pars- 
ley, and others, which are deadly poisons. Nevertheless, the stems of the Ce- 
lery, the leaves of Parsley and Samphire, the roots of the Skin-et, the Carrot, 
the Parsnep, the Arracacha, and the tubers of GEnanthe pimpineUoides and 
Bunium bulbocastanum, are wholesome articles of food. Tlie leaves of Prangos 
pabularis, afford a nourishing and abundant fodder for cattle ; it is thought 
to have been the Silphium of the ancients. The fruit, vulgarly called 
the seed, is in no case dangerous, and is usually a warm-and agreeable aroma- 
tic, as Caraway, Coriander, DiU, Anise, &.c. From the stem, when wounded. 


sometimes flows a stimulant, tonic, aromatic, gum-resinous concretion, of much 
use in medicine ; as Opoponax, which is procured from Pastinaca opoponax in 
the Levant ; Assafoetida from the Ferula of that name in Persia, and Sagape- 
num from some other species of Ferula. Gum ammoniac is supposed to be 
obtained from Dorema ammoniacum. It is a gum resin of a pale yellow co- 
lour, having a faint but not unpleasant odour, with a bitter nauseous taste. 
Internally apphed, it is a valuable deobstruent and expectorant. It is said by 
Paris to he, in combination with rhubarb, a useful medicine in mesenteric af- 
fections, by correcting viscid secretions. Ainslie, 1. 160. The substance called 
Galbanum is produced by some plant of this order, which Don calls Galbanum 
officinale. It is a stimulant of the intestinal canal and uterus, and is found to 
aUay that nervous irritability which often accompanies hysteria. Ainslie, 1. 
143. Cicuta virosa has its roofs gorged with a gum-resinous juice, which is 
a violent poison for man and animals. CEnanthe crocata, and PheUandrium, 
and CEthusa Cynapium have leaves and stems with a similar character ; the 
latter has been found by Ficinus, of Dresden, to contain a peculiar alkali, 
which he calls Cynopia. Turner, 654. The fruit of Ligusticum ajawain of 
Roxb. is prescribed in India in diseases of horses and cows. Ainslie, 1. 38. 
The roots of Eryngium campestre are slightly aromatic. 

With regard to Conium maculatum, which is also a most dangerous poi- 
son, it is remarkable how its properties are affected by climate ; in Russia and 
the Crimea it is inert and eatable ; in the south of Europe it is extremely dan- 
gerous. Fee, who makes this statement, adds, that for medicinal purposes it 
should be collected in June, shortly after flowering, and asserts that if gathered 
later its energy is much impaired. The same author doubts whether our Co- 
nium was really the plant from which the death-drinks of the Greeks were 
prepared. See some excellent general remarks upon the properties of this or- 
der in Fie’s Cours d'Histoire Naturelle Pharmaceutique, 2. 172. 



Albumen flat on the inner face ; neither involute nor convolute. 

§ 1. Hydrocotyle^, 

Hydrocotyle, Tourn. 
Chondrocarpus, Nut. 
Glyceria, Nutt. 

? Crantzia, Nutt. 
Erigenia, Nutt. 
Micropleura, Lag. 
Didiscus, DC. 
Lampra, Lindl. 
Hugelia, Reichenb. 
Trachymene, Rudg. 
Fischera, Lag. 
Catepha, Leschen. 
Siebera, Reichenb.? 
Xanthosia, Rudg. 
Bowlesia, R. et P. 
Azorella, Gaud. 
Pectophytum.H. B.K. 

§ 2. MULINEiE, DC. 
Bolax, Comm. 
Mulinum, Pers. 
Laretia, Gill. 
Homalocarpus, Hkr. 
Drusa, DC. 

Huanaca, Cav. 
Diposis, DC. 
Spananthe, Jacq. 
Pozoa, Lag. 
Asteriscium, Cham. 


? 3. Sanicule^, I 

Actinotus, La Bill. 
Eriocalia, Smith. 
Proustia, Lag. 
Petagnia, Guss. 
Heterosciadium , DC. 

Sanicula, Tourn. 
Hacquetia, Neck. 
Dondia, Spreng. 
Dondisia, Reichenb. 
Astrantia, Tourn. 
Alepidea, Laroch. 
Horsfleldia, Blum. 
Schubertia, Blum. 
Eryngium, Tourn. 
Strebanthus, Raf. 
Lessonia, Bertero. 
Actinanthus, Ehrenb. 
Klotzschia, Cham, 
f 4. Ammine^, DC. 
Rumia, HofFm. - 
Cicuta, L. 

Cicutaria, Tourn. 
Zizia, Koch. 
Pentacr>'pta, Lehm. 
Apium, Hoffm. 

Petroselinum, Hoffm 
Wydleria, DC. 

Trinia, Hoffm. 
Apinella, Neck. 
Spielmannia, Cuss. 
Helosciadium, Koch. 
Discopleura, DC. 
Leptocaulis, Nutt. 
Ptychotis, Koch. 
Falcaria, Riv. 
Drepanophyllum, K. 
Critamus, Bess. 
Prionitis, Delarb. 
Sison, Lag. 

Schultzia, Spreng. 
Ammi, Tourn. 
Ptilimnion, Raf. 
.^gopodium, L. 
Podagraria, Riv. 


Carum, Koch. 
Chamsesciadium, Mey. 
Bunium, Koch. 

Bulbocastanum, Lag. 
Cryptotaenia, DC. 
Oxypolis, Raf. 

Sium, Koch. 

Sisarum, Adans. 
Bupleurum, To urn. 
Diaphyllum, HofFm. 
Isophyllum, Hoffm. 
Odontites, Hoffm. 
Tenoria, Spreng. 
Trachypetalum, Rchb. 

et Schlecht. 
Orimaria, Raf. 

§ 5. Seseline^, DC. 
Lichtensteinia, Cham. 
Ottoa, H. B. K. 
CEnanthe, Lam. 
Phellandrium, L. 

Sclerosciadium, Koch. 
Dasyloma, DC. 
Cynosciadium, DC. 
iEthusa, L. 

Wepferia, Heist. § 
Foeniculum, Adans. 

Kundmannia, Scop. 
Brignolia, Bertol. 
Campderia, Lag. 
Deverra, DC. 
Soranthus, Ledeb. 
Eriocycla, Lindl. 
Seseli, L. 

Libanotis, Crantz. 
Cenolophium, Koch. 
Cnidium, Cusson. 
Hymenidium, Lindl. 
Thaspium, Nutt. 
Trochiscanthes, Koch. 
Trachydium, Lindl. 
Athamantha, Koch. 

Libanotis, Scop. 
Turbith, Tausch. 
Petrocarvi, Tausch. 
Malabaila, Tausch. 
Ligusticum, Koch. 
Spermolepis, Raf. 
Silaus, Besser. 
Wallrothia, Spreng. 
Meum, Tourn. 

Gaya, Gaud. 

Arpitium, Neck. 
Conioselinum, Fisch. 
Cz’ithmum, Tourn. 

6. Angelice^, DC. 
Levisticum, Koch. 

Selinum, Hoffm. 
Mylinum, Gaud. 
Thysselinum, Adans. 
Ostericum, Hoffm. 
Angelica, Hoffm. 
Archangelica, Hoffm 
§ 7. Peucadane^,DC 
Opoponax, Koch. 
Galbanum, Don. 
Ferula, Tourn. 
Ferulago, Koch. 
Eriosynaphe, DC. 
Palimbia, Bess. 
Peucedanum, Koch. 
Ormosolenia, Tausch. 
Imperatoria, L. 
Anethum, Tourn. 
Cortia, DC. 
Capnophyllum, Gsert 
Tiedemannia, DC. 
Archemora, DC. 
Symphyoloma, Meyr 
Pastinaca, Tourn. 
Malabaila, Hoffm. 
Leiotulus, Ehrenb, 
Astydamia, DC. 
Heracleum, L. 
Wendia, Hoffm. 
Spondyliunit Tourn. 

Zozimia, Hoffm. 
Polytaenia, DC. 
Johrenia, DC. 
Dorema, Don. 


. Hasselquistia, L. 

. Tordylium, Tourn. 
Condylocarpus, Hoff. 
? Tordyliopsis, DC. 

§ 9. SlLERINE^, DC. 
Krubera, Hoffm. 

Ulospermum, Link. 
Pachypleurum, Led. 
Stenocoelium, Led. 
Agasyllis, Hoffm. 
Siler, Scop. 

Bradleia, Neck. 

§ 10. CUMINE^, DC. 

Cuminum, C. Bauh. 

. Trepocarpus, Nutt. 

§ 11. Thapsie^e, DC. 
Thapsia, Tourn. 
Cymopterus, Rafin. 
Laserpitium, Tourn. 
Lophosciadium, DC. 
Melanoselinum, Hoff. 
§ 12. Daucine^, DC. 
Artedia, L. 

Orlaya, Hoffm. 
Platyspermum, Koch . 
Daucus, Tourn. 


§ 13. El^oseline^, 


Elaeoselinum, Koch. 

§ 14. Caucaline^, 


Caucalis, Hoffm. 

Turgenia, Hoffm. 

Torilis, Spreng. 



Scandix, Gaertn. 

Wylia, Hoffm. Ozodia, W. et A. 
Anthriscus, Hoffm. Tauschia, Schlecht. 
Physocaulis, Tausch. § 16. Smyrne.®, DC. 
Rhyncostylis, Tausch. Lagbecia, L. 

Cerefolium, Hall. Cuminoides, Tourn. 
Chaerophyllum, Hoff. Oliveria, Vent. 

Hermas, L. 

Conium, L. 
Aulacospermum, Led. 
Vicatia, DC. 
Arracacha, Bancr. 
Pleurospermum, Hof. 
Physospermum, V ela. 
xauav,ii. Enymonospermum,S. 

Cachrys, Tourn. Hymen olaena, DC. 

Hippomarathrum, L. Physospermum, Cuss. 
Prangos, Lindl. Danaa, All. 

Pteromarathum, Kh. Henselera, Lag. 
Colladonia, DC. Anosmia, Bernh. 

Perlebia, DC. Smyrnium, Lag. 

Lecokia, DC. Eulophus, Nutt. 

Magydaris, Koch. Scaligeria, DC. 

Eriocachrys, DC. 

Albumen rolled inwards at the edges, so as to form a longitudinal furrow. 

Pycnocycla, Lindl. Anisosciadium, DC. 

Caldasia, Lag. Echinophora, Tourn. 

Sphalerocarpus, Bess. Exoacantha, Labill. 
Molopospermum, Kh. Arctopus, Linn. 

Velaea, DC. Apradus, Adans. 

Myrrhis, Scop. Lophocachrys, DC. 

Osmorhiza, Rafin. Tr achy mar athrum, 

Uraspermum, Nutt. 

Spermatura, Reich. 



Sub-Order III. CCELOSPERM^, D. C. 

Albumen curved inwards from the base to the apex. 

§17. CoRiANDRE®, DC. Biforis, Spreng. Anidrum, Neck. Artema, DC. 

Bifora, Hoffm. Corion, Hoffm. Astoma, DC. Coriandrum, Hoffm. 

Adorium, Raf. 

Oreoxis, Raf. 


Order XII. ARALIACE^. The Aralia Tribe. 

Aralia Gen. 217. (1789). — AraliaceiE, A. Richard in Dictionnaire Classique 

d' Histoire Naturelle, 1, 506. (1822); DC. Prodr. 4. 251. (1830); Bartling Ord, 
Nat. 237. (1830). 

Essential Character — Calyx superior, entire or toothed. Petals definite, 5 to 10, 
deciduous, valvate in aestivation, occasionally absent. Stamens equal in number to the 
petals or twice as many, arising from within the border of the calyx, and from without an 
epigynous disk. Ovary inferior, with more cells than 2 ; ovules solitary, pendulous ; styles 
equal in number to the cells, sometimes connate ; stigmas simple. Fruit succulent or dry, 
consisting of several 1 -seeded cells. Seeds solitary, pendulous, adhering to the pericarp; 
albumen fleshy, having a minute embryo at the base, with its radicle pointing to the hilum. — 
Trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants, with, in all respects, the habit of Umbelliferae. 

Anomalies. Adoxa is apetalous, its petals being changed into an additional row of 

Affinities. Distinguished from Umbelliferae chiefly by their many- 
celled fruit and more shrubby habit ; to which De CandoUe adds their fleshy 
albumen with an embryo of nearly the same length. Very near Vitaceae, 
from which their inferior fruit, pendulous seeds and stamens alternate with the 
petals chiefly distinguish the plants of this order. Araliaceae are moreover 
connected with Caprifoliaceae through Hedera. 

Geography. China, India, North America, and the Tropics of the New 
World, are the chief abodes of the species of this small order. 

Properties. The Ginseng, which is the root of Panax quinquefohum, is 
much valued by the Chinese for its beneficial influence upon the nerves, and 
for other supposed properties. It is, however, discarded from European prac- 
tice. Ainslie, 1. 154. There appears to be no reasonable doubt that the 
Ginseng has really an invigorating and stimulant power when fresh. The 
virtues that are ascribed to it by the Chinese, although perhaps imaginary to 
a great extent, are nevertheless founded upon a knowledge of its good effects ; 
which, after the statements made by Father Jartoux, cannot reasonably be 
called in question. An aromatic gum resin is exuded by the bark of Aralia 
umbeUifera, and others. Aralia nudicaulis is used in North America as a sub- 
stitute for Sarsaparilla. The Ivy exudes a gum resin or pecuhar principle, 
called Hederine, and the leaves are irritating. fRoyle.J 


Adoxa, L. Gilibertia, P. 

Moschatellina, Tour. Gastonia, Comm. 

Panax, L. Polyscias, Forst. 

Cussonia, Thunb. Torricellia, DC. 

Maralia, Pet. Thou. Aralia, L. 

Sciodaphyllum, P. Br. Paratropia, Bl. 

Actinophyllum, R. Arthrophyllum, Blum, 
et P. Botryodendron, Endl. 

Hedera, Swartz. ^ 

Gynapteina, Blum. 

Alliance IV. GROSSALES. 

Essential Character. — Flowers never arranged in umbels. Calyx superior, epigynous 
disk, if present, not in several pieces. usually many seeded, with the seeds distinct 

from the pericarp. Stems solid. 

The three orders of which it is proposed to constitute this alliance are scat- 
tered through various parts of the system of De Candolle, and are associated 
with other orders, their supposed relationship to which it is difficult to compre- 
hend, as for example Grossulaceae near Cactaceae, Escalloniaceae by Saxifragaceae 


and Bruniacese near Hamamelacese. The reader is referred to the observations 
under each order for such arguments as I have to advance for associating them, 
and stationing them here. It is to be expected that much more light wiU be 
thrown upon this subject by the future discovery of other genera. 

Order. XIII. GROSSULACE^. The Currant Tribe. 

Grossularie^, DC. FI. Fr. 4. 406. (1804) ; Kunth Nov. G. et Sp. 6. 58. (1823) ; 
DC. Prodr. 3. 477. (1828) ; Spach in Ann. sc. ser. 2. tom. 4. p. 16. (1835). — 
Ribesi^, Ach. Rich. Bot. Med. 2. 487. (1823). — Grossulace/E, Mirb. Elem. 2. 897. 
(1815) ; Lindl. Synops. 106. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4- or 5-parted, regular, coloured. Petals 5, 
minute, inserted in the throat of the calyx. Stamens 5, inserted alternately with the petals, 
very short. Ovary 1 -celled, with 2 opposite parietal placentae; ovules numerous; style 
2-3-4- cleft. Rerry crowned with the remains of the flower, 1-celled; the cell filled with 
pulp. Seeds numerous, suspended among the pulp by long filiform cords ; testa exter- 
nally gelatinous, adhering firmly to the albumen, which is horny ; embryo minute, excen- 
trical, with the radicle next the hilum. — Shrubs, either unarmed or spiny. Leaves alternate, 
lobed, with a plaited vernation. Floivers in axillary racemes, with bracts at their base, 
rarely unisexual. 

Affinities. Notwithstanding the great dissimilarity in the appearance 
of these plants and Cactacese, the two orders were formerly confounded, and 
are still accounted by most wTiters conterminous, chiefly on account of their 
both having inferior pulpy fruit and parietal placentae, resemblances which are 
altogether those of analogy, and not of affinity. Von Martins, however, fCon- 
spectus, no. 222,^/ abandons this view, and stations them somewhere between 
Saxifragaceae and Onagraceae, associating the former with Francoaceae. I 
cannot but think, however, that considering the strongly marked habit of 
Grossulaceae, and notwithstanding the similarity betvreen the flowers of Ribes 
speciosum and Fuchsia, this order’s true affinities are of another nature, and 
are best indicated by the excess of albumen in the seeds. Berberaceae, for ex- 
ample, may be considered Grossulaceae with superior fruit and peculiar anthers, 
and Pittosporaceae with their succulent fi'uit, and aromatic leaves are again 
little more than Grossulaceae with superior fruit having a central placenta and 
with undivided leaves ; this latter character being diminished in importance by 
the fact of the lower leaves of SoUya heterophyUa being serrated, which is the 
first tendency to separation into lobes, and by the decided although irregular 
lacerations of the leaves of at least one species of Pittosporum (rhombifolium) . 
Bursaria, too, is spiny like Ribes. 

Geography. Natives of the mountains, hills, woods, and thickets, of the 
temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and America, but unknown in Africa, the 
tropics of either hemisphere, or the South Sea Islands. In North America 
they are particularly abundant, and on the mountains of Northern India they 
contribute to give a European character to that remarkable region. 

Properties. The properties of the Gooseberry and Currant are those of 
the generality of the order, except that in other species a mawkish or extremely 
acid taste is substituted for the refreshing- and agreeable flavour of the former. 
Some are emetic; one is said to be intoxicating (R. InebriansJ . The black 
Currant, which is tonic and stimulant, has fragrant glands upon its leaves and 
flowers ; these reservoirs are also found upon some other species. Malic acid 
exists in Currants and Gooseberries. Turner, 634. 



Ribes, L. Botrycarpum, Rich. Calobotrya, Spach. Rebis, Spach. 

Grossularia, Towyw. Chrysobotrya, Spach. Coreosma, Spach. 


EsCALLONiEiE, R. Brou'u in Franklin's Voyage, 766. (1824.) ; Aug. de St. H. FI. Bras. 3. 92. 

(1833). — Saxifragace^ § 1. Escdlonieae, DC. Prodr. 4. 2. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5-toothed. Corolla consisting of 5 petals, 
alternate with the segments of the calyx, from within which they arise, forming by their 
cohesion a tube, but finally separating from each other; aestivation imbricated. Stamens 
arising from the calyx, alternate with the petals ; anthers bursting longitudinally. Disk 
conical, epigynous, plaited, surrounding the base of the style. Ovary inferior, usually 
2-celled, with two large polyspermous placentae in the axis ; style simple ; stigma 2-lobed. 
Fruit capsular, 2-celled, surmounted by the persistent style and calyx, splitting by the sepa- 
ration of the cells at their base. Seeds very numerous and minute ; with a transparent 
membranous integument ; embryo mxxmtQ, in a mass of oily albumen, its radicle opposite the 
hilum. — Shrubs with alternate, toothed, resinously glandular, exstipulate leaves, and axil- 
lary conspicuous 

Anomalies. In Escallonia canescens the embryo is nearly as long as the albumen 
{Aug.De St. H.). 

Affinities. By De Candolle and others, these plants are either consider- 
ed a section of Saxifragaceee or are placed in the immediate vicinity of that order ; 
an opinion which is founded upon their inferior polyspennous fruit, composed 
of two cai*pels, their polypetalous flowers with a small number of stamens, and 
some similarity in their habit as compared with Cunoniaceee, which are also 
often referred to Saxifragaceie. By other writers they are contrasted with 
Ericaceae and Vaccinaceae, and I think for equally w’eighty reasons they might 
be placed near Melastomaceae, with which their inferior fruit, polypetalous 
flowers, and the remarkable cup-shaped epigynous disk of Escallonia in some 
degree assimilate them. Brown, however, long since demonstrated the neces- 
sity of considering them closely allied to Grossulaceae, from which, indeed, 
they are hardly known, except by their oily albumen, dry fruit with central 
placentae, and cohering petals. Of that order they must therefore of necessity 
foUow the station. From Bruniaceae they are known, firstly, by their broad 
leaves, lax inflorescence and larger flowers ; and secondly, by their many- seeded 
fruit ; but if we search for further points of difference, w^e shall hardly find 
them, for the epigynous disk of Escallonia does not appear to be universal in 
the order of that name, and the dicarpellary structure of the fruit, on ac- 
count chiefly of which, and the final divergence of the styles, Escalloniaceae are 
placed near or in Saxifragaceae, affords an equally strong reason for placing Bru- 
niaceae in the same place. In short, Bruniaceae appear to be a slightly deve- 
loped fonn of Escalloniaceae. 

Geography. All found in the temperate parts of the world, especially 
South America. In countries near the equator belonging to the west side of 
America, EscaUonias grow at the prodigious elevation of 6,600 to 14,760 feet, 
and there with Oaks and Drymis, they form a vegetable region fHumholdtJ. 
They are even found as far southward as the Straits of Magellan. (A. de St. 
H.J A few species of the order occur in the Isle of Bourbon, and the southern 
parts of Australia. 

Properties. Unknown. Handsome shrubs, with evergreen leaves, which 
have often a poweifful odour. 



Escallonia, Mutis. 

Stereoxylum, P. 
Quintinia, A. DC. 

Forgesia, Comm. 

Defforgia, Lam. 
Anopterus, La. Bill. 

Itea, L. 

Diconangia, Mitch. 
Cedrela, Lour. 

Pickeringia, Nutt. 

Order XV. BRUNIACEa®. 

Bruniace.®, R. Brown in Abel's China, (1818) ; DC. Prodr. 2. 43. (1825) ; Ad. Brong- 
niartin Ann. des Sc. Nat. (1826). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5 -cleft, imbricated, occasionally nearly infe- 
rior. Petals alternate with the segments of the calyx, arising from its throat, imbricated. 
Stamens alternate with the petals, arising from the same point, or from a disk surrounding 
the ovary ; anthers turned outwards, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Ovai-y half inferior, 
with from 1 to 3 cells, in each of which there is from 1 to 2 suspended collateral ovules ; 
sometimes 1 -celled from the abortion of carpels, or that of the dissepiments ; style simple or 
bifid; stigma simple. Fruit dicoccous or indehiscent, 2- or 1 -celled, crowned by the per- 
sistent calyx. Seeds solitary or in pairs, suspended, sometimes with a short aril ; albumen 
fleshy ; embryo minute at the base of the seed, with a conical radicle, and short fleshy coty- 
ledons. — Branched, heath-like shrubs. Leaves small, imbricated, rigid, entire, with a cal- 
lous point. Flowers small, capitate, or panicled, or even terminal, and solitary ; either 
naked, or with large involucrating bracts. 

Anomalies. Berzelia has a single carpel. Raspailia has the ovary superior. 

Affinities. These appear to be most immediate with the last order, which 
see. Moesslera (which is Tittmannia of Brong.) has an ovary which seems in 
a state of transition to Grossulaceae. According to Brown, the order is nearly 
aUied to Hamamelaceae, which are known by their habit, stipules, and deciduous 
valves of the anthers, and also by their valvate sepals and petals. Brongniart 
indicates an affinity with Myi'tacese through Imbricaria, which is very nearly 
constructed as true Bruniaceae, but has the stamens opposite the petals, and 
dotted leaves. He also considers that Comacese bear them much real affinity, 
and he even contrasts them with Umbelliferae, to which they no doubt approxi- 
mate very nearly. The genus Raspaiha is remarkable for having the stamens 
arising from the top of a superior ovary ! and Thamnea is perhaps a solitary 
instance of a 1 -celled ovary with the ovules adhering to a central columnar axis. 

Geography. All found at the Cape of Good Hope, with the exception of 
a single species inhabiting Madagascar. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Berzelia, Brongn. 
Brunia, L. 
Raspailia, Brongn. 
Staavia, Thunb. 

Levisanus, Schreb. Linconia, L. 
Astrocoma, Neck. Audouinia, Brongn. 
Berardia, Brongn. Pavinda, Thunb. 

Gravenhorstia, N. ab E. (4.) 

Moesslera, Rchb. 

Tittmannia, Brongn, 
Thamnea, Soland. 

Alliance V. BERBERALES. 

Essential Character. — Anthers bursting by recurved valves. 

This simple character is so remarkable that it seems in aU cases, as far as 
we at present know, to form of itself an important mark of distinction. It may 
however prove, as many another has already proved, less valuable than is sup- 


posed. In that case the alliance would possibly have to be combined with 
either Anonales or Ranunciilaceae. At present I know no more of its affinities 
than is stated under the order itself and Grossulacese. 

Order XVI. BERBERACE^. The Berberry Tribe. 

Berberide^, Fent. Tahl. 3. 83. (1799) ; DC. Syst. 2. 1. (1821) ; Prodr. 1. 105. (1824) ; 

Lindl. Synops. 14. (1829.) 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-4-6, deciduous, in a double row, surrounded exter- 
nally by petaloid scales. Petals hypogynous, either equal to the sepals in number, and 
opposite to them, or twice as many, sometimes with an appendage at the base in the inside. 
5 'famen 5 equal in number to the petals, and opposite to them; anthers generally with two 
separated cells, opening elastically with a valve from the bottom to the top. Ovary solitary, 

1 -celled ; rather lateral ; orbicular, berried or capsular. .Seetis attached 

to the bottom of the cell on one side, 1, 2, or 3 ; albumen between fleshy and corneous; 
embryo minute, occasionally as long as the axis of the albumen. — Shrubs or herbaceous 
perennial plants, for the most part smooth. Leaves alternate, compound, usually without 
I stipules. 

I Affinities. Botanists appear of one opinion in considering Menisperma- 

I cese the nearest order to this, agreeing in having the stamens opposite the pe- 
tals, the floral envelopes regularly imbricated, 3 or 4 in each row, never 5, the 
j fruit usually baccate, and fleshy albumen. These, however, differ in their ha- 

' bit, the separation of the sexes in distinct flowers, and the presence of several 

distinct carpels, while in Berberacese there is never more than one, which is 
perfectly simple, as is demonstrated by the position of the placentae, the single 
, style, &c. I am, however, of opinion that under all circumstances Menisper- 
maceae must go to Incompletae, and that consequently the supposed relationship 
i of Menispermaceae is more slight than is believed. {See that order hereafter.) 
j; The true affinity of Berberaceae appears to be on the one hand with Grossu- 
1 laceae, with which the genus Berberis agrees even in habit, and on the other 
j hand with Umbelliferae, through the section Nandineae. This latter differs ex- 
ceedingly in habit from the section Berberideae, and shows of how little real 
value external form is in determining affinities. In its pouched petals, and 
general appearance, the section Nandineae may be compared to Fumarieae. 

1 With Podophylleae the order is connected through Leontice and Diphylleia, 
which have a near relation to Jeffersonia and Podophyllum itself. In the sin- 
gular structure of their anthers there is a striking analogy with Lauraceae, 
Atherospermaceae, and Hamamelaceae, orders not otherwise akin to Berbera- 
ceae. Leontice thalictroides offers one of the few instances of seeds being ab- 
solutely naked, that is to say, not covered by any integument originating in the 
I pericarp. In this plant the ovary is ruptured in an early state by the expan- 
sion of the ovule, which, having been impregnated, continues to grow, and 
ultimately arrives at maturity, although deprived of its pericarpial cover- 
: ing. The spines of the common Berberry are a curious state of leaf, in 

which the parenchyma is displaced, and the ribs have become indurated. They, 
as well as all the simple leaves of the other species, are articulated with the pe- 
tiole, and are therefore compound leaves reduced to a single foliole ; whence 
the supposed genus Mahonia does not differ essentially from Berberis in foliage 
any more than in fructification. Berberaceae are related to Anonacese through 
the genus Bocagea ; their ovary is described as being sometimes strikingly 
like that ofDavilla in Dilleniaceae. {FI. Bras. 1. 47.) Aug. de St. Hilaire re- 
marks, that the opposition of the stamens to the petals, and the erect ovules. 


place them in alliance with Vitacese. FI. Bras. 1. 47. Some of the pinnated 
species of Berberis have stipules. 

Geography. Natives of mountainous places in the temperate parts of the 
northern hemisphere, and of South America as far as the Straits of Magellan ; 
none in Africa, Australasia, or the South Sea islands. DC. 

Properties. The berries of Berberis vulgaris and other species are acid 
and astringent, and form with sugar an agi'eeable refreshing preserve. Their 
acid is the oxalic. (Malic, Royle.) The stem and bark of the Berberry are 
excessively astringent, and are employed for that reason by dyers. DC. The 
root yields a yeUow dye. A. Rich. 


§ 1. Berberide.®. § 2. Nandine^e. Achlys, DC. Aceranthus, Morren. 

Berberis, L. Epimedium, L. Caulophyllum, Michx. Vancouveria, Morren. 

Mahonia, Nutt. Nandina, Thunb. Diphylleja, Michx. Bongardia, Meyer. 

Leontice, L. 


Essential Character. — Carpels all combined completely into a solid ovary, with a 
single style. Placentce central. Stamens never epigynous. 

This is undoubtedly the weakest part of the albuminous group, and will in 
all probability be entirely altered by the discovery of other plants. In the 
meanwhile, on the one hand, the affinity of Vitacese with UmbeUiferse is un- 
questioned and unquestionable ; and I think that few persons can be found to 
doubt that Sarraceniacese are in close affiance with Papaveracese, or Francoacese 
with Ranunculacese, or Pittosporacese with Dilleniaceee through Cheiranthera. 
With regard to the mutual relation of the natural orders grouped under this 
affiance, I must confess that, with the exception of Vitaceae and Pittosporacese, 
about which I entertain no doubt, the others are too little known by me, and 
probably too little investigated by others, to enable any one to form a correct 
opinion about them. But I no more perceive the resemblance of Olacacese to 
Sapotacese, Aquilariaceae, or Aurantiaceae, and of Francoaceae to Crassulaceae, 
or Saxifragaceae, than to those plants with which they are here associated ; and 
certain it is that Francoaceae are at least as near Ranunculaceae as any of the 
orders to which they have been before compared. 

Order XVII. VITACE^. The Vine Tribe. 

ViTEs, Juss. Gen. 267. (1789). — Sarmentace^, Vent. Tabl. 3. 167. (1799). — Vini- 
FER.®, Juss. Mem.. Mus. 3. 444. (1817). — Ampelide.®, Kunth in Humboldt, 
N. G. et Sp. 5. 223. (1821); DC. Prodr. 1. 627. (1824). — Leeace^, Bartling 
Ord. Nat. p. 354. (1830). Martius Conspectus, No. 148. (1835.) 

Essential Character. — Calyx small, nearly entire at the edge. Petals 4 or 5, 
inserted on the outside of a disk surrounding the ovary ; in aestivation turned inwards 
at the edge, in a valvate manner, and often inflected at the point. Stamens equal in num- 
ber to the petals, and opposite them, inserted upon the disk, sometimes sterile by abor- 
tion ; filaments distinct, or slightly cohering at the base ; anthers ovate, versatile. Ovary 
superior, 2-celled ; style 1, very short; simple ; erect, definite. Berry round, 

often by abortion 1 -celled, pulpy. Seeds 4 or 5, or fewer by abortion, bony, erect; albumen 


hard ; embryo erect, about one half the length of the albumen ; radicle taper ; cotyledons 
lanceolate, plano-convex. — Scrambling, climbing shrubs, with tumid separable joints. Leaves 
■with stipules at the base, the lower opposite, the upper alternate, simple or compound. 
Peduncles racemose, sometimes by abortion changing to tendrils often opposite the leaves. 
Flowers small green. 

Affinities. If Vitis is compared with Aralia racemosa, the close rela- 
tionship of this order to Umbellales will be too obvious to be mistaken. Sup- 
pose that Aralia racemosa had an inferior calyx, erect ovules, with stamens 
opposite the petals, and it would be a Vitis. A remarkable character in Umbel- 
liferae is their petals turned inwards at the points ; this occurs also in Ampelopsis 
quinquefolia ; in foliation there is no material difference between them, and 
even a trace of similarity between the sensible properties of Vitacese and 
Umbelliferae may be perceived in the acrid berries of some species of Cissus. 
The propriety of placing Leea along with Vitaceee has been questioned, and thet 
plant has either been referred absolutely to Meliaceae, or erected into a distinct 
order, as by von Martins. Adrien de Jussieu has, however, in his Dissertation 
upon Meliaceae, satisfactorily shewn (p. 33) that the genus ought not to be 
divided from Vitaceae. The tumid joints, which separate from each other by 
an articulation, along with the many other points of agreement in their fructi- 
fication, approximate the order to Geraniaceae ; the habit and inflorescence to 
Caprifoliaceae, through Hedera. The tendrils of the order are the branches of 
inflorescence, the flowers of which are abortive. A singular variety of Vitis 
vinifera, with capsular fruit and loculicidal dehiscence, is described in the 
Linncea, 5. 493. 

Geography. Inhabitants of woods in the milder and hotter parts of both 
hemispheres, especially in the East Indies. 

Properties. Acid leaves, and a fruit like that of the common grape, is 
the usual character of the order. The sap or tears of the vine are a popular 
remedy in France for chronic ophthalmia, but they are of little value. The 
leaves, on account of their astringency, are sometimes used in diarrhoea. But 
the dried fruit and wine are the really important products of the grape ; pro- 
ducts which are, however, yielded by no other of the order, if we except the 
Fox-grapes of North America, which scarcely deserve to be excepted. ITie 
acid of the grape is chiefly the tartaric ; malic acid, however, exists in them. 
The sugar contained in grapes differs slightly from common sugar in composi- 
tion, containing a smaller quantity of carbon. Turner, 682. The leaves of 
Cissus cordata and C. setosa are described as being acrid and useful in bring- 
ing indolent tumours to suppuration. The berries of the latter are also acrid, 
as indeed are those of some other species. Royle, 8^c. 


Cissus, L. Vitis, L. Leea, L. ? Geruma, Forsk. 

Soelanthus, Forsk. Pterisanthes, Bl. Aquilicia, L. 

Ampelopsis, Mich. Ottilis, Gsertn. 


PiTTOSPORE-ffi, R.Brown in Flinder’s Voyage, 2. 542. (1814) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 345. 
(1824) ; Ach. Rich, in Diet. Class 13. 643. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, deciduous, either distinct or partially cohering ; 
cBstivation imbricated. Petals 5, hypogynous, sometimes slightly cohering ; (estivation im- 
bricated. Stamens 5, hypogynous, distinct, alternate with the petals. Ovary single, dis- 
tinct, with the cells or the placentae 2 or 5 in number, and many-seeded ; style 1 ; stigmas 


equal in number to the placentae. Fruit capsular or berried, with many-seeded cells, which 
are sometimes incomplete. Seeds often covered with a glutinous or resinous pulp ; *emhryo 
minute, near the hilum, lying in fleshy albumen ; radicle rather long ; cotyledons very 
short. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, usually entire. Flowers 
terminal or axillary, sometimes polygamous. 

Affinities. Brown, in establishing this as an order, remarks that it is 
widely different from Rhamnacese or Celastracese, but without pointing out its 
real affinity ; De Candolle places it between Polygalacese and Frankeniaceae ; 
according to Achille Richard, the order is very near Rutaceae, to which he 
thinks it allied by a crowd of characters. The great mass of albumen in the 
seeds, the minute embryo, the general accordance of the flowers with the 
structure of Vitaceae, which is further established by the succulent fruit and 
climbing habit of Billardiera, seem to place Pittosporaceae here. As to Dille- 
niaceae, the decimate stamens and general habit of Cheiranthera form a transi- 
tion from Pittosporaceae to that order, at once of the most curious and the 
most satisfactory kind. 

Geography. Chiefly New Holland plants. A few are found in Africa 
and the adjacent islands, and one in Nipal. Brown remarks that Pittosporum 
itself has been found not only in New Holland, but also in New Zealand, 
Norfolk Island, the Society and Sandwich Islands, the Moluccas, China, Japan, 
and even Madeira. Flinders, 542. 

Properties. The wood of Senacia undulata is handsomely veined, whence 
it is called in the Mauritius Bois de joli coeur. DC. The berries of 
BiUardiera are eatable ; but they have a resinous odour, and a bitter subacrid 
taste. The bark of Pittosporum Tobira has a resinous smell. 


Billardiera, Sm. Sollya, Lindl. Bursaria, Cav. Senacia, Comm. 

Pittosporum, Banks. Cheiranthera, A. C. Itea, Andr. 


OLACINE.E, Mirb. Bull. Philom. n. 15.317. (1813); DC. Prodr. 1. 531. (1824) ; Bartl. Ord. 

Nat. p. 423. (1830.) 

Essential Character. — Calyx small, entire, or slightly toothed, finally becoming, in 
many cases, enlarged. Petals definite, hypogynous, valvate in aestivation, either altogether 
separate, or cohering in pairs by the intervention of stamens. Stamens definite, part fertile, 
part sterile; the former varying in number from 3 to 10, hypogynous, usually cohering 
with the petals, and alternate with them ; the latter opposite the petals, to which they in 
part adhere, their upper end resembling an appendage ; filaments compressed ; anthers in- 
nate, oblong, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Ovary superior, 1 -celled, with 3 ovules 
pendulous from the top of a central column or placenta. R. Br. Style filiform ; stigma 
simple. Fruit somewhat drupaceous, indehiscent, frequently surrounded by the enlarged 
calyx, 1-celled, 1-seeded. Seed pendulous; albumen large, fleshy; embryo small, in the 
base of albumen, its radicle near the hilum. — Trees or shrubs often spiny. Leaves simple, 
alternate, entire, without stipules; occasionally altogether wanting (rarely compound). 
Flowers small, axillary, often fragrant. 

Affinities. De Candolle places this order near Aurantiaceae, with which 
it agrees in many respects, differing, however, in the structure of the ovary, 
the want of a disk, the unsymmetrical flowers, &c. Jussieu, on the contrary 
regards its affinity as the strongest with Sapotaceae, considering the corolla 
as monopetalous. Brown considers the order nearly akin to Santalaceae. In 
reality its affinities are extremely uncertain. The probabihty is in favour of its 


being stationed near Autantiaceas ; but then its seed with a minute embryo in 
the base of fleshy albumen, indicates a totally different relationship. It is, 
however, to be remarked that Brown ascribes to Olax a cylindrical embryo in 
the axis of the albumen, but Roxburgh, and Wight, and Arnott, deny this, 
ascribing, however, that structure to their Ximenia? olacioides. 

Geography. A small order, consisting of tropical or nearly tropical 
shrubs, chiefly found in the East Indies, New Holland, and Africa. One only 
is known in the West Indies. None have been described from any part of 
South America, south of Dutch Guiana. 

Properties. The wood of Heisteria coccinea is the Partridge wood of the 
cabinet-makers. The drupes of Ximenia americana have a sweet aromatic taste, 
but a little rough to the palate. They are eaten in Senegal. The flowers are 
very sweet. The pulp of the fruit of Balanites segyptiaca when unripe is very 
purgative, acid, and extremely bitter ; but it becomes pleasant and eatable 
when ripe. FL Seneg. 1. 104. 


Heisteria, L. Pseudaleia, Pet. Thou. Platea, Bl. 

? Balanites, Del. Pseudaleioides, Pet.Th.Stemonurus, Bl. 

Ximenia, L. ? Opilia, Roxb. Gomphandra, Wall. (5) 

Heymassoli, Aubl. Grcutia, Guillem. 

Icacina, Adr. J. 


Galacine^, Don in Edinh. New Phil. Journ. Oct. 1828. Ed. Pr. No. 146 (1830). — 
FRANCOACEiE, de Juss. Ann. Sc. Nat. 25. 9. (1832); Lindl. in Bot. Reg. fol. 
1645. (1834); Key to Bot. 47. (1835.) 

Essential Character. — Calyx deeply four-cleft. Petals 4, inserted near the base of 
the calyx. Stamens subhypogynous, four times as numerous as the petals, alternately ru- 
dimentary. Ovary superior, with 4 cells opposite the petals ; ovules numerous ; stigma 
4-lobed sessile. Capsule membranous, 4-valved, with a loculicidal, or septicidal dehis- 
I cence. Seeds numerous, minute, with a minute embryo in the base of fleshy albumen. — 
j Stemless Herbaceous plants with lobed or pinnated leaves, without stipules. Stems scape- 
1 like with a racemose inflorescence. Petals persistent for a long time. 

Affinities. Near Saxifragacese according to Don, Rosacese in the opi- 
nion of De Candolle, Crassulacese according to Adrien de Jussieu and Hooker. 
It is true, that looking to the separation of the carpels of Francoa when ripe, 
and the abortive stamens a case in favour of the approximation of the order to 
Crassulacese may seem to be made out ; but then Tetilla does not separate its 
carpels, but divides them through the bark ; and moreover, there is no resem- 
blance either in habit or in proportionals of the flowers, or in the structure of 
the fruit, or in the organization of the seeds between that order and Fran- 
coacese. It will probably turn out that the real affinity of these plants is with 
Dionsea, which chiefly differs in its unilocular fruit, and the want of sterile 
stamens. Its seeds are absolutely the same in all essential respects, and I do 
not know that there would be any thing unnatural in actually associating that 
remarkable genus with this order. It is probable that Galax belongs in reality 
to Pyrolacese (Ad. de J.J, and consequently the order Galacineae is abolished, 
j Geography. Found in the temperate parts of South America. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Francoa, Cav. 

I Tetilla, DC. 

; Dimoiphopetolum , Bert, 


Olax, L. 

Roxburghia, Kon. 
Spermaxyrum, LaB. 
Fissilia, Commers. 



Sarracenie.e, Turpin in Diet, des Sc. c. ic. (?) ; De la Pylaie in Ann. Linn. Par. 6. 388. 
t. 13. (1827) ; Hooker FI. Boreal. Am. p. 33. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, often having a 3-leaved involucre on 
the outside; (Estivation imbricate. Petals b, hypogynous, unguiculate, concave. Stamens 
indefinite, hypogynous; anthers oblong, adnate, 2-celled, bursting internally and longi- 
tudinally. Ovary superior, 5 -celled, with polyspermous placentae in the axis ; style sin- 
gle ; stigma much dilated, peltate, with 5 angles. Capsule crowned by the persistent stigma, 
with 5 cells and 5 loculicidal valves. Seeds very numerous, minute, slightly warted, cover- 
ing 5 large placentae, which project from the axis into the cavity of the cells ; albumen 
abundant ; embryo cylindrical lying near the base of the seed, with the radicle turned to 
the hilum. — Herbaceous perennial plants, living in bogs. Roots fibrous. Leaves radical, 
with a hollow urn-shaped petiole, at the apex of which is articulated the lamina, which 
covers the petiole like a lid. Scapes each having one large fiower, of a more or less her- 
baceous colour. 

Affinities. These are not well made out. It is usual to refer Sarrace- 
nia to the vicinity of Papaveraceae, on account of its remarkably dilated stigma, 
which is compared to that of Papaver, its indefinite stamens and small embryo 
lying at the base of copious albumen ; and there can he no doubt that these 
points of resemblance are important. But I believe it is also akin to that or- 
der, whatever it may be, which shall finally comprehend Dionaea. With this 
genus no one has suspected the analogy of Sarracenia ; a circumstance which 
has arisen, I presume, chiefly from attention having been turned to the fructi- 
fication rather than the vegetation of those genera. If we compare the foliage 
of Dionaea with that of Saracenia, we shall find that the pitcher of the latter is 
represented by the dilated footstalk of the fonner, which only requires its mar- 
gins to cohere to be identical with it, and that the lid of the pitcher of the 
latter is analogous to the irritable lamina of the fonner. In both genera the 
stamens are hypogynous ; both have a single stigma, which in Sarracenia is 
petaloid, in Dionsea is merely fringed ; both have an embiyo lying at the base 
of copious albumen, and both have polyspemious placentae. In the internal 
arrangement of the fruit the two genera are dissimilar ; but the differences de- 
pend upon peculiar modifications of structure, which cannot be considered to 
affect affinities otherwise so strongly indicated. In the remarkable stmeture 
of the leaves this order agrees with Nepenthaceae and Cephalotaceae. 

Geography. The species are exclusively confined to the bogs of North 

Properties. Unknown. 


Sarracenia, L. 

Group II. 

Essential Character. — Ovary inferior, usually having an epigynous disk. Seeds not 
having a disproportionate quantity of albumen. 

That all the orders comprehended in this group are really connected by 
some common character, can hardly be doubted by any one. The third and 
fourth, and especially the fifth and sixth alliances, are imperfect, and will, no 
doubt, be more correctly limited when more forais that shall be referable to 
them have been discovered ; but in the mean while Cornales joins Mwtales by 
Rhizophoraceie and LoranthacetC, or Alangiacesc and Hamamelacese ; Cucurbi- 


tales Onagrales, and Myrtales by Loasacese, and Ficoidales by Cactaceae, while, 
as will be shown in the proper place, they also touch very closely upon Bego- 
niales by Cucurbitaceae. With regard to the external relations of this group, 
it seems to be connected with the Syncarpous group by way of Melastoma and 
Lythraceae ; with the Albuminous group, through Myrtales, on the one hand, 
which touch Eupomatia, and Cactaceae on the other which approximate to 
Grossulaceae. A more distant, but at the same time a striking affinity is to be 
traced between Epigynosae and Monopetalous Dicotyledons, if we compare 
certain Melastomaceae with Gentianaceae. 

The principal exceptions to the character of this group occur, firstly, in 
Legnotideae, of which very little is at present known, and, secondly, in Melas- 
tomaceae and Myrtaceae, some of which have their ovary nearly superior. The 
syncarpous fiffit with no tendency to separate into carpels, appears a certain 
mark by which the group may be known from such orders as Rosaceae or 
Saxifragaceae, in which the ovary is sometimes partly inferior. 

Alliance L ONAGRALES, 

Essential Character. — Mstivation not valvate. Placentce central. Every part of 
the flower some regular multiple of two. In most cases herbaceous plants. 

As this alliance contains but one order, observations upon it will be in a 
great measure confined to that order. It might perhaps be combined with the 
next alliance, but its general tendency to form its flowers upon a perfectly di- 
merous plan, seems to point it out as something more difibrent from Myrtales 
than the orders of Myrtales are from each other. It is to be remarked that 
when the number four (or twice two) appears in Myrtales, it is not uni- 
formly 'preserved through all the parts of the flower, but is departed from in 
the stamens, or the pistil, or in some organ or other. 

Order XXII. ONAGRACE^E, The Evening Primrose Tribe. 

ONAGRiE, Juss. Gen. 317. (1789). — Epilobiace/E, Vent. Tahl. 3. 307. (1799); Martins 
Conspectus, No. 230. (1835). — Onagrari^e, Juss. Ann. Mus. 3. 315. (1804) in part.; 
DC. Prodr. 3. 35. (1828); Lindl. Synops. 107. (1829) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 318. 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, tubular, with the limb 4-lobed ; the lobes 
cohering in various degrees, with a valvate aestivation. Petals generally equal in number 
to the lobes of the calyx, into the throat of which they are inserted, regular, with a twisted 
aestivation. Stamens four or eight inserted into the calyx ; filaments distinct ; pollen 
triangular, usually cohering by threads. Ovary of several cells, generally crowned by a 
disk ; style filiform ; stigma either capitate or 4-lobed. Fruit baccate or capsular, many- 
seeded, with 4 cells. Seeds numerous, without albumen ; embryo straight ; radicle long 
and taper ; cotyledons very short. — Herbaceous plants or shrubs. Leaves alternate or oppo- 
site, simple, entire or toothed. Flowers red, purple, white, blue, or yellow, axillary, or 

Anomalies. — Lopezia has but one stamen^ and is altogether an irregular genus. 

Affinities . The above character applies only to the genuine forms of Ona- 
gracese, which are certainly known from the plants that are otherwise near them, 
by the regular prevalence of the number 4 in the whole of the parts of fructi- 
fication. From Lythraceae they are separated by their inferior fruit, and from 
Myrtaceae, to which they approach through Fuchsia, by the absence of pellucid 


dots and their definite stamens. Philadelphacese are distinguished by their 
polyandrous flowers, &c. The obscure character of the radicle of the embryo 
of Onagracese being unusually long, has been relied on by some as a charac- 
teristic mark of the order. I formerly considered Hydrocaryes, Circaeese, 
and Haloragese, as so many distinct orders; but upon a careful review of aU 
the bearings of the question, I incline to believe that these little assemblages 
of genera, are mere forms or degenerations of Onagracese. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of the temperate parts of the wmrld, and es- 
pecially of America : a good many are found in India, and a large number in 
Europe. In Africa they are scarcer, being mostly confined to the Cape, and 
to a few Jussiseas inhabiting other parts of that continent. 

Properties. Few, or unknown. Oenothera biennis is cultivated for the 
sake of its eatable roots ; and the leaves of Jussisea permdana form an emollient 
poultice. DC. 


§ 1. Montinie^, DC. 
Montinia, L. 

Hauya, Mog. et Sess. 
§ 2. Fuchsie^, DC. 
Fuchsia, PI. 

Quelusia, Vandell. 
Dorvalia, Comm. 
Nahusia, Schneev. 

Skinnera, Forst. Chamsenerion, Tourn. 
§ 3. ONAGREiE, DC. Zauschneria, Presl. 
CEnothera, L. § 4. JussiEiE, DC. 

Heterostemon, Nutt. Jussiaea, L. 
Gayophytum, A. deJ. Prieurea, DC. 

Clarkia, Ph. Vanhallia, Schult. 

Gaura, L. Ceramium, Bl. 

Epilobium, L. Ludwigia, L. 

Isnardia, L. 
Dantia, Thouars. 
Lopezia, Cav. 
Pisaura, Bonat. 

Onosuris, Raf. 
Camisonia, Lk. 
Pleurostemon, Raf. 
Pleurandra, Raf. 

The following sub-orders are probably degenerations of Onagracese. 

Sub-Order. CIRC^EE^E. 

CiRC^ACEiE, Lindl. Synops. p, 109. (1829) ; Martins Conspectus, No. 229. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, deciduous, tubular, with a two-parted limb. 
Petals 2, alternate with the lobes of the calyx. Stamens 2, alternate with the petals, in- 
serted into the calyx. Disk large, cup-shaped, filling up the whole of the tube of the calyx, 
and projecting beyond it. Ovary 2-celled, with an erect ovule in each cell ; style simple, 
arising out of the disk ; stigma emarginate. Fruit 2-celled, 2 valved, 2 seeded. Seeds 
solitary, erect : albumen none ; embryo erect ; radicle short, inferior. — Herbaceous plants. 
Leaves opposite, toothed, stalked. Flowers in terminal and lateral racemes, covered with 
uncinate hairs. 

Affinities. These plants differ from true Onagracese in their large fleshy 
disk, which fills up the tube of the calyx, in the solitary erect ovules, and in 
the binary division of the flower. They may be considered as Onagracese de- 
prived of half their parts ; their relation to Lopezia is very close. 

Geography. Natives of the northern parts of the world, inhabiting 
groves and thickets. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Circaea, L. 


Hydrocaryes, Link Enum.Hort.Ber. 1. 141. (1821) ; Martins Conspectus, iVo. 231. (1835). 
— ONAGRARiiE, § Hydrocarycs, DC. Prodr. 3. 63. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4-parted. Petals 4, arising from the throat 
of the calyx. Stamens 4, alternate with the last. Ovary 2-celled ; ovules solitary, pendu- 


1 lous ; style filiform, thickened at the base ; stigma capitate. Fruit hard, indehiscent, 

j 1 -celled, 1-seeded, crowned by the indurated segments of the calyx. Seed solitary, large, 

j pendulous; albumen none; cotyledons 2, very unequal . — Floating plants, hovsier leaves 
. opposite, upper alternate ; those under water cut into capillary segments ; petioles tumid in 
the middle. Flowers small, axillary. 

I Affinities. From tnie Onagracese these plants are distinguished by their 

solitary pendulous ovules ; from Halorageae, by their very large seeds with un- 
j equal cotyledons, developed calyx, and want of albumen ; agreeing with them, 
especially with Myriophyllum, in habit. 

Geography. Found in the south of Europe, the East Indies, and 

Properties. The great seeds of Trapa are sweet and eatable. Those of 
T. bispinosa form an extensive article of cultivation in Cashmere and other 
parts of the East, where they are a common food, under the name of Sing- 
hara nuts. 


Trapa, L. 

I Tribuloides, Tourn. 

I Sub-Order. HALORAGE^. 

I Halorage^e, R. Brown in Flinders, 17. (1814) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 65. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 
j 110. (1829) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 314. (1830) ; Martius Conspectus, No. 228 (1835). — 

j HvGROBiEyE, Rich. Anal.Fr. (1808). — Hippuridea:, Link Enum. 1. 5. (1821) handb. 

I 1. 288. (1829). — Cercodian.®, Juss. Diet. Sc. Nat. (1817). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, with a minute limb. Petals minute, inserted 
into the summit of the calyx, or wanting. Stamens inserted in the same place, equal in 
number to the petals, or occasionally fewer. Ovary adhering inseparably to the calyx, with 
j 1 or more cells ; style none ; stigmas equal in number to the cells, papulose, or pencil- 
I formed; pendulous. Fruit dry, indehiscent, membranous, or bony, with 1 or more 

j cells. Seeds solitary, pendulous; albumen de%h.y -, embryo straight, in the axis ; radicle 
superior, long and taper ; cotyledons minute. — Herbaceous plants or under-shrubs, often 
growing in wet places. Leaves either alternate, opposite, or whorled. Flowers axillary, 
sessile, occcisionally monoecious or dioecious. 

Affinities. Placed by Link among Monocotyledons, but inseparable 
from Dicotyledons, and apparently a degeneration or imperfect form of Ona- 
gracese, from which the minute calyx and albuminous solitary pendulous seeds 
chiefly distinguish them. The presence or absence of albumen when it is only 
I deposited in small quantities, is a character of much less importance, than was 
once supposed ; and the pendulous ovules will hardly be allowed much value 
by themselves. Among other evidences of these being merely an imperfect 
i form of Onagracese, may be adduced the general reduction in size of all the 
! parts, and the occasional want of petals. Callitrichacese, although placed 

. among Halorageae, seems to be referred by the achlamydeous flowers to Im- 

perfectse. See order 142. 

Geography. Damp places, ditches, and slow streams, in Europe, North 
America, southern Africa, Japan, China, New Holland, and the South Sea Is- 
lands, are the resort of this order. 

Properties. Of no importance. 


Myriophyllum, L. Mejonectes, R. Br. Serpicula, L. Riesenbachia, Presl. 

Ptilophyllum, Nutt. Cercodia, Murr. Laurembergia, Berg.? Sponclylantha, Presl. 

Purshia, R?A\r\. Haloragis, Forst. Hippuris, L. Gongylocarpus, Schlec. 

Proserpinaca, L. Go/?ioc«/7Hi5,Thunb. Limnopeuce, Vaill. 

Trixis, Mitch. Gonatocarpus, W. 


Alliance II. MYKTALES. 

Essential Character. — Mstivation not valvate. Placenta! occupying the centre of 
the fruit. Parts of the flower not a regular multiple of any number throughout. In most 
cases shrubby plants or trees. 

This alliance is connected with the last through Myrtales, some of which 
approach the genus Fuchsia, and with Cucurbitales by way of Cactacese, which 
are in some respects succulent Myrtacese. The relation of Myrtales to Cornales 
is less obvious ; but at the same time it does not appear that the orders com- 
prehended under the latter alliance are nearer to any other polypetalous plants. 
The transition probably occurs between Alangiaceae and Hamamelacese. 

Order XXIII. COMBRETACEJE. The Myrobalan Tribe. 

CoMBRETACE/E, f?. Browu Prodr. 351 . (1810), incidentally without a character; in Flin- 
ders, 2. 548. (1814) ; A. Rich. Diet. Class. 4. 353. (1823) ; DC. Prod. 3. 9. (1828) ; 
Memoire (1828) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. p. 322. (1830) ; Martins Conspectus, No. 177. 
(1835). — Myrobolane^e, Juss.Dict. Sc. Nat. 31. 458. (1824.) 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, with a 4- or 5-lobed deciduous limb. Petals 
arising from the oriflee of the calyx, alternate with the lobes ; sometimes wanting. Stamens 
arising from the same part, twice as many as the segments of the calyx, very rarely equal 
to them in number, or 3 times as many ; filaments distinct, subulate ; anthers 2-celled, 
bursting longitudinally. Ovary 1 -celled, with from 2 to 4 ovules, hanging from the apex 
of the cavity ; style 1 ; stigma simple. Fruit drupaceous, baccate, or nut-like, 1 -celled, by 
abortion 1 -seeded, indehiscent, often winged. Seed pendulous, without albumen; embryo 
with the radicle turned towards the hilum ; plumule inconspicuous ; cotyledons leafy, 
usually convolute, occasionally plaited. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate or opposite, with- 
out stipules, entire. Spikes axillary or terminal. 

Anomalies. Often apetaJous. 

Affinities. “ These may be placed indifferently in the vicinity of 
Santalacese and Elseagnacese, or of Onagraceae and Myrtaceae, approaching the 
former by the apetalous genera, and the latter by those which have petals.” 
DC. To Myrtaceae and Melastomaceae they are related through Memecylaceae, 
and especially to the former, by Punica, with which they agree in the structure 
of their embryo. In the latter respect they also accord with Rhizophoraceae 
and Vochyaceae ; and with Alangiaceae and Onagraceae in the general structure 
of the flower. With Santalaceae and Elaeagnaceae the apetalous genera agree 
in many important particulars. On account of their convolute cotyledons and 
inferior fruit they have been supposed to approach Lauraceae through Gyro- 
carpus. The solitary carpel of which the fruit consists is peculiar to these 
and Alangiaceae, and neatly distinguishes those two orders from all others of 
the Myrtal alliance. 

Geography. All natives of the tropics of Asia, Africa, and America. No 
species is extra- tropical. 

Properties. Mostly astringents. Bucida Buceras yields a bark used for 
tanning. The bark of Conocarpus racemosa, one of the plants called Mangroves 
in Brazil, is used greatly at Rio Janeiro for tanning. Pr. Max. Trav. 206. The 
fruit of the Terminalia beUerica, or the BeUeric Myrobalan, is an astringent, 
tonic, and attenuant. Ainslie, 1 . 236. The bark of Terminalia alata is astringent 
and antifebrile. Ibid. 2. 193. The fruit of Terminalia Chebula, as well as the 
galls of the same plant, are very astringent, and highly valued by dyers : with 
alum they give a durable yellow, and with a ferruginous mud an excellent 


black. Ibid. 2. 128. The root of T. latifolia is given in Jamaica in diarrhoea. 
Ibid. Species of Terminalia and Pentaptera yield excellent timber. The 
kernels of T. Catappa, &c. are eaten as almonds, and are very palatable. A 
gum exudes from T. Bellerica and Combretum alternifolium. A milky juice is 
described as flowing from T. Benzoin, which being fragrant on drying, and 
resembling Benzoin, is used in churches in the Mauritius as a kind of incense. 
Royle, p. 210. 


Bucida, L. 

Buceras, P. Browne. 
Hudsonia, Robins. 
I’erminalia, L. 

Bahara, Hamilt. 
Catappa, Gsertn, 
Myrobalanus, Gaertn. 
Badamia, Gsertn. 
Pamea, Aubl. 

Tanibouca, Aubl. 
Fatrsea, Juss. 
Pentaptera, Roxb. 
Getonia, Roxb. 

Cahjcopteris, Lam, 
Chuncoa, Pav. 

Gimbernatia, R. et P. 
Ramatuella, H. B. K. 
Conocarpus, L. 
Rudbeckia, Adans. 
Andersonia, Roxb. 

Laguncularia, Gsertn. 
Sphenocarpus, Rich. 
Schousboea, Spreng. 
Guiera, Juss. 

Poivrea, Commers. 
Cristaria, Sonn. 
Gonocarpus, Hamilt. 


Combretum, Loefl. 
^tia, Adans. 

Chrysostachys, Pohl. 
Cacoucia, Aubl. 
Schousbcea, Willd. 
Hambergera, Scop. 
Hambergia, Neck. 
Lumnitzera, Willd. 
Quisqualis, L, 

Ceratostachys, Bl. 
Bobua, DC. 
Pyrrbanthus, Jack. 
Sphalanthus, Jack. 


Alangie.®, DC. Prodr. 3. 203. (1328) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. p. 424. (1830) j Martius Con- 
spectus, No. 219. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, campanulate, 5- 10-toothed, Petals 5-10, 
linear, reflexed. Stamens long, exserted, 2 or 4 times as numerous as the petals ; filaments 
distinct, villous at the base ; anthers adnate, linear, 2-celled, turned inwards, often empty. 
Disk fleshy at the base of the limb of the calyx. Drupe oval, somewhat crowned by the 
calyx, fleshy, slightly ribbed, and downy ; nucleus 1 -celled, bony, with a foramen at the apex. 
Seed 1, or according to Rheede3, inverted, ovate; albumen fleshy, brittle; embryo straight; 
radicle long, ascending ; cotyledons flat, foliaceous, cordate-ovate. — Large Trees. Branches 
often spiny. Leaves alternate, without stipules, entire, without dots. Flowers fascicled, 
axillary. Fruit eatable. 

Affinities. “ Differ from Myrtacese in their more numerous petals, 
adnate anthers, 1- celled fruit, and pendulous albuminous seeds. Agree with 
Combretacese in the contracted tube of the calyx, 1- celled fruit, and pendulous 
seeds ; but differ in the number of the petals, adnate anthers, albuminous 
seeds, and flat cotyledons. The order disagrees entirely with Melastomacese 
and Onagracese, in the form of the anthers, and 1- celled fruit. It in some 
measure approaches Haloragese in the structure of the seed, but recedes from 
them in habit, 1- celled fruit, and single style.” DC. Prodr. 3. 203. Its most 
immediate relationship, next to Combretacese, is with Cornacese, to which 
Marlea approximates, and with Hamamelacese, whose long narrow petals are 
strikingly similar to those of Alangiacese. 

Geography. Common in the southern parts of India, whence they 
extend along the Malayan Peninsula to Cochinchina, northward along the 
forest-clad base of the Himalaya. Royle. 

Properties. Alangium decapetalum and hexapetalum are said by the 
Malays to have a purgative hydragogic property. Their roots are aromatic. 
They are said to afford good wood and edible fruit. Royle. 


Alangium, Lam. Marlea, Roxb. 

Angolam, Adans. Stylidium, Lour. 


Order XXV. RHIZOPHORACE^, The Mangrove Tribe. 

Rhizophore^, R. Brown Gen. Rem. in Flinders, p. 17. (1814) ; in Congo, p. 18. (1818) ; 
DC. Prodr. 3. 31. (1828) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 320. (1830). — Paletuviers, Savigny 
in Lam. Diet, 4. 696. (1796.) 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, very rarely nearly inferior, with the lobes 
varying in number from 4 to 13, occasionally all cohering in a calyptra. Petals arising 
from the calyx, alternate with the lobes, and equal to them in number. Stamens arising 
from the same point as the petals, and tvdee or thrice their number ; filaments distinct ; 
anthers erect, innate. Ovary 2-celled, each cell containing 2 or more pendulous ovules. 
Fruit indehiscent, crowned by the calyx, 1 -celled, 1 -seeded. Seed pendulous, without al- 
bumen ; radicle long ; cotyledons 2, flat. — Coast trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, opposite, 
entire or toothed, with stipules between the petioles. Peduncles axillary. 

Anomalies. The leaves of Baraldeia have pellucid dots. 

Affinities. An order exceedingly remarkable for the seeds germinating 
while yet attached to the branch. From a consideration of the structure of 
Carallia and Legnotis, Brown has been led to conclude that we have a series 
of structures connecting Rhizophora, on the one hand, with certain genera of 
Lythraceie, particularly with' Antheiylium, though that genus wants the 
inteimiediate stipules ; and, on the other, with Cunoniacese, especially with the 
simple-leaved species of Ceratopetalum. Congo, 437. This order agrees with 
Cunoniacese in its opposite leaves and intermediate stipules, and with great 
part of them in the lestivation of its calyx, and in the stmeture and cohesion of 
ovary. R. Broivn, Flinders, 549. De Candolle points out its relation to 
Vochyaceae and Combretaceae, and even to Memecylaceae through the genus 
Olisbea. The genera were comprehended in Loranthaceae by Jussieu. Leg- 
notideae are probably a distinct order, of which httle is yet known. 

Geography. Natives of the shores of the tropics, where they root in the 
mud, and form a dense thicket down to the verge of the ocean. 

Properties. The bark is usually astringent; that of Rhizophora gym- 
norhiza is used in India for dyeing black. DC. The wood of several is 
described as being hard and durable. Royle. 


§ 1. Rhizophore^ 
Rhizophora, L. 
Bruguiera, Lam. 

Paletuviera, Thouar. ? Codia, Forst. Tita, Scop. 

Carallia, Roxb. Olisbea, DC. Legnotis, Sw. 

BrtrmWeia, Thouars. § 2. LEGNOTioEiE, Btg. RichcEia, Thouars. 
Baraultia, Steud. Cassipourea, Aubl. tVeihea, Spreng. 


MEMECYLEiE, DC. Prodi'. 3. 5. (1828) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat.'^. 327. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4- or 5-lobed, or 4-5-toothed. Petals 4-5, 
inserted into the calyx, and alternate with its lobes. Stamens 8-10; filaments distinct; 
anthers incurved, 2 celled. Ovary 2-4 celled, rarely 8-celled ; ovules solitary, pendulous. 
Style filiform ; stigma simple. Fruit either berried or drupaceous, crowned by the limb of 
the calyx, indehiscent ; occasionally (by abortion) only one-celled. Seeds pendulous, with- 
out albumen; cotyledons foliaceous, convolute; radicle straight. — Shrubs. Leaves oppo- 
site, simple, entire, without stipules or dots, almost always without more than one central 
rib. Flow'ers axillary, pedicellate. 

Affinities. A small order very near Myrtacese and Melastomacese, and 
in some respects almost intermediate between them. It agrees with the 
former in the single rib of tlie leaves, and with the latter in the want of dots 


and in the peculiar form of the anthers ; the cotyledons are those of Combre- 
tacese, to which the order approaches in many respects. The genus Mouriria 
has leaves with elevated dots, but on account of its conformity with this order 
in the structure of the anthers is admitted here. Brown considers it interme- 
diate between Myrtacese and Melastomacese.* 

Geography. All natives of the hottest parts of the East Indies and of the 
Mauritanian Islands, with the exception of the Mouririas, which are West 

Properties. The leaves of Memecylon edule form an ingredient in the 
dyes of Coromandel. The ripe berries, though somewhat astringent, are eaten 
by the natives. Royle. 


Memecylon, L. Mouriria, Juss. Petalorna, Sw. Guildingia, Hooker. 

Valikaha, Adans. Mouriri, Aubl. Scutula, Lour. Fenzlia, Endl. 



Melastom^, Juss. Gen. p.328. (1789); Diet. Sc. Nat. 29. 507. (1823). — Melastomace^, 
Don in Mem. TVern. Soc. 4. 281. (1823) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 99. (1828) ; Memoire 
(1828) ; Bartl. Ad. Nat. p. 328. (1830) ; Blume in Botanisch. Zeit. (I833). 

Essential Character. — Calyx divided into 4, 5, or 6 lobes, cohering more or less 
with the angles of the ovary, but distinct from the surface between the angles, and thus 
forming a number of cavities, within which the young anthers are curved downwards. 
Petals equal to the segments of the calyx ; arising from their base, or from the edge of a 
disk that lines the calyx ; twisted in aestivation. Stamens usually twice as many as the 
petals, sometimes equal to them in number ; in the former case, those which are opposite 
the segments of the calyx are alone fertile; filaments curved downwards in aestivation; 
anthers long, 2-celled, usually bursting by two pores at the apex, and elongated in various 
ways beyond the insertion of the filament; sometimes bursting longitudinally; before 
flowering, contained within the cases between the ovary and sides of the calyx. Ovary 
more or less coherent with the calyx, with several cells, and indefinite ovules ; style 1 ; 
stigma simple, cither capitate or minute ; a cup often present upon the apex of the ovary, 
surrounding the style. Pericarp either dry and distinct from the calyx, or succulent and 
combined with the calyx, with several cells ; if dehiscent, bursting through the valves, 
which therefore bear the septa in the middle; placentce attached to a central column. 
Seeds innumerable, minute, with a brittle testa and no albumen ; usually with appendages 
of some kind ; embryo straight, or curved, with equal or unequal cotyledons. — Trees, shrubs, 
or herbaceous plants. opposite, undivided, usually entire, without dots, with several 

ribs. Flowers terminal, usually thyrsoid. 

Anomalies. Traces of pellucid dots in Diplogenea. Ovary more or less superior in 
several. Leaves sometimes not ribbed in Sonerila. Spathandra'- has an ovary with only 
one cell, in which there are from 7 to 8 ovules adhering to a central placenta. 

Affinities. “ The family of Melastomacese,” remarks De CandoUe, in an 
excellent memoir upon the subject, “ although composed entirely of exotic 
plants, and established at a period when but few species were known, is so well 
characterised, that no one has ever thought of putting any part of it in any 
other group, or even introducing into it genera that do not rightly belong to 
it.” These distinct characters are, the opposite leaves, with several great 
veins or ribs running from the base to the apex, something as in Monocotyle- 
donous plants, and the long beaked anthers ; to which peculiarities combined 
there is nothing to be compared in other families. Permanent, however, 
as these characters undoubtedly are, yet the cause of no uncertainty having 
been yet found in fixing the limits of the order, is rather to be attributed to 

* The order is reduced to Melastomacese in Linnwa, 10. 217. 


the small number of species that have been examined, than to the want of con- 
necting links : thus Diplogenea has traces of the dots of Myrtaceae, which were 
not known to exist in Melastomacese until that genus was described ; several 
genera are now described with a superior ovary, a structure which was at one 
time supposed not to exist in the order ; and, finally, in the remarkable genus 
Sonerila, the leaves are sometimes not ribbed. 

The greatest affinity of Melastomacese is on the one hand with Lythraceae, 
on the other with Myrtaceae and their allies ; from the former they difier in 
the aestivation of their calyx not being valvate, from the latter in having the 
petals twisted before expansion and no dots on the leaves, and from both, and 
all others to which they can be compared, in their long anthers bent down pa- 
rallel to the filaments in the flower, and lying in niches between the calyx and 
ovary ; with the exception of Memecylaceae, in which, however, the union be- 
tween the calyx and ovary is complete, and which have leaves destitute of the 
lateral ribs that so strongly point out Melastomaceae. Tlie structure of the 
seeds of Memecylaceae is also difierent. 

Geography. Found neither in Europe nor in Africa north of the desert 
of Zahara, nor south of Brazil in South America, nor in extra- tropical Africa 
to the south. Beyond the tropics, 8 are found in the United States, a few in 
China and the northern provinces of India, and 3 in New Holland. Of the 
remainder, it appears that 78 are described from India or the Indian Archipe- 
lago, 12 from Africa and the adjacent islands, and 620 from America, accord- 
ing to De Candolle ; but this computation now requires some correction. 

Properties. A slight degree of astringency is the prevailing character of 
the order, which, although one of the most extensive known, is entirely desti- 
tute of any unwholesome species. The succulent fruit of many is eatable ; 
that of some dyes the mouth black, whence the name of Melastoma. Blakea 
triplinervia produces a yellow fruit, which is pleasant and eatable, in the woods 
of Guiana. Hamilt. Prodr. 42. 


Meriania, Sw. 
Axinsea, R. et P. 
Chastensea, DC. 
Lavoisiera, DC. 

Davy a, DC. 
Graffenrieda, DC. 
Jucunda, Cham. 
Centronia, Don. 
Truncaria, DC. 
Rhynchanthera, DC. 
Macairea, DC. 
Bucquetia, DC. 
Cambessedesia, DC. 
Chaetostoma, DC. 
Salpinga, Mart. 
Bertolania, Raddi. 

Triblemma, R. Br. 
Meisneria, R. Br. 

§ 2. Rhexie^, DC. 
Appendicularia, DC. 
Comolia, DC. 
Spennera, Mart. 
Microlicia, Don. 
Fritzschia, Cham. 
Ernestia, DC. 

Siphanthera, Pohl. 
Dicrananthera, Presl. 
Rhexia, L. 
Heteronoma, DC. 
Pachyloma, DC. 
Oxyspora, DC. 
Tricentrum, DC. 
Marcetia, DC. 
Trembleya, DC. 
Adelobotrys, DC. 

§ 3. Osbeckiea;, DC. 
Lasiandra, DC. 
Chaetogastra, DC. 
Svitramia, Cham. 
Arthrostemma, Pav. 
Pternandra, Jack. 
Osbeckia, L. 

Pyramia, Cham. 
Tibouchina, Aubl. 

Savastenia, Neck. 
Tristemma, Juss. 
Melastoma, Burm. 
Otanthera, Bl. 
Pleroma, Don. 
Lachnopodium, Bl. 

Diplostegium, Don. 
Aciotis, Don. 

§ 4. Miconie.®, DC. 
Rousseauxia, DC. 
Leandra, Raddi. 
Tschudya, DC. 
Clidemia, Don. 
Myriaspora, DC. 
Tococa, Aubl. 
Majeta, Aubl. 
Calophysa, DC. 
Medinilla, Gaudich. 
Pogonanthera, Bl. 
AUomorphia, Bl. 
Pachycentria, Bl. 
Triplectrum, Don. 
Huberia, DC. 
Behuria, Cham. 
Ochthocharis, Bl. 
Calycogonium, DC. 
Ossaea, DC. 

Sagrsea, DC. 
Tetrazygia, Rich. 
Dissochaeta, Bl. 
Aplectrum, Bl. 

Heterotrichum, DC. 
Conostegia, Don. 
Diplogenea, Lindl. 
Diplochita, DC. 
Chitonia, Don. 
Fothergilla, Aubl. 
Phyllopus, DC. 
Henriettea, DC. 
Marumia, Bl. 
Creochiton, Bl. 
Phyllagathis, Bl. 
Loreya, DC. 

Miconia, R. et P. 
Oxymeris, DC. 
Cremanium, Don. 
Blakea, L. 

Topobea, Aubl. 
Valdesia, R. et P. 

? Belinda, Neck. 

? Drepanandrum, N. 
Sonerila, Roxb. 
Sarcopyramis, Wall. 
Cyathanthera, Pohl. 
Noterophila, Mart. 



Kibessia, DC. Charianthus, Don. Astronia, Blume. 

Ewyckia, BI. Chsenopleura, Rich. Spathandra, Guillem. 

Order XXVIII. MYRTACE^E. The Myrtle Tribe. 

Myrti, Juss. Gen. 323. (1789). — Myrte.®, Juss. Diet. Sc. Nat. 34. 94. (1825). — Myr- 
TOiDEi®, Vent. Tab. (1799). — Myrtine^, DC. Thdorie, Elem. (1819). — Myr- 
TACEiE, R. Brown in Flinders, p.l4. (1814) ; DC. Diet. Class, v. 11. (1826) ; Prodr. 
3. 207. (1829). — Granate^, Don. in Ed. Phil. Journ. p. 134. (1826) ; DC. Prodr. 
3. 3. (1829) ; Von Martins H. Reg. Monac. (1829) ; Conspectus, No. 317. (1835), 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4-or 5-cleft, sometimes falling off like a 
cap, in consequence of the cohesion of the apex. Petals equal in number to the segments 
of the calyx, with a quincuncial aestivation ; rarely none. Stamens either twice as many as 
the petals, or indefinite, rarely equal to them in number ; filaments either all distinct, or 
connected in several parcels, curved inwards before flowering; anthers ovate, 2-celled, 
small, bursting lengthwise. Ovary inferior, 1- 2- 4- 5- or 6-celled; style simple; stigma 
simple. Fruit either dry or fleshy, dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds usually indefinite, 
variable in form ; embryo without albumen, straight or curved, with its cotyledons and radi- 
cle distinguishable or conferruminated into a solid mass. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves oppo- 
site or alternate, entire, with transparent dots, and usually with a vein running parallel 
with their margin. Inflorescence variable, usually axillary. Flowers red, white, occasion « 
ally yellow, never blue. 

Anomalies. Chamgelauciese have a 1 -celled fruit, with erect ovules. A species of 
Sonneratia is apetalous. Some dotted leaves are alternate. 

Affinities. One of the most natural among the tribes of plants, and the 
most easily recognised. Its opposite exstipulate dotted entire leaves with a 
marginal vein, are a certain indication of it, with the exception of a few species, 
some of which probably do not belong to the order, although at present placed 
in it. It is closely allied to Rosacese, Lythracese, Onagracese, Combretacese, 
and Melastomacese, but cannot well be confounded either with them or any 
other order. It offers a curious instance of the facility with which the calyx 
and corolla can take upon themselves the same functions and transformations. 
In Eucalyptus, as is well known, the sepals are consolidated into a cup-like lid, 
called the operculum. In Eudesmia, a nearly-related genus, the calyx remains 
in its normal state, while the petals are consolidated into an operculum. Pu- 
nica is usually referred to this order ; but the descriptions that have been 
published of it have been founded upon so imperfect a view of its structure, 
that I may be permitted to dwell upon it at some length, especially as I hope to 
shew that it not only does not differ from the order essentially, but that it does 
not require to be distinguished from true Myrtaceae even as a section. A con- 
sideration of the real structure of this plant comes the more properly within 
the scope of the present publication, because the genus has been considered 
the type -of a particular order (Granatetc) by Don, in which he is supported by 
the high authority of De CandoUe and Von Martins. The fruit of the Pome- 
granate is described by Gaertner and De Candolle as being divided into two 
unequal divisions by a horizontal diaphragm, the upper half of which consists 
of from 5 to 9 cells, and the lower of three ; the cells of both being separated 
by membranous dissepiments ; the placentse of the upper half proceeding from 
the back to the centre, and of the lower irregularly from their bottom ; and by 
Don as a fleshy receptacle formed by the tube of the calyx into a unilocular 
berry, filled with a spongy placenta, which is hollowed out into a number 


of irregular cells. In fact, if a Pomegranate is examined, it will be found to 
agree more or less perfectly 'with both these descriptions. But it is clear that 
a fruit as thus described is at variance with all the known laws upon which 
compound fruits are formed. Nothing, however, is more common than that 
the primitive construction of fruits is obscured by the additions, or suppres- 
sions, or alterations, which its parts undergo during their progress to maturity. 
Hence it is always desirable to obtain a clear idea of the structure of the ovary 
of aU fruits which do not obviously agree with the ordinary laws of carpologi- 
cal composition. Now, a section of the ovary of the Pomegranate in various 
directions, if made about the time of the expansion of the flowers before im- 
pregnation takes place, shews that it is in fact composed of two rows of carpels, 
of which three or four surround the axis, and are placed in the bottom of the 
tube of the calyx, and a number, varying from five to ten, suiTOund these, and 
adliere to the upper part of the tube of the calyx. The placentee of these car- 
pels contract an irregular kind of adhesion with the back and front of their 
cells, and thus give the position ultimately acquired by the seeds that anoma- 
lous appearance which it assumes in the ripe fruit. If this view of the struc- 
ture of the Pomegranate be correct, its peculiarity consists in this, that, in an 
order the carpels of which occupy but a single row around the axis, it possesses 
carpels in two rows, the one placed above the other, in consequence of the 
contraction of the tube of the calyx, from which they arise. Now, there are 
many instances of a similar anomaly among genera of the same order, and 
they exist even among species of the same genus. Examples of the latter are, 
Nicotiana multivalvis and Nolana paradoxa, and of the former Malope among 
Malvaceae ; polycaiq)ous Ranunculaceae as compared with Nigella, and poly- 
carpous Rosaceae as compared with Spiraea. In Prunus I have seen a mons- 
trous flower producing a number of carpels around the central one, and also, 
in consequence of the situation, upon the calyx above it ; and finally, in the 
Revue Encyclopedique (43. 762.), a permanent variety of the Apple is described, 
which is exactly to Pomeae what Punica is to Myrtaceae. This plant has re- 
gularly 14 styles and 14 cells, aiTanged in two horizontal parallel planes, namely, 
5 in the middle, and 9 on the outside, smaller and nearer the top ; a circum- 
stance which is evidently to be explained by the presence of an outer series of 
carpels, and not upon the extravagant h}q)othesis of TiUette de Clennont, who 
fancies that it is due to the cohesion of 3 flowers. The anomaly of the struc- 
ture of the fruit of Punica being thus explained, nothing remains to distinguish 
it from Myrtacese but its leaves without a marginal vein, its convolute cotyle- 
dons, and pulpy seeds. There are, however, distinct ti'aces of dots in the 
leaves, and the union of the vense arcuatae, which gives the appearance of a 
marginal vein to M}Ttacec)e, takes place, although less regularly, in Punica ; the 
convolute cotyledons of Punica are only in Myi'tacese what those of Chamaj- 
meles are in Pome^, a curious but unimportant exception to the general struc- 
ture ; and the solitary character of the pulpy coat of the seeds will hardly be 
deemed by itseh sufficient to characterise Granatese. The place of Punica in 
the order will be probably near Sonneratia. There is no instance of a blue 
flower in the order. The fruit varies from succulent to dry in different genera, 
and in some cases is nearly superior. Chameelauciese, which are remarkable 
for the structure of their ovary, are possibly a distinct order. They are, how- 
ever, very near Leptospermese. According to Auguste de St. Hilaire, a pas- 
sage is formed from Myrtacese to Onagracese through the genus Felicianea. 

Geography. Natives of hot countries both within and without the tro- 
pics ; great numbers are found in South America and the East Indies, not 
many in Africa, and a considerable proportion of the order in New Holland 
and the South Sea Islands ; but the genera of those countries are mostly pecu- 
liar to them. Myrtus communis, the most northern species of the order, is 
native of the south of Europe. 


Properties. Tlie pellucid dotting of the leaves and other parts indicates 
the presence of a fragrant aromatic or pungent volatile oil, which gives the 
principal quality to the produce of the order. To this are due the grateful per- 
fume of the Guava fruit, the powerful aroma of the flower-buds of Caryophyl- 
lus aromaticus, called by the English Cloves, and the balsamic odour of those 
eastern fruits, the Jamrosade and the Rose Apple. Along with this is fre- 
quently mixed an astringent principle, which sometimes predominates, to the 
suppression of any other property. The following are some of the less known 
instances of the existence of these and other qualities. The fruit of various 
Eugenias are found by travellers in the forests of Brazil to hear very agreeable 
fruit. Pr. Max. Tr'av. 75. A fruit of Brazil, called Jaboticaheiras, brought 
from the forests to the town of St. Paul and Tejuco, belongs to this order ; it 
is said to be delicious. PI. Usuelles, 29. The young flower-buds of Calyp- 
tranthus aromatica have the flavour and quality of Cloves, for which they might 
be advantageously substituted, according to Auguste de St. Hilaire, Ibid, no. 
14. The volatile oil of Cajeputi is distilled from the leaves of Melaleuca leu- 
cadendron and Cajeputi, and is well known as a powerful sudorific, and useful 
external application in chronic rheumatism. Ainslie, 1. 260. It is considered 
carminative, cephalic, and emmenagogue, and is, no doubt, a highly diffusible 
stimulant, antispasmodic, and diaphoretic. It has also the power of dissolving 
caoutchouc. Ibid. A kind of gum Kino is yielded by Eucalyptus resinifera, 
which is occasionally sold in the medicine bazars of India. Ibid. 1. 185. 
Other species of Eucalyptus yield a large quantity of tannin, which has been 
even extracted from the trees in New Holland, and sent to the English mar- 
ket. The efficacy of the bark of the root of the Pomegranate as a remedy for 
tape-worm is well established in India. Ibid. 2. 175. The leaves of Glaphy- 
ria nitida, called by the Malays The Tree of Long Life, (Kayo Umur PanjangJ, 
“ probably from its maintaining itself at elevations where the other denizens of 
the forest have ceased to exist,” afford at Bencoolen a substitute for tea ; 
and it is known to the natives by the name of the Tea Plant. Linn. Trans. 
14. 129. 


§ 1. CHAMiELAuciE^, Baudinia, Lesch. 

DC.* Lamarkia, Gaudich. 

Verticordia, DC. Melaleuca, L. 

Calythrix, La Bill. Cajaputi, Adans. 

Lhotskya, Schauer (6) Eudesmia, R. Br. 

Darwinia, Rudge. Eucalyptus, L’Her. 

Homoranthus, A. Angophora, Cav. 

Cunn. (7) Callistemon, R. Br. 

Pileanthus, La Bill. Metrosideros, Gaertn. 
Chamselaucium, Desf. Nani, Adans. 
Genetyllis, DC. Leptospermum, Forst. 
Actinodium, Schr. (8) Fabricia, Gaertn. 
§2.LEPTOSPERMEiE,DC. Basckea, L. 

Astartea, DC. Jungia, Gaertn. 

Lophostemon, Schott. Imbricaria, Sm. 
Tristania, R. Br. Mollia, Gmel. 

Beaufortia, R. Br. Bartlingia, Brongn. 

Calothamnus, La Bill. § 3. MYRTEiE, DC. 
Billottia, Coll. Sonneratia, L. 

Auhletia, Gsertn. 
Nelitris, Gaertn. 
Decaspermum, Forst. 
Campomanesia, R. et 


Psidium, L. 

Guajava, Tourn. 
Burchardia, Neck. 
Jossinia, Commers. 
Myrtus, L. 

Myrcia, DC. 
Calyptranthes, Sw. 
Chytraculia, P. Br. 
Chytralia, Adans. 
Syzygium, Gsertn. 

Opa, Lour. 
Caryophyllus, L. 
Acmena, DC. 
Eugenia, L. 

Plinia, L. 

Greggia, Gsertn. 
Olynthia, Lindl. 
Guapurium, Juss. 
Jambosa, Rumph. 
Rhodamnia, Jack. 
Marlieria, A. St. H. 
Felicianea, A. St. H. 
Tetrasternon, H. et A. 
§ 4. GranatejE, DC. 
Punica, L. 

Glaphyria, Jack. 

? Crossostylis, Forst. 
? Grias, L. 

? Petalotoma, DC. 

Diatoma, Lour. 
Myrrhinium, Schott. 

The following, comprehended as a section in Myrtacese by some, and se- 
parated as a distinct order by others, requires further examination. 

* For the list of the genera of Chamselauciese, I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
Schauer of Breslau, who is occupied upon a monograph of those remarkable plants. 


Sub-Order ? BARRINGTONIE.^:. 

Myrtace^ § Barringtonieee, DC. Prodr. 3. 288, (1828) ; Bart. Ord. Nat. 322. (1830). 
BARRiNGTONiEiE, DC. Dict. Class. Y. XL not. (1826); Martins Conspectus, No. 
319. (1835). 

Affinities. No characters have yet been assigned these plants, by which 
they may be known from Myrtacese, except then* alternate leaves, without se- 
mitransparent dots, and the presence of stipules. The latter pecidiarity, which 
has been assigned to them by Von Martins, does not exist in any one of the 
species I have examined ; so that the substantial distinction is reduced to that 
first mentioned. There is, however, something so peculiar in the appearance 
of these plants, that one can hardly doubt that some good characteristic mark 
will be one day added to those they already possess. 

Geography. The tropics of the old and new world are the exclusive ha- 
bitation of this order. 

Properties. The root of Stravadium racemosum has a shghtly bitter 
but not unpleasant taste. It is considered by the Hindoo Doctors valuable on 
account of its aperient, deobstnient, and coohng properties ; the bark is sup- 
posed to possess properties similar to those of Cinchona. Ainslie, 2. 65. 
The wood of Gustavia urceolata is called Bois puant, because its wood 
becomes, after exposure to the air, exceedinglv foetid. Poiteau, Mem. Mas. 
V. 13. 


Barringtonia, Forst. 
Butonica, Lam. 
Huttum, Adans. 
Commersona, Lour. 

Mitraria, Gmel. 
Stravadium, Juss. 
Meteorus, Lour. 
Menichea, Lour. 

Gusta\da, L. 

Pirigara, Aubl. 
Spallanzania, Neck. 
Catinga, Aubl. 

Coupoui, Aubl. 
Careya, Roxb. 
Fcetidia, Commers, 


Lecythide^, Richard, MSS. Poiteau Mem. Mus. 13. 141. (1825) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 290. 

(1828) ; a sect. o/Myrtacese. Ach. Richard in Ann. des Sc. 1. 321. (1824) ; Bartl. 

Ord. Nat. 332. (1830). — Lecythide^, Martins Conspec. No. 320. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 2- to 6-leaved, or urceolate, with a divided 
limb ; aestivation valvate or imbricated. Corolla consisting of 6 petals, sometimes cohering 
at the base, with an imbricated aestivation. Stamens indefinite,, epigynous, either con- 
nected into a single petaloid cucullate unilateral body, or monad elphous at the base. Ovary 
inferior, 2- to 6-celled ; ovules definite or indefinite attached to the axis ; stigma simple. 
Fruit a woody capsule, either opening with a lid or remaining closed. Seeds several, 
covered by a thick integument ; embryo without albumen, either undivided, or with two 
large plaited leafy or fleshy cotyledons, sometimes folded upon the radicle, which is next 
the hilum. — Large trees, with alternate entire or toothed leaves, with minute deciduous 
stipules, and without pellucid dots. Flowers large, showy, terminal, solitary, or racemose. 

Affinities. Combined by De Candolle and others wdth Myrtacese, from 
w’hich they differ most essentially in their alternate, often serrated, leaves, 
without pellucid dots. For an account of the geraiination of Lecytliis, see 
Du Petit Thouars, Ess. 3. 32. They agree with Bandngtonieae in many re- 
spects, but they have stipules, and their singular hooded stamens are most re- 
mai’kable. It is probable that we have in this place a tendency towards the 
foi-m of Temsti'omiaceae. 

Geography. Natives of the hottest parts of South America, especially of 


Properties. Tlie fruit of Couroiipita guianensis, called Ahricot sauvage 
in Cayenne, is vinous and pleasant. The most gigantic tree in the ancient 
forests of Brazil is that called the Sapucaya. It is the Lecythis ollaria, the 
seeds of which are large and eatable. Pr. Max. Trav. 83. The fleshy seeds 
of all the species of Lecythis are eatable^ but they leave a bitter unpleasant 
after-taste in the mouth. The bark of L. ollaria is easily separable, by beat- 
ing the liber, into a number of fine distinct layers, which divide so neatly from 
each other, that, when separated, they have the appearance of thin satiny pa- 
per. Poiteau says he has counted as many as 1 10 of these coatings. The 
Indians cut them in pieces, as wrappers for their cigars. The well-known 
Brazil nuts of the shops of London are the seeds of Bertholletia excelsa. The 
lacerated parts of the flowers of Couroupita guianensis become blue upon ex- 
posure to the air. Poiteau, 1. c. 


Lecythis, Loefl. Couroupita, Aubl. Couratari, Aubl. ? Touroulia, Aubl. fO) 

Eschweilera, Mart. Pontoppidana, Scop. Lecythopsis, Schrank. Robinsonia, Schreb. 
Bertholletia’ H. et B. Curupiki, Gmel. 

Order XXX. PHILADELPHACE.E. The Syringa Tribe. 

PhiladelphejE, Don in Jameson’s Journal, 133. {April 182C) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 205. 


Essential Character. — Calyx superior, with a persistent limb, having from 4 to 10 
divisions. Petals alternate with the segments of the calyx, and equal to them in number, 
with a convolute. imbricate aestivation. Stamens indefinite, arising in 1 or 2 rows from the 
orifice of the calyx. Styles either distinct, or consolidated into one ; stigmas several. 
Capsule half inferior, with from 4 to 10 cells, many-seeded. Seeds scobiform, subulate, 
smooth, heaped in the angles of the cells upon an angular placenta ; aril ? loose, mem- 
branous. Albumen fleshy ; embryo inverted, about as long as the albumen ; cotyledons 
oval, obtuse, flattish; radicle longer than the cotyledons, superior, straight, obtuse. — 
Shrubs. Leaves deciduous, opposite, toothed, without dots or stipules. Peduncles axillary 
or terminal, in trichotomous cymes. Flowers always white. Fruit sometimes a little scurfy. 

Affinities. The genera of this order were formerly referred to Myrta- 
ceae ; and I think there is a dissertation by the late President of the Linnean 
Society, in which he endeavoured to shew the difficulty of distinguishing Lep- 
tospermum even generically from Philadelphus, — so little did his school at that 
time know of the method of pursuing botanical inquiries. Afterwards Don 
stated that their affinity was not so much with Myrtacese as with Saxifraga- 
cese, in which I formerly concurred. A more careful consideration of the mat- 
ter has induced me to adhere to the old views of affinity, and to consider Phi- 
ladelphaceae an order very nearly allied to Myrtacese, De Candolle points out 
an approach to Hydrangea. In many respects Philadelphacese are like Colu- 
meUiaceae, but in that order the corolla seems truly monopetalous, and the 
stamens are quite of another kind. 

Geography. Deciduous shrubs, inhabiting thickets in Europe, North 
America, the north of India, and Japan. 

Properties. Flowers often fragrant. 


Philadelphus, L. Decumaria, I . 

Forsythia, Walt. Deutzia, Thunb. 


Somewhere here will probably have to be stationed Aristotelia, of which 
Von Martins has lately formed his 


Maquin^, Martins Conspectus, No. 256 (1835). 

The genus Aristotelia, commonly referred to Homaliaceae, or by Don to 
Elaeocarpacese, is placed by Von Martins near Pittosporacese, Celastracese, and 
Nitrariaceae. To me it seems more akin to Philadelpliaceae ; its definite seeds 
distinguish it from that order, as its imbricated petals do from Cornaceae. 
Possibly it stands in some such relation to Philadelphus as Eugenia to Lep- 


Aristotelia, L. 


Essential Character. — Mstivation of corolla valvate. 

' It does not seem to me possible to question the strict affinity of the three 
orders comprehended under this alliance, so close is their resemblance in all 
essential points. Independent of their mutual affinity they are related most 
ne'arly on the one hand with Alangiaceae through Hamamelaceae, and on the 
other with Cornaceae through Loranthaceae. 

Order XXXI. HAMAMELACE^. The Witch-Hazel Tribe. 

Hamamelide^e, R. Br. in AheVs Voyage to China, (1818) ; A. Richard Nouv, Eltm. 

532. (1828) ; DC. Prodr. 4. 267. (1830.) 

Essential*Character. — Calyx superior, in 4 pieces. Petals 4, linear, with a valvular 
aestivation. Stamens 8, of which 4 are alternate with the petals ; their anthers turned 
inwards, 2-celled, and 4 are sterile, and placed at the base of the petals ; the dehiscence of 
the anthers variable. Ovary 2-celled, inferior ; ovules solitary, pendulous or suspended ; 
styles 2. Fruit half inferior, capsular, usually opening with two septiferous valves. Seeds 
pendulous ; embryo in the midst of fleshy (horny) albumen ; radicle superior. — Shrubs. 
Leaves alternate, deciduous, toothed, with veins running from the midrib straight to the 
margin. Stipules deciduous. Flowers small, axillary, sometimes unisexual. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Saxifragacese by the deciduous valves of 
the anthers, definite seeds, and shrubby stem bearing alternate leaves and de- 
ciduous stipules. In the latter respect related to Cupulaceae, from which the 
petals and calyx divide them. According to Brown, their affinity is on the 
one hand with Bruniaceae, from which they are distinguished by the insertion 
and dehiscence of the anthers, the monospermous cells of the ovary, the dehi- 
scence of the capsule, the quadrifid calyx and habit ; and on the other with 
Comus, Marlea, and the neighbouring genera ; in some respects also with 
Araliaceae, but difiering in their capsular fruit, the structure of the anthers, 
and other marks, AheVs Voyage, Appendix. Du Petit Thouars looks upon 
them as allied to Rhamnacese, and Jussieu to Haloragese. Others consider 
them akin to Amentaceae and Euphorbiacese through Fothergilla. The fact 
seems to be, that, from the variety of opinion, none of these speculations are 
well founded. For my own part I do not see where they are to range if not 


in the Epigynous group near Alangiaceae, with which as will be seen by exa- 
mining their characters, they have so many points in common. 

Geography. Natives of North America and Japan, or the north of 
China. % 

Properties. Unknown. 


§ 1. Hamamele^, DC. Dicoryphe, Pet. Th. Parrotia, Meyer. § 2. Fothergillea:, 
Hamamelis, L. Trichocladus, Pers. Bucklandia, R. Br. DC. 

Trilopus; Mitch. Dahlia, Thunb. Fothergilla, L. 

Order XXXII. CORNACE.^. The Dogwood Tribe. 

CAPRiFOLiACEiE § Comeae, Kunth. Nov. G, Amer. 3. 430. — CoRNEiE, DC. Prod. 4. 271. 

(1830) ; Martins Conspectus, No. 217. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4, superior. Petals 4, oblong, broad at the base, 
inserted into the top of the calyx, regular, valvate in aestivation. Stamens 4 , inserted 
along with the petals and alternate with them ; anthers ovate-oblong, 2-celled. Style fili- 
form ; stigma simple. Drupe berried, crowned by the remains of a calyx, with a 2-celled 
nucleus. Seeds pendulous, solitary. Albumen fleshy ; radicle superior, shorter than the 
2 oblong cotyledons. — Trees or shrubs, seldom herbs. Leaves (except in one species) oppo- 
site, entire or toothed, with pinnate veins. Flowers capitate, umbellate, or corymbose, 
naked or with an involucre, occasionally by abortion dioecious. Flesh of the fruit eatable. 
DC. Prod. 4. 271. 

Affinities. These plants were formerly confounded with Caprifoliacese ; 
they are however beyond all doubt the representatives of an entirely distinct 
order, as their habit and general characters ought long since to have foretold. 
From CaprifoliacecE their polypetalous structure at once removes them. To 
Hamamelaceae they approach very nearly, but they differ in the valvate sestiva- 
tion of their corolla, &c. &c. In many respects Cornacese resemble Lorantha- 
cese from which they differ among other things in the stamens being alternate 
with the petals and not opposite to them. 

Geography. Found all over the temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and 

Properties. Comus mascula, and Benthamia yield a fruit which is eata- 
ble, but not worth eating. The bark of C. florida and sericea is said to rank 
among the best tonics of North America, nothing having been found in the 
United States that so effectually answers the purposes of Peruvian bark in in- 
termittent fevers. Barton, 1. 51. It is a remarkable fact that the young 
branches of Cornus florida stripped of their bark and rubbed with their ends 
against the teeth, render them extremely white. Ihid. From the bark of the 
fibrous roots the Indians extract a good scarlet colour. Ihid. 1. 120. 


Cornus, Tourn. Aucuba, Kaempf. Votomita, Aubl. Mastixia, Blum. 

Benthamia, Lindl. Eubasis, Salisb. Glossoma, Schreb. Polyosma, Blum. 

Guillemina, Neck. 


LoRANTHEiE, Juss. et Rich. Ann. Mus. 12. 292. (1808) ; DC. Prodr. 4. 277. (1830) ; 
M6moire (1830) ; Blume. FI. Jav. Viscoidea!:, Rich. Anal, du Fr. 33. (1818.) 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, with 2 bracts at the base. Corolla with 
3- 4- or 8 petals, more or less united at the base, with a valvate aestivation. Stamens equal 



in number to the petals, and opposite to them. Ovary Ucelled; ovule pendulous; style 1 
or none ; stigma simple. Fruit succulent, 1 -celled. Seed solitary, pendulous ; testa mem- 
branous ; embryo cylindrical, longer than the fleshy albumen, sometimes with no division of 
cotyledons; radicle naked, clavate, superior. — Parasitical half-shrubby plants. Leaves 
opposite, sometimes alternate, veinless, fleshy, without stipules. Flowers often monoecious, 
axillary or terminal, solitary, corymbose, or spiked. 

Affinities. In some respects near Caprifoliacese, from which they are 
readily known not only by their universally parasitical habit, but also by their 
stamens being opposite the lobes of the corolla, and not alternate with them. 
Viscum seems to bear about the same relation to Loranthus that Cornus does 
to CaprifoUaceae. Don has expressed an opinion that a connexion is estabhshed 
between this order and Araliacese, by means of Aucuba f Jamesons Journal, Jan. 
1830, p. 168), which belongs to Comaceae ; but this does not .seem clearly 
made out. Brown f Flinders, 549) suggests their relation to Proteaceae. The 
anther of Viscum is remarkable for having its substance broken up into a num- 
ber of hoUow cavities containing pollen, and not divided regularly into 2 lobes, 
each of which has a cavity containing pollen, and a longitudinal line of 
dehiscence. A good figure of this will be found in the Ann. du Musmm, vol. 12. 
t. 27. fig. E. The germination of Viscum is exceedingly remarkable. It has 
afibrded a subject for some curious experiments upon the nature of the vital 
energies of vegetables. See Dutrochet sur la Motilite, 114. Upon the whole, 
the structure of Loranthaceae seems rather that of a polypetalous than of a 
monopetalous order. Many details and excellent observations will be found in 
Blume’s Flora Javae. All the species are, without exception, parasitical, except 
Nuytsia, which, like other plants, grows attached to the soil. The adhesion of 
the petals into a monopetalous corolla is a remarkable exception to the general 
character of Polypetalae. 

Geography. Judging from the collections of systematic botanists, it 
would appear that the tropics of America contain a greater number of species 
than all the rest of the world ; but we now know, from the extensive researches 
of WaUich and Blume, that the Flora of India contains at least as large a pro- 
portion : the order would, therefore, seem to be equally dispersed through the 
equinoctial regions of both Asia and America ; but on the continent of Africa 
to be much more rare, only 2 having been yet described from equinoctial 
Africa, and 5 or 6 from the Cape of Good Hope. Two are named from the 
South Seas, and 1 from New Holland ; but this number requires, no doubt, to 
be largely increased. 

Properties. The bark is usually astringent, as in the Mistletoe of the 
Oak. The berries contain a viscid matter like birdlime, which is insoluble in 
water and alcohol. The most remarkable quality that Loranthaceae possess, howe- 
ver, is the power of rooting in the wood of other plants, at whose expense they 
live. The habits of the common Mistletoe give an idea of those of all, except 
that in the genus Loranthus the corolla is tubular and usually richly coloured 
with scarlet. 


Viscum, Tourn. Loranthus, L. Loxanthera, Bl. Tupeia, Blume. 

Arceuthobium, Bieb. Lepostegeris, Bl. Gaiadendron, G. Don. 

i2rtzoMwoMJ5^za,HofF. Elytranthe, Bl. Nuytsia, R. Br. Schoepfia, Schreb. 

Misodendrum, Banks. Notanthera, G. Don. Spirostylis, Presl. Codonium, Vahl. 

Hcenkea, R. et P. 


Essential Character. — Placentw parietal. Flowers neither with a valvate aestivation 
of the corolla nor with any other character which appertains to the preceding alliances. 


Order XXXIV. CUCURBlTACEiE. The Gourd Tribe. 

CucuRBiTACE^ Juss. Gm. 393. (1789) ; Aug. St. HU. in Mem. Mus. 9. 190-221. (1823) ; 
DC. Prodr. 3. 297. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 319. (1829). — Nandhirobe^, Aug. de 
St. HU. 1. c. (1823) ; Turpin Diet, des Sc. Atlas. (?) 

Essential Character. — Flowers usually unisexual, sometimes hermaphrodite. Calyx 
5-toothed, sometimes obsolete. Corolla 5-parted, scarcely distinguishable from the calyx, 
very cellular, with strongly marked reticulated veins, sometimes fringed. Stamens 5, 
either distinct, or cohering in 3 parcels ; anthers 2-celled, very long and sinuous. Ovary 
inferior, 1 -celled, with 3 pariet^ placentae; style short; stigmas very thick, velvety or 
fringed. Fruit fleshy, more or less succulent, crowned by the scar of the calyx, 1 -celled, 
with 3 parietal placentae. Seeds flat, ovate, enveloped in an aril, which is either juicy, or 
dry and membranous ; testa coriaceous, often thick at the margin ; embryo flat, with no 
albumen; foliaceous, veined ; radicle next the hilum. — iJoofs annual or perennial, 

fibrous or tuberous. Stem succulent, climbing by means of tendrils formed by abortive 
leaves (stipules, St. HU.) . Leaves palmated, or with palmate ribs, very succulent, covered 
with numerous asperities. Flowers white, red or yellow. 

Anomalies. The ripe fruit is divided into 3 or 4 cells in some Momordicas, and is 
occasionally dry, opening by valves at the apex. 

Affinities. Placed by Auguste de St. Hilaire and De Candolle between 
Myrtacese, to which they appear to have little affinity, and Passifloracese, to 
wffich they are so closely allied, that they scarcely differ, except in their sinuous 
stamens, unisexual flowers, and exalbuminous seeds, the habit of both being 
exactly the same. By the former of these two writers a very particular 
account of the structure of the order has been given in the Memoires du Museum. 
He adopts the opinion of Jussieu, that the apparent corolla of these plants is 
really a calyx, considering the apparent calyx to be merely certain external 
appendages. In discussing the affinities of the order, which he does much at 
length, he remarks, that Carica (now the type of the order Papayacese) should 
be excluded ; that the tendrils of Cucurbitaceae are transformed stipules, but 
scarcely analogous to the stipules of Passifloraceae ; that there is an affinity 
between the order and Campanulaceae, manifested in the perigynous insertion 
of the stamens, the inferior ovary, the single style with several stigmas, the 
quinary division of the flower connected with the ternary division of the fruit, 
and, finally, some analogy in the nature of the floral envelopes. He, however, 
chiefly insists upon their affinity with Onagi'aceae, with which, including Com- 
bretaceae, they agree in their definite perigynous stamens, single style, exal- 
buminous seeds, fleshy fruit, and occasionally in the unisexual flowers and 
climbing stem, being connected in the latter point of view with Onagraceae 
through Gronovia, a climbing genus then referred to that order. He also 
points out the further connexion that exists between Cucurbitaceae and Ona- 
graceae through Loasaceae, which, with an undoubted affinity to the latter, 
have the habit of the former, especially in the genus Gronovia which has just 
been named. With regard to the supposed affinity of Cucurbitaceae to Myrtaceae, 
this is founded upon the characters of a small group, called Nandhirobe^, 
consisting of plants having the habit of Cucurbitaceae, but some resemblance in 
the form of the fruit to that of Lecythidaceae, which border closely upon Myrta- 
ceae : but beyond this resemblance in the fruit, which appears to be altogether 
a structure of analogy rather than of affinity, I find little to confirm the 

Geography. Natives of hot countries in both hemispheres, chiefly within 
the tropics ; a few are found to the north in Europe and North America, and 
several are natives of the Cape of Good Hope. India appears to be their 
favourite station. 

Properties.' One of the most useful orders in the vegetable kingdom, 



comprehending the Melon, the Cucumber, the Choco, and the various spe(‘ies 
of Gourd, all useful as the food of man. A bitter laxative quality perhaps per- 
vades all these, which, in the Colocynth gourd, is so concentrated as to become 
an active purgative principle. The Colocynth of the shops is prepared from 
the pulp of Cucumis Colocynthis : it is of so drastic and irritating a nature as 
to be be classed by Oi-fila among his poisons ; but, according to Thunberg, this 
gourd is rendered perfectly mild at the Cape of Good Hope, by being properly 
pickled. Ainslie, 1. 85. The bitter resinous matter in which the active prin- 
ciples of Colocynth are supposed to exist, is called by chemists Colocynthin. 
A waxy substance is secreted by the surface of the fruit of Benincasa cerifera. 
It is produced in the most abundance at the time of its ripening. Delile 
Descript. The leaf of Feuillea cordifolia is asserted by Drapiez to be a 
powerful antidote against vegetable poisons. Ed. P. J. 4. 221. The fruit of 
Trichosanthes palmata, pounded small and intimately blended with warm 
cocoa-nut oil, is considered a valuable application in India for cleaning and 
healing the offensive sores which sometimes form inside of the ears. It 
is also supposed to be a useful remedy, poured up the nostrils, in cases of 
ozsena. Ainslie, 2. 85. The root of Bryonia possesses powerful purgative 
properties, but is said to be capable of becoming wholesome food if properly 
cooked. The perennial roots of all the order appear to contain similar bitter 
drastic virtues, especially that of the Momordica Elaterium, or Spirting Cucum- 
ber. An extremely active poisonous principle, called Elatine, has also been 
found in the placenta of this plant. It exists in such extremely small quantity, 
that Dr. Clutterbuck only obtained 6 grains from 40 fruit. Ed. P. J. 3. 307. 
An ingenious explanation of the cause of the singular ejection of the seeds of 
this plant wiU be found in Dutrochet’s Nouvelles Recherches sur V Exosmose. 
The root of Bryonia rostrata is prescribed in India internally, in electuary, in 
cases of piles. It is also used as a demulcent, in the form of powder. That 
of Bryonia cordifolia is considered cooling, and to possess virtues in complaints 
requiring expectorants. Ainslie, 2. 21. The root of Bryonia epigaea was 
once supposed to be the famous Calombo root, to which it approaches very 
nearly (?) in quality. The tender shoots and leaves of Bryonia scabra are aperient, 
having been previously roasted. Ihid. 2. 212. The seeds of all the species 
are sweet and oily, and capable of forming very readily an emulsion ; those of 
Joliffia africana, an African plant, are as large as chestnuts, and said to be as 
excellent as almonds, having a very agreeable flavour; when pressed they 
yield an abundance of oil, equal to that of the finest Olives. De Candolle 
remarks, that the seeds of this family never participate in the property of the 
pulp that surrounds them. That this is occasionally extremely dangerous 
is proved by a case of a sailor who brought home with him a bottle gourd, 
into which he poured a quantity of beer, of which those who drunk died. 
Excellent remarks upon the order are to be found in Royle’s Illustrations, 

p. 218 . 


Lagenaria, Ser. 
Cucumis, L. 

Rigocarpus, Neck. 
Luffa, Cav. 

Zehneria, Endl. 
Benincasa, Savi. 
Erythropalum, Bl. 
Turia, Forsk. 

Bryonia, L. 

Solena, Lour. 
Cucumeroides, Gaert 

Sicyos, L. 

Sicydium, Schlecht. 
Elaterium, L. 
Momordica, L. 
Amordica, Neck. 
Poppy a. Neck. 
Ecbalium, Rich. 
Neurosperma, Rafin. 
Sechium, P. Br. 
Melothria, L. 

. Colocynthis Schrad. 

Trichosanthes, L. 

Ceratosanthes, Juss. 
Joliffia, Bojer. 

Telfairia, Hook. 
Coccinia, W. et A. 
Cucurbita, L. 

Citrullus, Neck. 
Involucraria, Ser. 
Muricia, T our. 
Anguria, L. 

Psiguria, Neck. 

Feuillea, L. 

Nhandiroba, Plum. 
Zanonia, L. 

Alsomitra, Blume. 
Kolbea, Pal. Beauv. 
Zucca, Commers. 
Allasia, Lour. 
Thladiantha, Bge. 
Hepetospermum, Wall. 
Schizocarpum, Schrad. 
Cyclanthera, Schrad. 



LoasejE, Juss. Ann. Mus. 5. 18. (1804) ; Diet. Sc. Nat. 27. 93. (1823) ; Kunth. in Nov. 

Gen. et Sp. 6. 115. (1823) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 339. (1828.) 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior or inferior, 5-parted, persistent, spreading 
in aestivation. Petals 5 or 10, arising from within the recesses of the calyx, cucullate, with 
an indexed valvate aestivation ; the interior often, when present, much smaller than the 
outer, and truncate at the apex. Stamens indefinite, in several rows, arising from within 
the petals, either distinct or adhering in bundles before each petal, within the cavity of 
which they lie in aestivation; filaments subulate, unequal, the outer ones frequently desti- 
tute of anthers. Ovary inferior, or nearly superior, 1 -celled, with several parietal placentae, 
or with 1 free central lobed one; style single; stigma 1, or several. Fruit capsular or 
succulent, inferior or superior, 1 -celled, with parietal placentae originating at the sutures. 
Seeds numerous, without aril ; embryo lying in the axis of fieshy albumen, with the radicle 
pointing to the hilum, and fiat small cotyledons. — Herbaceous plants, hispid, with pungent 
hairs secreting an acrid juice. Leaves opposite or alternate, without stipules, usually more 
or less divided. Peduncles dJLiWoxY, 1-fiowered. 

Anomalies. Ovary sometimes almost superior. Seeds definite in Mentzelia and 

Affinities. Distinguished from Onagraceae by their unilocular ovaries 
and indefinite stamens, part of which are sterile ; and perhaps by the latter 
character, and the additional 5 petals, connected with Passifloracese, with which 
they also sometimes accord in habit. Their rigid stinging hairs, climbing 
habit, and lobed leaves, resemble those of some Urticaceae, with which, how- 
ever, they have nothing more of importance in common. On the same account 
they may be compared with Cucurbitaceae, with which they further agree in 
their inferior unilocular fruit, with parietal placentae, and in the very generally 
yellow colour of their flowers. This, indeed, is the order with which, upon 
the whole, Loasaceae must be considered to have the closest affinity. 

Geography. All American, and chiefly from the more temperate regions, 
or the tropics, of either hemisphere. 

Properties. Except the stinging property which resides in the hairs of 
some species, nothing is known of the qualities of these plants. 


Klaprothia, H. B. K. Acrolasia, Presl. Caiophora, Presl. Gronovia, L. 

Mentzelia, L. Loasa, Adans. Blumenbachia, Schrad. Grammatocarpus, Prsl. 

Petalanthera, Nutt. Ortiga, Feuill. Bartonia, Sims. Scyphanthus, Sweet. 

Order XXXVI. CACTACE^. The Indian-Fig Tribe. 

Cacti, Jmss. Gen. 310. (1789) in part. — Cactoide^, Vent. Tabl. 3. 289. (1799). — Opun- 
TIACE.E, Juss. Diet. Sc. 144. (1825) in part . ; Kunth. Nov. G. et Sp. 6. 65. (1823). 
— Nopaleac, DC. Theorie Eltm. 216. (1819).— Cacte^, DC. Prodr. 3. 457. (1828) ; 
Revue des Caciees (1829). Mem. Mus. (1829). Link and Otto in Verhand. des ver. 
Gart. Preuss. vol. in. p. 412 (1827) . Martius in act. Acad. Nat. Cur. XVI. (1832). — 
Sp^talume^, Nuttall Act. Philadelph. 7. 23. 

Essential Character. — Sepals numerous, usually indefinite, and confounded with 
the petals, either crowning the ovary, or covering its whole surface. Petals numerous, 
usually indefinite, arising from the orifice of the calyx, sometimes irregular. Stamens 
indefinite, more or less cohering with the petals and sepals ; filaments long, filiform ; anthers 
ovate, versatile. Ovary fieshy, inferior, 1 -celled, with numerous ovules arranged upon 
parietal placentae, equal in number to the lobes of the stigma; style filiform ; stigmas nu- 
merous, collected in a cluster. Fruit succulent, 1 -celled, many-seeded, either smooth, or 
covered with scales, scars, or tubercles. parietal, or, having lost their adhesion, nest- 

ling in pulp, ovate or obovate, without albumen ; embryo either straight, curved, or spiral, 
with a short thick radicle ; cotyledons fiat, thick, foliaceous, sometimes almost obsolete) in 


the leafless species). — Succulent shrubs, very variable in form. Stems usually angular, or 
two-edged, or foliaceous. Leaves almost always wanting ; when present, fleshy, smooth, 
and entire ; or spine-like. Flowers either showy or minute, usually lasting only one day or 
night, always sessile. 

Anomalies. — The calyx and corolla are distinguishable in Rhipsalis, which is also said 
to have its seeds attached to a central placenta. 

Affinities. That remarkable distension or increase of the cellular tissue 
of vegetables, from which the name of succulent is derived, is no indication of 
natural affinity, but is rather to be considered a modification of structure which 
may be common to all tribes. Hence the immediate relationship of Cactacese 
is neither with Euphorbiaceae, nor Cassythaceae, nor Asclepiaceae, nor Por- 
tulaceae, nor Asphodelaceae, all of which contain a greater or less number of 
succulent genera. Through Rhipsalis, which is said to have a central placenta, 
Cactaceae are connected with Portulaceae, to wliich also the curved embryo 
of the section of Opuntiaceae probably indicates an approach. De CandoUe 
further traces an affinity between these plants and Mesembryaceae. For an 
elaborate account of this order, see his memoir above quoted. Grossulaceae, 
with which they were foniierly combined, are manifestly different in a large 
number of points. Nuttall separates from these what he calls Spaetalumeae, 
which contain nothing but a certain plant named Lewisia. That species, how- 
ever, seems to be only a Cactus with nearly superior fruit. Nuttall, indeed, 
says that it has not the habit of Cactaceae ; but it is not easy to say what the 
habit is of an order which comprehends such plants as the leafy Pereskias, the 
cord-like Rhipsalis, and the lumpish Melocacti. Lewisia, of which alone 
Spaetalumeae consist, is a sort of leafy MammiUaria. 

Geography. America is the station of the order ; no species appearing 
to be natives of any other part of the world ; in that country they are abundant 
in the tropics, extending a short distance beyond them, both to the north and 
the south. De Candolle states that 32° or 33^' north latitude is the northern 
limit of the order ; but it is certain that a species is either wild or naturalised 
in Long Island, in latitude 42° north, and that there is another somewhere 
about 49°, in the Rocky mountains. The species which are said to be wild or 
naturalised in Europe, Mauritius, and Arabia, have been introduced from 
America, and having found themselves in situations suitable to their habits, 
have taken possession of the soil like actual natives : in Europe this does not 
extend beyond the town of Final, in 440 north latitude. There is no reason 
for supposing that the modem Opuntia is described in Theophrastus, as 
Sprengel asserts ; the description of the former writer applying, as far as it 
applies to any thing now known, rather to some tree like Ficus religiosa. Hot, 
diy, exposed places are the favourite stations of Cactaceae, for which they 
are pecuharly adapted, in consequence of the imperfect evaporating pores 
^^'hich they possess, as compared with other plants ; a circumstance which, as 
De Candolle has satisfactorily shewn, wiU account for the excessively succulent 
state of their tissue. For geographical observations see Martins in Ann. Sc. 
2. ser. 2. 110. 

Properties. The fniit is very similar in its properties to that of Grossula- 
ceae, in some being refreshing and agreeable to the taste, in others mucilaginous 
and insipid ; they are all, however, destitute of the excessive acidity of some 
gooseberries and currants. The fruit of Opuntia vulgaris has the property of 
staining red the urine of those who eat it. The juice of MammiUaria is remark- 
able for being slightly milky, and at the same time sweet and insipid. 


MammiUaria, Haw. Echinocactus, Salm. Opuntia, Tourn. Rhipsalis, Gsertn. 
Lewisia, Pursh. Cereus, DC. Pereskia, Plum. Hariota, Adans. 

Mclocactus, C. Bauh. Phyllanthus, Neck. 



HoMALiNEiE, R. Brown in Congo, (1818); DC. Prodr. 2. 53. (1825.) 

Essential Character. — Calyx funnel-shaped, superior, with from 5 to 15 divisions. 
Petals alternate with the segments of the calyx, and equal to them in number. Glands 
present in front of the segments of the calyx. Stamens arising from the base of the petals, 
either singly or in threes or sixes ; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary half - 
inferior, 1 -celled, with numerous ovules; styles from 3 to 5, simple, filiform, or subulate ; 
ovules attached to as many parietal placentae as there are styles. Fruit berried or capsular. 
Seeds small, oyate, or angular, with an embryo in the middle of fleshy albumen. — Trees or 
shrubs. Leaves alternate, vjith deciduous stipules, toothed or entire. Flowers in spikes, 
racemes, or panicles. 

Anomalies. It is said there are no glands in Napimoga. Astranthus is said to have 
a superior ovary ; but this requires confirmation. 

Affinities. According to Brown, related to Passifloracese, especially to 
Smeathmannia, from which, however, their inferior ovary distinguishes them, to 
say nothing of their general want of stipules and glands on the leaves, of the 
presence of glands at the base of the floral envelopes, and of their erect and 
very difierent habit. With Malesherbiaceae they agree and disagree much as 
with Passifloraceae. From Rosaceae, Bixaceae, and Flacourtiaceae, to all which 
they have a greater or less degree of affinity, they differ in many obvious par- 
ticiflars. ’De Candolle places them between Sarny daceae and Chailletiaceae, 
describing them as apetalous, but classing them with his Dichlamydeae ; 
Brown also understands them as without petals ; but I confess I cannot com- 
prehend what petals are, if the inner series of the floral envelopes of these 
plants be not so ; an opinion which their supposed affinity with Passifloraceae 
would confirm, if analogy could be admitted as evidence in cases which can be 
decided without it. I may remark, that the statement of De Candolle, that 
the stamens are opposite the sepals {Prodr. 3. 53.) is inaccurate; they are, as 
Brown describes them {Congo), opposite the petals. 

Geography. All tropical, and chiefly African or Indian. Four or five 
species are described from the West Indies and South America. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Homalium, Jacq. 
Acoma, Adans. 
Racoubea, Aubl. 
Napimoga, Aubl. 


Blackwellia, Comm. Pineda, R. et P. Eriudaphus, N. ab Es. 

Vermontea, Comm. Nisa, Pet. Thou. (10)* 

Astranthus, Lour. Myriantheia,Pet,Thou. Adenobasium, Presl. 

Alliance V. FICOIDALES. 

Essential Character. — Petals extremely narrow and numerous ; placentation not 

Notwithstanding the resemblances of the only order that belongs to this 
alhance and the foregoing, the central placentation completely separates them. 
By most botanists a number of apetalous genera are admitted here ; but they 
seem in reality to have far more affinity with Chenopodiaceae. 



Ficoide.®, Juss. Gen. 315. (1789) ; Diet. Sc. Nat. 16. 528. (1820) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 415. 

(1828) ; Salm Dyck Monogr. Mesemb. (1834). 

Essential Character. Sepals definite, usually 5, but varying from 4 to 8, more or 
less combined at the base, either cohering with the ovary, or nearly distinct from it, equal 
or unequal, with a quincuncial or valvate aestivation. Petals indefinite, coloured, in many 
rows, opening beneath bright sunshine. Stamens arising from the calyx, indefinite, dis- 
tinct ; anthers oblong, incumbent. Ovary inferior, or nearly superior, many-celled; stigmas 
numerous, distinct. Capsule surrounded by the fleshy calyx, many-celled, opening in a 
stellate manner at the apex. Seeds definite, or more commonly indefinite, attached to the 
inner angle of the cells ; embryo lying on the putside of mealy albumen, curved or spiral. 
— Shrubby ox herbaceous plants. Leaves succulent,, opposite, simple. Flowers usually 

Affinities. The embryo curved round mealy albumen, along with the 
superior calyx, and distinctly perigynous stamens, characterises these among 
their neighbours, independently of their succulent habit. With Crassulaceae, 
Chenopodiacese, and Silenacese, they are more or less closely related. Reau- 
muriacese and Nitrariaceae, combined with Mesembryacese by De Candolle, are 
families different in affinity. The order has been made to contain several 
genera which are essentiaUy distinct, and which approach closely to Che- 

Geography. The hottest sandy plains of the Cape of Good Hope nourish 
the largest part of this order. A few are found in the south of Europe, north 
of Africa, Chile, China, Peru, and the South Seas. 

Properties. Tlie succulent leaves of a few are eaten, as of Mesem- 
biyanthemum edule ; others yield an abundance of soda. Mesembryanthemum 
nodiflorum is used in the manufacture of Maroquin leather. 


Mesembr}'anthemum, Glinus, L. Orygia, Forsk. 

L. Rolofa, Adans. Kolleria, Presl. 

Hymenogyne, Haw'. Plenckia, Rafin. 


Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual. Placenta central. 


Begoniace®, R. Brown in Congo, 464. (1818); Link Handb. 1. 309. (1829); Martins 
H. Reg. Mon. (1829) ; Conspectus, No. 168. (1835). 

Essential Character — Flowers unisexual. Sepals superior, coloured ; in the males 
4, 2 within the> others and smaller; in the females 5, imbricated, two smaller than the 
rest. Stamens indefinite, distinct or combined into a solid column ; anthers collected in a 
head, 2-celled, continuous with the filaments, clavate, the connective very thick, the cells 
minute, bursting longitudinally. Ovary inferior, winged, 3-celled, wfith 3 double polysper- 
mous placentae in the axis ; stigmas 3, 2-lobed, sessile, somewhat spiral. Fruit membranous, 
capsular, winged, 3-celled, wfith an indefinite number of minute seeds; bursting by slits at 
the base on each side of the wings. Seeds with a transparent thin testa marked by reticu- 


lations, which are oblong at the sides and contracted at either extremity ; embryo very 
cellular, without albumen, with a blunt round radicle next the hilum. — Herbaceous plants 
or under-shrubs, with an acid juice. Leaves alternate, toothed, oblique at the base. Stipules 
scarious. Flowers pink, in cymes. 

Affinities. These have always been considered extremely puzzling. I 
formerly supposed the order related to Hydrangese from some resemblances in 
its seeds, &c. ; others have approximated it to Polygonaceae on account of the 
stipules, 3-comered fruit, and coloured calyx. Link places the order near 
UmbeUiferse ; Von Martins next Scaevolaceae ; but the real affinities seem to be 
with Cucurbitaceae and the epigynous group in general. With Cucurbitaceae the 
order accords in the unisexual flowers, in the sinuous stamens, and peculiar 
stigmas, and even in the ternary number of the carpels ; all points of con- 
siderable importance, inasmuch as they do not often occur elsewhere. That the 
tendency of Begoniaceae is to form petals is indicated, firstly, by the coloured 
and highly developed state of the floral envelope of ordinary Begonias ; and, 
secondly, by those of Eupetalum, in which there is a distinct separation of 
petals and sepals, and by their number an approach to the proportions of 
Onagraceae, with which Begoniaceae have probably a considerable affinity. 

Geography. Common in the West Indies, South America, and the East 
Indies. Brown remarks, that no species has been found on the continent of 
Africa, though several have occurred in Madagascar and the Isles of France 
and Bourbon, and 1 in the island of Johanna. Congo, 464. 

Properties. The roots are astringent and slightly bitter. Those of 
2 species are employed in Peru with success in cases of a flux of blood, or in 
other visceral diseases in which astringents are employed. They are also said 
to be useful in cases of scurvy, and in certain fevers. 


Begonia, L. Eupetalum, (11). 

Group III. 

Essential Character. — Placentae parietal, or, which is the same thing, arising from 
the base of carpels combined into a one-celled ovary. 

These plants possess common characters that are never overlooked in anv 
plan of arrangement that is not artificial. The early part of the group consists 
of portions of De Candolle’s thalamiflorous plants better brought together, and 
the remainder is composed of orders that are separated by their perigynous 
stamens, although combined by every other peculiarity. The only orders upon 
the correctness of whose position doubt can be thrown are Moringacese, 
Samydaceae, and Passifloraceae. Of Moringaceae so little is known that they 
cannot affect the arrangement either one way or the other ; Samydaceae are 
extremely like Smeathmannia among Passifloraceae, and certain Bixaceae and 
Flacourtiaceae, which are equally apetalous, and have no better position. With 
regard to Passifloraceae, it is true that they are very near Cucurbitaceae ; but so 
they are Violaceae, and upon the whole they may be best considered in this 
order as formations analogous with that of Cucurbitales in the bordering group 
of Epigynosae. A great many genera of this group are apetalous. 


Alliance I. CRUCIALES. 

Essential Character. — Embryo curved. Albumen absent. 

This character completely cuts off the Crucial from all other Parietous 
alliances. It has no very positive external relation, but may be accounted as 
near Violales as anything else. 

Order XL. CRUCIFER.^. 1 

or [ The Cruciferous Tribe. 


Cruciferi®, Juss. Gen. 237. (1789); DC. Memoire sur les Cruciferes {no date)’, Syst. 

2. 139. (1821) ; Prod. 1. 131. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 20. (1829) ; Bartl. Ord.Nat. 

261. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Sepals, 4 deciduous, cruciate. Petals 4, cruciate, alternate 
with the sepals. Stamens 6, of which two are shorter, solitary, and opposite the lateral 
sepals ; occasionally toothed ; and four longer, in peiirs, opposite the anterior and posterior 
sepals, generally distinct, sometimes connate, or furnished with a tooth on the inside. Disk 
with various green glands between the petals and the stamens and ovary. Ovary superior, 
unilocular, with parietal placentae usually meeting in the middle, and forming a spurious 
dissepiment. Stigmas two, opposite the placentae. Fruit a silique or silicule, 1 -celled, or 
spuriously 2-celled; 1- or many-seeded; dehiscing by two valves separating from the 
replum ; or indehiscent. Seeds attached in a single row by a funiculus to each side of the 
placentae, generally pendulous. Albumen none. Embryo with the radicle folded upon the 
cotyledons. — Herbaceous plants, annual, biennial, or perennial, very seldom suffruticose. 
Leaves alternate. Flowers usuidly yellow or white, seldom purple. 

Anomalies. Schizopetalum has 4 cotyledons; sometimes the petals are abortive. 

Affinities. This order is among the most natural that are known, and 
its character of having 'svhat Linnsean botanists caU tetradynamous stamens is 
scarcely subject to exception. It has a near relation to Capparidaceae, with 
which it agrees in the number of the stamens of some species of that order, in 
the fruit having two placentae and a similar mode of dehiscence, and in the 
quaternary number of the divisions of the flower. To Papaveraceae it is 
thought to approach in the number of the petals, an unusual number to prevail 
in dicotyledonous plants, and again in the structure of the fruit of some genera 
of that order, such as Glaucium and Chehdonium ; with the siliquose-fruited 
Fumarieae it has also some analogy, and even with the whole of that order in 
the number of its petals, supposing the common opinion of the nature of the 
floral envelopes of Fumarieae to be correct, or in the binary division of its 
flower, from which the quaternary is only a shght deviation, upon the hypothesis 
I have suggested in speaking of that order. But the totally different structure 
of the seed forbids Cruciferae to be associated in the same group with the 

Cruciferae may be said to be characterised essentially by their deviation 
from the ordinary symmetry observable in the relative arrangement of the 
parts of fructiflcation of other plants, — deviations which axe of a very interest- 
ing nature. Their stamens are arranged thus : two stand opposite each of the 
anterior and posterior sepals, and one opposite each of the lateral sepals ; there 
being 6 stamens to 4 sepals, instead of either 4 or 8, as would be normal. 
Now in what way does this arise } is the whorl of stamens to be considered 
double, one of the series belonging to the sepals, and one to the petals, and, of 
these, one imperfect } I am not aware of any such explanation having been 
offered, nor do I know of any better one. It appears to me that the outer 
series is incomplete, by the constant abortion of the stamens belonging to the 


anterior and posterior sepals. But it is in their fruit that their great peculiarity 

As the placentae are opposite the lobes of the stigma in this order, it is 
difficult to reconcile their fruit with any general theory of structure. Either it 
is in reality composed of four carpels, two of which are abortive, as is suggested 
in the Botanical Register, fol. 1168, or each of the two lobes of the stigma is 
composed of two half lobes belonging to different carpels. In any view, the 
dissepiment which cuts off the interior of the fruit into 2 cells must be consi- 
dered spurious, and a mere expansion of the placentae. 

Almost all Cniciferae are destitute of bracts, and have the calyx imbricated 
in aestivation ; but Brown has noticed {Denham, p. 7) that in Savignya and 
Ricotia it is valvate. 

Linnaeus divided this order, which is the same as his Tetradynamia, by the 
form of the fruit, under two heads, bearing the names of Siliquosa and Sdicu- 
losa. More recently, divisions have been founded upon the nature of the ph- 
cature of the cotyledons, and the position of the radicle with respect to them. 
It is difficult to say what degree of importance really deserves to be attached 
to these characters, which are however in general use, and which will proba- 
bly continue to be employed for the purpose of distinction. 

Geography. An order eminently European; 166 species are found in 
northern and middle Europe, and 1 7 8 on the northern shore or islands of the 
Mediterranean ; 45 are peculiar to the coast of Africa, between Mogador and 
Alexandria; 184 to Syria, Asia Minor, Tauria, and Persia; 99 to Siberia; 
35 to China, Japan, or India ; 16 to New HoUand and the South Sea Islands ; 
6 to the Isle of France and the neighbouring islands ; 70 to the Cape of 
Good Hope ; 9 to the Canaries or Madeira ; 2 to St. Helena ; 2 to the West 
Indies ; 41 to South America ; 48 to North America ; 5 to the islands between 
North America and Kamtchatka ; and 35 are common to various parts of the 
world. This being their general geographical distribution, it appears that, 
exclusive of species that are uncertain, or common to several different coun- 
tries, about 100 are found in the southern hemisphere, and about 800 in the 
northern, or 91 in the new, and the rest in the old world. Finally, if we con- 
sider them with regard to temperature, we shall find that there are, — 

In the frigid zone of the northern hemisphere 205 

In all the tropics (and chiefly in mountainous regions) .... 30 

Tr, J oi the northern hemisphere 548 1 . 

In the temperate zone { of the southern ditto . . . se} ' 

Such were the calculations of De CandoUe in 1821 (Syst. 2. 142). Although 
requiring considerable modification, especially in the Asiatic and North Ame- 
rican numbers, which are much too low, they serve to give a general idea of 
the manner in which this order is dispersed over the globe. 

Properties. The universal character of Cniciferae is to possess antiscor- 
butic and stimulant quahties, combined with an acrid flavour. These are so 
uniform, that I shall only offer some general remarks upon them ; for which I 
am chiefly indebted to De Candolle’s Essai sur les Proprietes Medicates des 
Plantes, to which I refer those who wish for more information. Cniciferae 
contain a great deal of nitrogen, to which it is supposed is due their animal 
odour when rotting. Mustard, Cress, Horseradish, and many others, are ex- 
tremely stimulating and acrid. The seeds of Sinapis chinensis are considered 
by Hindoo and Mahometan practitioners as stimulant, stomachic, and laxative. 
Ainslie, 1. 230. The seeds of one species of Arabis (chinensis Rottler) are 
prescribed by the Indian doctors as stomachic and gently stimulant ; but they 
apprehend its bringing on abortion if imprudently given. Ibid. 2. 12. When 
the acrid flavour is dispersed among an abundance of mucilage, various parts 
of these plants become a wholesome food ; such as the root of the Radish and 
the Turnip, the herbage of the Water-cress, the Cabbage, the Sea-kale, and 


the stems of the various plants of the cabbage tribe. Prince Maximilian, of 
Wied Neuwied, relates that the Brazilian Indians use a kind of cress, which 
in taste resembles that of Europe, as a good remedy for asthma. Travels, 1 . 
35. Their seeds universally abound in a fixed oil, which is expressed from 
some species, as the Rape, for various economical purposes. 


§ 1. Arabide^e, DC. 
Mathiola, R. Br. 
Cheiranthus, R. Br. 

Psilostylis, Andrz. 
Nasturtium, R. Br. 
Brachylobos, Desv. 
Roupa, Scop. 
Leptocarpaea, DC. 
Notoceras, R. Br. 

Diceratium, Lga. 
Barbarea, R. Br. 
Streptanthus, Nutt. 
Stevenia, Adans. 
Braya, Sternb. 

Oreas, Cham. 

Orobium, Rchb. 
Eutrema, R. Br. 
Platypetalum, R. Br. 
Platyspermum, Hook 
Smelowskia, Meyer. 
Taphrospermum, Mey 
Turritis, Dillen. 
Arabis, L. 

Abasicarpon, Andrz. 
Macropodium, R. Br. 
Parrya, R. Br. 
Cardamine, DC. 
Pteroneuron, DC. 
Dentaria, Tourn. 
Neuroloma, Andrz. 

§ 2. Alyssine^e, DC. 
Lunaria, L. 

Savignya, DC. 

Ricotia, L. 

Farsetia, Turr. 

Fibigia, Med. 
Berteroa, DC. 
Aubrietia, Adans. 
Vesicaria, Lam. 
Schivereckia, Andrz. 
Alyssum, DC. 

Adyseton, Scop. 
Odontarrhena, Meyer. 
Glyce, Lindl. 

Koniga, R. Br.* 
Meniocus, Desv. 
Psilonema, Meyer. 
Selenia, Nutt. 
Discovium, Raf. 
Clypeola, Gaertn. 
Orium, Desv. 
Bergentia, Desv. 

Peltaria, L. 

Bohatschia, Crz. 
Peerocallis, R. Br. 
Draba, DC. 
Mathewsia, Hooker. 
Ptilotrichum, Meyer. 
Erophila, DC. 
Cochlearia, Tourn. 
Tetrapoma, Turcz. 
Kernera, Medik. 

§ 3. ThlaspidejE, DC 
Thlaspi, Dill. 
Pterolobium, Andrz. 
Hutchinsia, R. Br. 
Noccaea, Moench. 
Teesdalia, R. Br. 

Guepinia, Bat. 
Iberis, L. 

. Biscutella, L. 
Megacarpaea, DC. 

, Cremolobus, DC. 

§ 4. Euclidie^, DC. 
Euclidium, R. Br. 
Ochthodium, DC. 
Pugionium, Gaertn. 

Anastatica, Gaertn. 
Morettia, DC. 

§ 6. Cakiline^, DC. 
Cakile, Tourn. 
Cordylocarpus, Desf. 
Chorispora, DC. 

§ 7. SiSYMBREiE, DC. 
Malcomia, R. Br. 
Triceras, Andrz. 
Oudneya, R. Br. 
Hesperis, L. 

Deilosma, Andrz. 
Andreoskia, DC. 
Hesperidopsis, DC. 
Dontostemon, Andrz. 
Sisymbrium, All. 
Redowskia, Cham. 
Hugueninia, Rchb. 
Alliaria, Adans. 
Erysimum, Gaertn. 
Coringia, Heist. 
Syrenia, Andrz. 
Cheirinia, Lk. 
Gorinkia, Presl. 
Leptaleum, DC. 
Stanley a, Nutt.* 

Warea, Nutt. 

Stenopetalum, R. Br. 
Camelina, Crz. 

Monchia, Roth. 
Eudema, H. Bk. 
Hymenophysa, Meyer 
Neslia, Desv. 
Rapistrum, Gaertn. 
Vogelia, fI. Wett. 

.§ 9. Lepidine^, DC. 
Senebiera, Poir. 

Coronopus, Hall. 
Lepidium, R. Br. 
Lepia, Desv. 
Lasioptera, Andrz. 
Dileptium, Raf. 
Cardaria, Desv. 
Cardiolepis, Wall. 
Menonvillaea, DC. 
Hexaptera, Hooker. 
Subularia, L. 

Capsella, Vent. 

Rodschiedia, FI. Wett. 
Bivonaea, DC. 

, Eunomia, DC. 
.(Ethionema, R. Br. 

§ 10. ISATIDE^, DC. 
Aphragmus, Andr. 
Tauscheria, Fisch. 
Isatis, C. Bauh. 

Sameraria, Desv. 
Myagrum, Tourn. 
Sobolewskia, M.B. 
Tetrapterygium, F. et 

Dipterj'gium, Decais. 
Thysanocarpus, Hook. 
§ 11. Anchonie^, DC. 
Goldbachia, DC. 
Anchonium, DC. 
Sterigma, DC. 
Sterigmostemon, M. 

Arthrolobus, Stev. 

§ 12. Brassice^, DC. 
Brassica, L. 

Gunthera, Andrz. 
Sinapis, Tourn. 
Hirschfeldia, Mbnch. 
Bonannia, Presl. 

? Disaccium, DC. 
Moricandia, DC. 
Orychophragmus, Bge. 
Diplotaxis, DC. 

Eruca, Toui*n. 
Euzomum, Link. 

. Erucastrum, Rchb. 

§ 13. VELLEiE, DC. 
Vella, L. 

Boleum, Desv. 
Carrichtera, DC. 
Succowia, Med. 

§ 14. PsYCHINEiE, DC. 
Schouwia, DC. 
Psychine, Desf. 

§ 15. ZlLLE^, DC. 
Zilla, Forsk. 

Muricaria, Desv. 
Calepina, Adans. 

§16. Raphane^e, DC. 
Crambe, Tourn. 
Didesmus, Desv. 
Rapistrum, Boerh. 
Enarthrocarpus, Lab. 
Raphanus, L. 

§ 17. BUNIADEiE, DC. 
Bunias, R. Br. 

Lcelia, Pers. 

§ 18. Erucarie^e, DC. 
Erucaria, Gaertn. 

Cordylocarpus, W. 

Schizopetalum, Sims. 

§ 20. Heliophilee, 

Chamira, Thunb. 
Heliophila, L. 

Trentepohlia, Roth. 
Carponema, DC. Eckl. 
Leptormus, DC. Eckl. 
Ormiscus, DC. Eckl. 
Selenocarpaea, DC. 

Pachystylum, DC. 

Carpopodium, DC. 

§ 21. Brachycarp-ee, 

Brachycarpaea, DC. 

For another mode of arranging the genera, see Bartling Ord. Nat. p. 261. 

* In the opinion of Nuttall, Warea and Stanleya constitute a very distinct natural 
order, intermediate between Cruciferae and Capparidaceae. He calls it Stanley, Act. Acad. 
Phil. 7. 85. 


Order. XLI. CAPPARIDACE^^L. The Caper Tribe. 

CAPPARiDEiE, /MW. Gen. 242. (1789); ^nn. Mmw 18. 474. (1811); DC. Prodr. 237. 


Essential Character. — Sepals, 4, either nearly distinct, equal, or unequal, or 
cohering in a tube, the limb of which is variable in form. Petals 4, cruciate, usually un- 
guiculate and unequal. Stamens almost perigynous, very seldom tetradynamous, most fre- 
quently arranged in some high multiple of a quaternary number, definite or indefinite. Disk 
hemispherical, or elongated, after bearing glands. Ovary stalked ; style none, or filiform. 
Fruit either podshaped and dehiscent, or baccate, 1 -celled, very rarely 1 -seeded, most fre- 
quently with 2 polyspermous placentae. Seeds generally reniform, without albumen, but 
with the lining of the testa tumid, attached to the margin of the valves ; embryo incurved ; 
cotyledons foliaceous, flattish. — Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or even trees, without true sti- 
pules, but sometimes with spines in their place. Leaves alternate, stalked, undivided, or 
palmate. Flowers in no particular arrangement. 

Anomalies. Some species of Niebuhria, Maerua, Boscia, Cadaba, and Thylacium, have 
no petals. The stamens are occasionally tetradynamous, according to De Candolle. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Cruciferse by their stamens being often 
indefinite, if definite never tetradynamous, or scarcely ever, and by their reni- 
form seeds. They are related to Passifloracese in their stipitate ovary, and 
fleshy indehiscent fruit with parietal polyspermous placentae ; and to Fla- 
courtiaceae in the structure of their fruit, parietal placentae, and indefinite sta- 
mens ; from these last they are known by their narrow placentae, exalbumi- 
nous seeds and peculiar habit ; and from the former by a number of ob- 
vious characters. Brown remarks {Denham, 15,) that some species of Capparis, 
of which C. spinosa is an example, have as many as 8 placentae. Aug. de St. 
Hilaire and Moquin Tandon state that Capparidaceae are referable to a tetran- 
drous type, which is very possible. But the explanation they give, or the 
proofs thev offer of this are less clear than could be desfred. (See Ann. des. 
Sc. 20. 321). 

Geography. They are chiefly found in the tropics and in the countries 
bordering upon them, where they abound in almost every direction. Of the 
capsular species, a single one, Cleome violacea, is found in Portugal ; another, 
Polanisia graveolens, occurs as far to the north as Canada ; and one or two 
others are met with in the southern provinces of the United States. Of the 
fleshy-fruited kinds, the common Caper, Capparis spinosa, a native of the most 
southern parts of Europe, is that which approaches the nearest to the north ; 
Africa abounds in them. 

Properties. De Candolle compares Capparidaceae with Cruciferae in re- 
gard to their sensible qualities ; and they no doubt resemble each other in 
many respects ; for instance, the flower-buds of the Caper are stimulant, an- 
tiscorbutic, and aperient, and form a well known pickle ; the bark of the root 
of the Caper passes for a dim'etic ; and some species of Cleome and Polanisia 
have a pungent taste, like that of mustard. The root of Cleome dodecandra is 
used as a vermifuge in the United States. Cleome icosandra acts as a vesica- 
tory, and is used in Cochin China as a sinapism. Dancer states that the bark 
of the root of Cratseva gynandra blisters Hke Cantharides. Ainslie, 2. 88. 
There is a plant called Fruta de Burro, found in the neighbourhood of Cartha- 
gena, the fruit of which is extremely poisonous. It is supposed to be a spe^ 
cies of Capparis, nearly allied to the Capp. pulcherrima of Jacquin ; and must 
not be confounded with the Fruta del Burro of Humboldt, found in Guiana, 
which is a valuable medicinal plant, belonging to Anonacese. 



§ 1. Cleome^, DC. 
Dactylaena, Schrad, 
Cleomella, DC. 
Peritoma, DC. 
Gynandropsis, DC. 

Podogyne, HfFg. 
Cleome, L. 

Siliquaria, Forsk. 
Polanisia, Rafin. 

Cristatella, Nutt. 

Jacksonia, Rafin. 
Physostemon, Mart. 
Rorida, Forsk. 

§ 2. CAPPAREiE, DC. 
Corynandra, Schrad. 
Tovaria, FI. Peruv. 
Crataeva, L. 

Othrys, Pet. Thou. 
Niebuhria, DC. 

Boscia, Lam. 

Podoria, Pers. 
Cadaba, Forsk. 

Strcemia, Vahl. 
Schepperia, Neck. 

Macromerum, Burch. 
Ataraisquea, Miers. 
Capparis, L. 

Sodada, Forsk. 

Stephania, Willd. 

Steriphoma, Spr. 
Morisonia, Plum. 
Busbeckea, Endl. 
Thylacium, Lour. 
Maerua, Forsk. 
Hermupoa, Loeffl. 
Roydsia, Wall. 

? Sin^ana, Aubl. 
Sterheckia, Schreb. 

Order XLII. RESEDACEiE. The Mignonette Tribe. 

Resedace/e, DC. Theor. ed. 1. 214. (1813) ; Lindl. Synops. 219. (1829) ; Aug. de St. HU. 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Orl. vol. 13. 

Essential Character. — Calyx many parted. Petals lacerated, unequal. Disk hypo- 
gynous, one-sided, glandular. Stamens perigynous, definite; filaments erect; anthers 
2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary sessile, 3-lobed, 1 -celled, many-seeded, with 
3 parietal placentae. Stigmas 3, glandular, sessile. Fruit dry and membranous, or succu- 
lent, opening at the apex. Seeds several, reniform, attached to 3 parietal placentae ; 
embryo taper, arcuate, without albumen ; radicle superior. — Herbaceous plants with alter- 
nate leaves^ the surface of which is minutely papillose ; and minute, gland-like stipules. 

Affinities. In the former edition of this work and elsewhere I described 
the structure of Resedacese very differently, considering the apparent calyx as 
an involucre, the petals as abortive male flowers, and the disk as the calyx of 
a central bisexual flower. I am, however, now convinced, by the arguments 
of Henslow, that this view was erroneous, and I accordingly revert to the old 
view of its organization -and affinities. These latter are chiefly with Capparidaceoe, 
to which the seeds, and the great disk out of which the stamens arise, along with 
the parietal placentae, agree. In habit it is extremely like Datiscaceae. 

Geography. Weeds inhabiting Europe, the adjoining parts of Asia, the 
basin of the Mediterranean, and the adjacent islands. 

Properties. Nothing further is known of them than that Reseda luteola 
yields a yellow dye, and that the Mignionette (R. odorata) is among the most 
fragrant of plants. 


Reseda, L. Ochradenus, DC. 

Sesamella, Reichenb. Astrocarpus, Neck. 

Alliance II. VIOLALES, 

Essential Character. — Stamens few, with no collection of abortive petals or stamens 
into an external ring. Embryo never curved. 

With the exception of Moringaceae, the orders combined under this alliance 
are most naturally connected. Sauvagesiae point towards Hypericaceae, while 
Samydaceae, notwithstanding their apetalous flowers, so completely agree with 
Violaceae in their fruit, that the accuracy of their position can hardly be 
doubted. The coloured internal face of the calyx of the former order gives 
that part the same sort of claim to be considered corolline as the analogous or- 
gan in Ranunculaceae. 


Order XLIII. VIOLACEiE. The Violet Tribe. 

ViOLARiE^, DC. FI. Fr. 4. 801. (1805) ; Juss. Ann. Mus. 18. 476. (1811) ; DC. Prodr. 

1. 287. fl824) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 283. (1830). — VioLACEiE, Lindl. Synops. 35. 


Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, with an imbricate aestivation, usually 
elongated atthe base. Petals 5, hypogynous, equal or unequal, usually withering, and with 
an obliquely convolute aestivation. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals, occasionally oppo- 
site them, inserted on a hypogynous disk, often unequal ; anthers bilocular, bursting 
inwards, either separate or cohering, and lying close upon the ovary ; filaments dilated, 
elongated beyond the anthers ; two, in the irregular flowers, generally furnished with an 
appendage or gland at their base. Ovary 1 -celled, many-seeded, or rarely 1 -seeded, with 
3 parietal placentae opposite the 3 outer sepals ; style single, usually declinate, with an 
oblique hooded stigma. Capsule of 3 valves, bearing the placentae in their axis. Seeds 
often with a tumour at their base ; embryo straight, erect, in the axis of fleshy albumen . — 
Herbaceous plants or shrubs. Leaves simple, usually alternate, sometimes opposite, stipu- 
late entire, with an involute vernation. Infiorescence various. 

Anomalies. — The berry of Pentaloba is 5-lobed. 

Affinities. Brown, in speaking of Violacese, mentions, in his Appendix 
to the Congo Voyage, a genus, at that time unpublished, called Hymenanthera, 
having 5 scales alternating with the petals, with a bilocular berry, in each cell 
of which is a single pendulous seed. It appears very paradoxical to associate 
such a plant with an order otherwise well defined ; and Brown himself seems 
to think it should be placed between Violaceae and Polygalaceae. Tlie structure 
of this genus seems to point out the relation of those two orders, to the latter 
of which, however, it rather appears to me to be referable. These orders differ 
from each other, in the latter having a 2-celled not 1 -celled ovary, leaves with- 
out stipules, and 1 -celled anthers. Droseraceae are known from Violaceae by 
their numerous styles, minute embryo, circinate leaves, and want of stipules. 
Passifioraceae, to which the baccate genera of Violaceae, and especially Cory- 
nostylis (Calyptrion, DC.), which has a twining stem, undoubtedly approach, 
are distinguished by a multitude of characters. The irregular flowers, dilated 
filaments and sepals, and stipulate leaves, of Violaceae, usually indicate them at 
once ; but the regular-flowered fruticose genera, which constitute the tribe of 
Alsodineae, are not to be recognised by a combination of such characters. 

Geography. Of the tribes, Violeae chiefly consist of European, Siberian, 
and American plants ; a few only being found within the tropics of Asia. 
They are abundant in South America, the forms of which are, however, 
materially different from those of the more temperate parts of the world, most 
of them being shrubs, while the northern Violets are uniformly herbaceous, or 
nearly so. Alsodineae are exclusively South American and African, with the 
exception of Pentaloba, which belongs to the Malayan Flora. 

Properties. The roots of all Violaceae appear to be more or less emetic, 
a property which is strongly possessed by the South American species, and in 
a less degree only by those of Europe. Hence they form part of the herbs 
known under the name of Ipecacuanha. lonidium parviflorum is used by the 
Spanish Americans, and I. Poaya by the Brazilians, as a substitute for 
Ipecacuanha. PI. Us. 9. and 20. The root of another species, called Poaya, 
Poaya da praia, and Poaya branca, the lonidium Itubu of Kunth, is commonly 
sold as true Ipecacuanha, to which it approaches very nearly in its properties. 
At Pernambuco it is esteemed the very best remedy that can be employed in 
dysentery ; and the inhabitants of Rio- Grande- do-Norte consider it a specific 
against gout. Ibid. no. 1 1 . The foliage of the Conohoria Lobolobo is used 
in Brazil for the same purposes as Spinach with us. Boiled, it becomes 
mucilaginous. Ibid. 10. Viola canina is reputed a powerful agent for the 


removal of cutaneous affections ; and Anchietea salutaris is accounted by the 
Brazilians not only a purgative, but also a remedy against similar maladies. 
A. de St. Hilaire remarks, that this notion deserves attention, as connected 
with the depurative properties ascribed in Europe to Viola canina, to which, 
although Anchietea is botanically related, there is nothing in its appearance 
which would have led the Portuguese settlers to attribute the virtues of the one 
to the other. Ihid. no. 19. 


§ 1. ViOLE®, DC. 
Corynostylis, Mart. 

Calyptrion, Gingins. 
Anchietea, A. St. H. 
Noisettia, H. B. K. 
Glossarrhen, Mart. 
Viola, L. 

Solea, Spreng. 
Pombalia, Vand. 
Pigea, DC. 
lonidium, Vent. 
Hybanthus, Jacq. 
Amphirhox, Spr. 

§ 2. Alsodine®, DC. 
Alsodeia, Pet. Thou. 
Conoria, H. B. K. 
Passoura, Aubl. 
Riana, Aubl. 
Rinorea, Aubl. 
Ceranthera, Beauv. 

Passalia, Soland. 
Physiphora, Soland. 
Lavradia, Vellozo. 
Spathularia, A. St. H. 
Pentaloba, Lour. 

Tachibota, Aubl. 
Salmasia, Schreb. 

Apparently distinct from Violaceae, but not yet sufficiently defined, is the 


VioLACEiE § Sauvagese, DC. Prod. 1. 315. (1824). — Sauvagesie.®:, Bartl. Ord. Nat. 289. 

(1830). — Sauvagesiace^e, von Martins Conspectus, No. 238. (1835). 

Affinities. Distinguished from Violaceae principally by the stamens 
being opposite the petals, by the anthers not having a membranous termina- 
tion, by the presence of 5 hypogynous scales, and by their fruit having a 
septicidal dehiscence, so that the seeds adhere to the edges and not the centre 
of the valves, and by the strongly ribbed and imbricated calyx. The latter 
character brings them near Hypericaceae, with which they accord in habit, but 
they differ in their stipules and decidedly parietal placentation. They are also 
said to approach Droseraceae ; but this is by no means clear. Aug. de St. Hilaire 
places them in Frankeniaceae, from which their calyx divides them. 

Geography. Natives of the tropics of South America and Africa. 

Properties. Sauvagesia erecta is very mucilaginous, on which account it 
has been used in Brazil for complaints of the eyes, in Peru for disorders of the 
bowels, and in the West Indies as a diuretic, or rather in cases of a slight in- 
flammation. of the bladder. 


Sauvagesia, Jacq. Luxemburgia, A.St.H. 

Sauvagea, Neck. Plectranthera-, Mart. 


Samyde^, Vent. Mem. Inst. 2. 142. (1807) ; Gcertn.fll. Carp. 3. 238. 242. (1805) ; Kunth. 
Nov. Gen. 5. 360. (1821) ; DC. Prodr. 2. 47. (1825). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3, 5, or 7, more or less cohering at the base, usually 
coloured inside ; aestivation somewhat imbricated, very seldom completely valvate. Pe- 
tals 0. Stamens arising from the tube of the calyx, 2, 3, or 4 times as many as the sepals ; 
filaments monadelphous, either all bearing anthers, or alternately shorter, villous or ciliated, 
and alternately bearing ovate 2-celled erect anthers. Ovary superior, 1 -celled; style 1, 
filiform ; stigma capitate, or slightly lobed ; ovules indefinite, attached to parietal placentae. 
Capsule coriaceous, with 1 cell and from 3 to 5 valves, many-seeded, the valves dehiscing 


imperfectly, often somewhat pulpy inside, and coloured. Seeds fixed to the valves, without 
order, on the papillose or pulpy part, with a fleshy aril and excavated hilum ; albumen 
fleshy ; cotyledons ovate, foliaceous ; radicle pointing to the extremity remote from the 
hilum. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, often somewhat distichous, simple, entire or 
toothed, evergreen, with stipules, usually with pellucid markings, which are most frequently 
oblong. Peduncles axillary, solitary, or numerous. 

Affinities. Placed in Polypetalous Exogens by De Candolle, who, how- 
ever, describes the order as apetalous, “ unless the petaloid layer covering the 
inner surface of the sepals be considered a corolla although this cannot be 
admitted as true, yet it may be taken as evidence of a tendency to assume a 
corolline state. This order appears to be of very uncertain affinity. Its 
apetalous flowers and fruit approximate it to Bixacese, its dotted leaves to 
Amyridaceae, near which De Candolle stations it, and its perigynous stamens 
to Rosaceae, with which its alternate stipulate leaves also ally it. Its fruit, as 
in Casearia parviflora, is sometimes remarkably like that ofViolaceae. In habit 
the order approaches Smeathmannia among Passifloraceae. Brown observes, 
that Samydaceae are especially distinguished by their leaves having a mixture 
of round and linear pellucid dots, which distinguish them from all the other 
families with which they are likely to be confounded. Congo, 444. 

Geography. Tropical shrubs. 

Properties. The bark and leaves are said to be astringent in a slight 
degree. DC. In Brazil the leaves of Casearia ulmifolia are applied to wounds, 
and their juice is drank by the sick. It is said they are a most certain remedy 
against the bite of the most noxious serpents ; it is called Marmaleiro do Mato. 
Aug. St. H. FI. Bras, merid. 2. 233. A decoction of the leaves of Casearia 
lingua is also used internally in inflammatory disorders and malignant fevers. 
It is called by the Brazilians Cha de frade and Lingua de Fin. Ibid. 


Samyda, L. Casearia, Jacq. Pitumba, Aubl. Vareca, Gaertn. 

Bigelovia, Spr. Anavinga, Lam. Melistaurum, Forst. Chaetocrater, R. et P. 

Iroucana, Aubl. Athencea, Schreb. Crateria, Pers. 


MoRiNGEiE, R. Brown in Denham, p. 33. (1826) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 425. (1830) ; Decaisne 
in Ann. Sc. n. s. 4. 203. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx consisting of 5 nearly equal divisions (deciduous, 
DC.) the tube lined with a fleshy disk ; cestivation slightly imbricated. Corolla of 5 nearly 
equal petals, the uppermost of which is ascending. Stamens 10, arising from the top of the 
tube of the calyx ; 5 opposite the sepals, sometimes sterile ; filaments slightly petaloid, cal- 
lous and hairy at the base ; anthers simple, 1 -celled, with a thick convex connective. Ovary 
stipitate, superior, 1 -celled, with 3 parietal placentae ; style filiform, terminal, not obliquely 
inserted ; stigma simple. Fruit a long pod- like capsule, with 3 valves, and only 1 cell ; 
the valves bearing the seeds along their middle. Seeds numerous, half buried in the fun- 
gous substance of the valves, sometimes winged ; embryo without albumen ; radicle straight, 
very small; cotyledons fleshy, plano-convex. — Trees. Leaves pinnate, with an odd one. 
Flowers in panicles. 

Affinities. Confounded with Leguminosse, until separated by the au- 
thority of Brown, who does not, however, point out the real affinities of the 
order. De Candolle, who did not overlook its anomalous structure as a Le- 
guminous plant, accounted for the compound nature of its fruit upon the suppo- 
sition, that although unity of carpels is the normal structure of Leguminosse, 
yet the presence of more ovaries than one, in a few instances in that order, 




explained the constantly trilocular state of that Moringa. To this, however,, 
there are numerous and grave objections, which cannot fail to strike every 
botanist. What its proper station should be remains to be determined. I con- 
fess I place it here, because I know of no better station, and because it accords 
with the verbal character of this group. Decaisne seems to think it has more 
affinity with Leguminosse than with any other order. 

Geography. Natives of the East Indies- and Arabia. 

Properties. The root of the Moringa pterygosperma has a pungent odour, 
with a warm, biting, and somewhat aromatic taste ; it is used as a stimulant 
in paralytic affections and intermittent fever ; it is also employed as a rubefa- 
cient. Ainslie, 1. 175. The nuts (seeds) of this plant, cdled by the French 
pois queniques and chicoty have been used in venere^ affections. Ibid. They 
are the Ben-nuts of old writers, from which the oil of Ben was extracted, for- 
merly more famed than at present. The flowers, leaves, and tender seed-ves- 
sels, are eaten by the natives of India in their curries. Royle. 


Moringa, Burm. 

Hyperanthera, W. 

Alandina, Neck. 

Order XLVI. DROSERACE^. The Sundew Tribe. 

DRosERACEiE, DC. Thiorie, 214. (1819) ; Prodr. 1. 317. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 38. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, equal, with an imbricate sestivation. 
Petals 5, hypogynous. Stamens distinct, withering, either equal in number to the petals 
and alternate with them, or 2, 3, or 4 times as many. Ovary single; styles 3-5, either 
wholly distinct, or slightly connected at the base, bifid or branched. Capsule of 3 or 5 
valves, which bear the placentae either in the middle or at their base, and sometimes turn in 
their edges so as to form almost perfect dissepiments. Seeds either naked or furnished 
with aril. Embryo straight, erect in the axis of a fleshy or cartilaginous albumen. Cotyle- 
dons rather thick. — Delicate herbaceous plants, often covered with glands. Leaves alter- 
nate, with stipulary fringes and a circinate vernation. Peduncles, when young, circinate. 

Anomalies. The anthers of Byblis and Roridula open by pores. 

Affinities. Nearly allied to Violacese, from which their circinate verna- 
tion, several styles, and extipulate leaves, distinguish them. They are also no 
doubt related to Saxifragaceae, and these two orders are chiefly distinguished 
by their vernation and placentation ; but in the latter respect Parnassia among 
Saxifragaceae accords with Droseraceae. Droseraceae are also allied to Sarra- 
ceniaceae : see that order. 

Geography. At the Cape of Good Hope, in South America, North 
America, New Holland, China, Europe, Madagascar, the East Indies, 
wherever there are marshes or morasses, these plants are found. Drosophyl- 
lum lusitanicum is remarkable for growing on the barren sands of Portugal. 

Properties. The common Droseras are rather acid, slightly acrid, and, 
according to some, poisonous to cattle. The Drosera communis of Brazil is 
said by A. de St. Hilaire to be poisonous to sheep. PI. Usuelles, no. 15. 
Drosera muscipula has viscous leaves with glandular fringes, which close upon 
flies and other insects that happen to alight upon them. It is probable it would 
yield a valuable dye. Royle. 


Byblis, Salisb. Drosera, L. Drosophyllum, Link. 

Aldrovaiida, Monti. Roridula, L. Bohadschia, Presl. 



FRANKENiACiE, Aug, de St. Hilaire Mem. Plac. Centr. 39. (181.5); DC. Prodr. 1. 349. 

(1824); Lind/. Synods. 38. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4-5, united in a furrowed tube, persistent, equal. 
Petal alternate with the sepals, hypogynous, unguiculate, with appendages at the base of 
the limb. Stamens hypogynous, either equal in number to the petals, and alternate with 
them, or having a tendency to double the number ; anthers roundish, versatile. Ovary 
superior; style filiform, 2-fid or 3-fid. Capsule 1-celled, enclosed in the calyx, 2- 3- or 
4-valved, many-seeded. Seeds attached to the margins of the valves, very minute ; embryo 
straight, erect, in the midst of albumen (divided into two plates, Gcertn.fil.) — Herbaceous 
plants or under-shrubs. Stems very much branched. Leaves opposite, exstipulate, with a 
membranous sheathing base ; often revolute at the edge. Flowers sessile in the divisions 
of the branches, and terminal, embosomed in leaves, usually pink. 

Anomalies. Wormskioldia has a siliquose fruit, alternate deeply lobed leaves, and a 
different habit. 

Affinities. Allied on the one hand to Silenacese, from which they are 
distinguished by their different placentation, and by the form of their embryo ; 
to Linacese, from which they are known by their unilocular fruit ; and on the 
other to Violaceae, which differ in having a loculicidal, not septicidal, dehi- 
scence. Their habit is that of Amarantacese and lUecebraceae, from which 
their petals and compound fruit divide them. Wormskioldia is a very ano- 
malous plant. It seems more nearly allied to this than any other order, and 
certainly does not belong to Droseracese, in which it is placed by Achille 
Richard provisionally. 

Geography. TTiis order is chiefly found in the north of Africa and south 
of Europe. Two species are natives of the Cape of Good Hope, 1 of South 
America, 4 of New Holland, and 3 of temperate Asia. None have been found 
in tropical India or North America. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Frankenia, L. Beatsonia, Roxb. 

Nothria, Berg. Wormskioldia, Thonn. 


Essential Character. — Flowers with a ring or crown of sterile stamens. Petioles 
generally glandular. Embryo never curved so that the radicle lies on the cotyledons. 

The foregoing characters collect a set of orders, the mutual relationship of 
which is of the strongest kind. But in the order Tumeracese, the crown of 
sterile stamens is wanting, and so far the character of the alliance is weakened. 
Nevertheless it seems unadvisable to separate Turneracese far from Malesher- 


The Passion-Flower Tribe. 

Passiflore^, Juss. Ann. Mus. 6. 102. (1805) ; Id. Diet, des Sciences Nat. 38. 48. (1825) ; 
DC. Prodr. 3. 321. (1828) ; Achille Richard Diet. Class. 13. 95. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, sometimes irregular, combined in a tube of variable 
length, the sides and throat of which are lined by filamentous or annular processes, appa- 


rently metamorphosed petals. Petals 5, arising from the throat of the calyx, on the out- 
side of the filamentous processes, occasionally wanting, sometimes irregular, imbricated in 
aestivation. Stamens 5, monadelphous, rarely indefinite, surrounding the stalk of the 
ovary ; anthers turned outwards, linear, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Orary seated on 
a long stalk, superior, 1 -celled; styles 3, arising from the same point, clavate ; stigmas 
dilated. Fmit surrounded by the calyx, stalked, 1 -celled, with 3 parietal polyspermous 
placentae, sometimes 3-valved. Seeds attached in several rows to the placenta, wfith a 
brittle sculptured testa surrounded by a pulpy aril ; embryo straight, in the midst of fleshy 
thin albumen ; radicle turned towards the hilum ; cotyledons flat, leafy. — Herbaceous plants 
or shrubs, usually climbing, very seldom erect. Leaves alternate, with foliaceous stipules, 
often glandular. Flowers axillary or terminal, often with a 3 -leaved involucre. 

Anomalies. Some apetalous. 

Affinities. The real nature of the floral envelopes of this remarkable 
order is a question upon which botanists entertain different opinions, and their 
ideas of its affinities are consequently at variance. According to Jussieu 
{Diet, des Sciences, 38. 49.), the “parts taken for petals are nothing but in- 
ner dmsions of the calyx, usually in a coloured state, and wanting in several 
species and, therefore, in the judgment of this venerable botanist, the order 
is apetalous. De CandoUe adopts the same view of the nature of the floral 
envelopes as Jussieu ; but he nevertheless considers the order pol^qietalous ; 
a conclusion which I confess myself unable to understand, upon the supposition 
of the inner series of floral envelopes being calyx. Other botanists, and I think 
with justice, consider the outer series of the floral envelopes as the calyx, and the 
inner as the corolla, for two principal reasons. In the first place, they have the or- 
dinary position and appearance of calyx and corolla, the outer being green, and the 
inner coloured ; and, in the second place, there is no essential difference be- 
tween the calyx and coroUa, except the one being the outer, and the other the 
inner of the floral envelopes. And if the real nature of these parts is to be 
determined by analogy, an opinion in which I do not, however, concur, the 
great affinity, as I think, of the order with Violacese would confirm the idea of 
its being polypetalous rather than apetalous. The nature of the filamentous 
appendages, or rays as they are called, which proceed from the orifice of the 
t ibe, and of the membranous or fleshy, entire or lobed, flat or plaited, annu- 
lar processes which lie between the petals and the stamens, is ambiguous. I 
am disposed to refer them to a peculiar form of petals, rather than to the sta- 
mens, for the reasons which I have assigned in the Hort. Trans, vol. 6. p 309, for 
understanding the normal metamorphosis of the parts of fructification to be cen- 
tripetal. There can, at least, be no doubt of their being of an intermediate na- 
ture betw'een petals and stamens. With regard to the affinity of Passiflora- 
cese, Jussieu, swayed by the opinion he entertains of their being apetalous, 
and De Candolle, who partly agrees and partly disagrees with Jussieu in his 
view of their structure, both assign the order a place near Cucurbitaceae, and 
there can be no doubt that Cucurbitaceae are really little more than Passiflora- 
ceae with inferior fruit ; but when we consider the stipitate fruit, occasionally 
valvular, the parietal placentae, thg sometimes irregular flowers, the stipulate 
leaves, and the climbing habit of these plants, it is difficult not to admit their 
affinity with Capparidaceae and Violaceae, the dilated disk of the former 
of which is probably analogous to the innermost of the annular pro- 
cesses of Passiflora. That the fleshy covering of the seeds in this order is a 
real aril, is clear from the seeds of a capsular species nearly related to Pass, 
capsularis, but apparently unpublished, a drawing of which, by Ferdinand 
Bauer, exists in the Library of the Horticultural Society. In this plant the 
apex of the sculptured testa is uncovered by the aril. Smeathmannia forms 
a connecting link between Passifloraceae and Samydaceae. 

Geography. Passionflowers are the pride of South America and the West 
Indies, where the woods are filled wdth their species, which climb about from 


tree to tree, bearing at one time flowers of the most striking beauty, and of so sin- 
gular an appearance, that the zealous Catholics who discovered them, adapted 
Christian traditions to those inhabitants of the South American wilderness ; 
and at other times fruit, tempting to the eye and refreshing to the palate. 
One or two extend northwards into North America. Several are found in 
Africa and the neighbouring islands ; and a few in the East Indies, of which 
the greater part belong to the genus Modecca. 

Properties. Nothing is known of the properties of this order further 
than that the succulent aril and pulp that surround the seeds are fragrant, 
juicy, cooling, and pleasant, in several species. 


Smeathmannia, DC. 
Paropsia, Noron. 
Astrophea, DC. 
Passiflora, L. 

Cicca, Med. 

Tacsonia, Juss. Modecca, Lam. 

Monactineirma, Bov. Distephana, ioss. Deidamia, Pet. Thou. 

''Anthactinia, Bory. Paschanthus, Burch. Thompsonia, R. Br. 
Disemma, La Bill. Ceratosicyos, N. ab 
Murucuja, Tourn. E. (12) 

Order XLIX. PAPAYACE^E. The Papaw Tribe. 

Papayje, Agardh Classes. (1824). — Carice-^;, Turpin in All. du Diet. des. Sc. Nat. (?) — 
Papayace^, Von Martins Conspectus, No. 169. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual. Calyx inferior, minute, 5-toothed. Corolla 
gamopetalous ; in the male tubular, with 5 lobes and 10 stamens, all arising from the same 
line, and of which those that are opposite the lobes are sessile, the others on short fila- 
ments ; anthers adnate, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally ; in the female divided nearly to 
the base into 5 segments. Ovary superior, 1 -celled, with 5 parietal polyspermous placentae ; 
stigma sessile, 5-lobed, lacerated. Fruit succulent, indehiscent, 1 -celled, with 5 polysper- 
mous parietal placentae. Seeds enveloped in a loose mucous coat with a brittle pitted 
testa ; embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen, with flat cotyledons and a taper radicle turned 
towards the hilum. — Trees without branches, yielding an acrid milky juice. Leaves alter- 
nate, lobed, on long taper petioles. Flowers in axillary racemes. 

Affinities. It was the opinion of Jussieu that the genus upon which this 
order is founded held a sort of middle station -between Urticaceae and Cucur- 
bitaceae. Auguste de St. Hilaire has, however, well remarked upon this sub- 
ject, that the only relation that it has with Urticaceae consists in the separa- 
tion of sexes, milky juice, habit, which is like that of some species of Ficus, 
fohage, which is not very difierent from that of Cecropia, and the position of its 
stigmas ; and to these he very wisely attaches very little importance. Its fruit 
brings it near Cucurbitaceae ; but its true place is probably in the vicinity of 
Passifloraceae, with which it altogether agrees in the appearance of its testa, in 
its unilocular fruit with parietal polyspermous placentae, and in its dichlamy- 
deous flowers ; differing, however, widely in its habit and united petals. 

Geography. Natives of South America; unknown, except as objects of 
cultivation, beyond that continent. 

Properties. The fruit of the Papaw is eaten, when cooked, and is es- 
teemed by some persons ; but it appears to have little to recommend it. Its 
great peculiarities are, that the juice of the unripe fruit is a most powerful and 
efficient vermifuge, the powder of the seed even answers the same purpose, 
and that a principal constituent of this juice is fibrine, a principle otherwise 
supposed peculiar to the animal kingdom and to fungi. T^e tree has, more- 
over, the singular property of rendering the toughest animal substances 
tender, by causing a separation of the muscular fibre ; its very vapour even 
does this ; newly-killed meat suspended among the leaves, and even old hogs 


and old poultiy, when fed on the leaves and fruit, become tender in a few 
hours. See an excellent account of the Papaw by Hooker in the Bot. Mag. 



Carica, L. 


FLACOURTiANEiE, Richard in Mem. Mus. 1. 366. (1815) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 255. (182§). 

Essential Character. — Sepals definite, from 4-7, cohering slightly at the base. 
Petals equal to the latter in number and alternate with them, seldom wanting. Stamens 
hypogynous, of the same number as the petals, or twice as many, or some multiple of them, 
occasionally changed into nectariferous scales. Ovary roundish, ^distinct, sessile or slightly 
stalked; style either none or filiform; stigmas several, more or less distinct. Fruit 1 -celled, 
either fleshy and indehiscent, or capsular, with 4 or 5 valves, the centre filled with a thin 
pulp. Seeds few, thick, usually enveloped in a pellicle formed by the withered pulp, 
attached to the surface of the valves in a branched manner, not in a line as in Violaceae and 
Passifloracese ; albumen fleshy, somewhat oily; embryo straight in the axis with the radicle 
turned to the hilum, and therefore usually superior ; cotyledons flat, foliaceous. — Shrubs, or 
small trees. Leaves alternate, simple, on short stalks, without stipules, usually entire, and 
coriaceous. Peduncles axillary, many-flowered. Flowers sometimes unisexual. 

Anomalies. Ryanaea, Patrisia, Flacourtia,Roumea, and Stigmarota, that is to say, more 
than half the order, have no petals. 

Affinities. The unilocular fruit, over the whole of the inside of which 
the placentae spread, is, according to De Candolle, sufficient to distinguish 
these from aU other Dicotyledons. They resemble the Capparidaceae with fleshy 
fniit in a number of particulars ; and De CandoUe indicates an approach to 
Passifloraceae : this cffiefly depends upon both orders having parietal placentae, 
and the presence of a series of barren stamina, analogous to the corona of 
Passifloraceae. They have also some relation to Sarny daceae. 

Geography. Almost all natives of the hottest parts of the East and West 
Indies, and Africa, Two or three species are found at the Cape of Good Hope, 
and one or perhaps two in New Zealand. 

Properties. Nothing is known of their sensible qualities. The fruit of 
some of the Flacourtias is eatable and wholesome. That of Hydnocarpus ve- 
nenata is used in Ceylon for poisoning fish, which afterwards becomes so un- 
wdiolesome as to be unfit for food. But according to Blume, this genus 
belongs to a distinct and natm'al order. See Pangiacece below. 


§ 1. Patrisie^, DC. 
Ryanaea, DC. 
Ryania, Vahl. 
Patrisia, Rich. 
Patrisia, H.B.K. 

§ 2. Flacourtie^,DC. Stigmarota, Lour. §4.ERYTHRospERMEiE, 
Flacourtia, L’HeriL § 3. Kiggelarie^,DC. DC. 

Roumea, Poit.* Kiggelaria, L. Erythrospermum, Lm. 

Kcelera, Willd. Melicytus, Forst. Chaulmoogra, Roxb. 

Bessera, Spreng. 

Limacia, Dietr. Phoberos, Lour. 


Blume in Ann. Sc. Nov. Ser. 2. 88. (1834). 

Pangium, Rumf. Hydnocarpus, Gaertn. 

Vareca, Gaertn.* Chilmoria, Hamit. 

Gynocardia, Roxb. 

are mentioned by name in the work above quoted, but no character is 
assigned to them. 

See Samydaceae. 



MaleshkrbiacE:®, Don in Jameson’s Journal, 321. (1826) ; Martins Conspectus, No. 240. 

(1835). — PASsiFLOREiE, § Maleshcrbicse, DC. Prodr. 3. 337. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Calyx tubular, membranous, inflated, 5-lobed, the lobes with 
an imbricated aestivation. Petals 5, alternate with the segments of the calyx, persistent, 
with a convolute aestivation, arising from without a short membranous rim or corona. 
Stamens 5 or 10, perigynous; filaments filiform, distinct, or connected with the stalk of the 
ovary; c/nf/icrs versatile. Ocary superior, stipitate, 1 -celled, sometimes with the placentae 
at the base, from which the ovules arise by the intervention of umbilical cords ; styles 3, 
filiform, very long, arising from distinct points of the apex of the ovary ; stigmas clavate. 
Emit capsular, 1 -celled, 3-valved, membranous more or less, many-seeded. Seeds attached 
by umbilical cords to placentae arising either from the axis of the valves, or from their 
base ; testa crustaceous, brittle, with a fleshy crest, and no aril ; embryo taper, in the midst 
of fleshy albumen, with the radicle next the hilum. — Herbaceous or half-shrubby plants. 
Leaves alternate, lobed, without stipules. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary, yellow or 

Affinities. According to Don, by whom these plants were first consi- 
dered the rudiments of an order, “ they agree on the one hand with Passiflo- 
raceae, and on the other with Turneraceae and I am persuaded that this is 
their true position. From the former they differ in the insertion of their 
styles, in their versatile anthers, taper embryo, want of aril and stipules, 
and altogether in their habit : from Turneraceae, to which their habit quite 
allies them, they differ in the presence of a perigynous membrane, in the re- 
markable insertion of the styles, and in the want of all trace of an aril ; agree- 
ing with that order in the aestivation of the corolla, and in the principal other 
points of their structure. In their thin-sided fruit they approach Smeathman- 
nia in Passifloraceae. At least two genera of the order are known. 

Geography. Natives of Chili. 

Properties. Unknown, except as objects of great beauty. 


Malesherbia, R. et P. 

Gynopleura, Cav. 

Order Llll. TURNERACE.E. 

Loaseae, § Turneraceae, Kunth. N. G. et Sp. 6. 123. (1823).-^TurneracejE, DC. Prodr. 

3. 345. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, often cploured, with 5 equal lobes, imbricated 
in aestivation. Petals 5, inserted into the tube of the calyx, equal, with a twisted aestiva- 
tion. Stamens 5, inserted into the tube of the calyx below the petals, with which they are 
alternate ; distinct ; anf/im oblong, erect, 2-celled. Oyary superior, 1 -celled, with 

3 parietal placentae ; ovules indefinite ; styles 3 or 6, cohering more or less, and sim})le 
branched or multifid at the apex. Capsule 3-valved, 1 -celled, opening from the point 
about as far as the middle, the valves bearing the placentae in the middle. Seeds with a 
thin membranous aril on one side, crustaceous, reticulated; embryo slightly curved, in the 
middle of fleshy albumen ; radicle turned towards the hilum ; cotyledons somewhat plano- 
convex. — Herbaceous plants, having sometimes a tendency to become shrubby, with a sim- 
ple pubescence, which does not sting. Leaves alternate, simple, without stipules, with 
occasionally 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Flowers axillary, their pedicel either dis- 
tinct or cohering with the petiole ; with 2 bractlets. Petals yellowish, rarely blue. 

Affinities. Placed by De Candolle between Loasaseae and Fouquiera- 
ceae, chiefly, it should seem, on account of its manifest relation to the former, 


and its perigynons stamens. Others station it in the vicinity of Cistacese, from 
which it differs more in the calyx, in the insertion of the stamens, and in the 
approximation of the radicle to the hilum, than in any other character, agree- 
ing with them very much in habit. With Malvaceae the order agrees in the 
twisted aestivation of the corolla, and in habit. But with Loasaseae and Passiflo- 
raceae they have most in common : the presence of glands upon the ends of the 
petioles of Turneraceae is a confirmation of their affinity to the latter. They 
are distinguished from Loasaseae by their fruit being superior and 1 -celled, 
with parietal placentae, and by their definite stamens ; the former character is, 
however, weakened by the nearly superior fruit of some Loasaseae. 

Geography. Natives exclusively of the West Indies and South America. 
There seems no good reason for supposing Tumera trioniflora to be a native 
of Japan. 

Properties. Unknown, 


Turnera, L. 

Piriqueta, Aubl. 

Burcardia, Schreb. 

Burgkurtia, Neck. 

Alliance IV. BIXALES. 

Essential Character. — Polyandrous, without any crown of sterile stamens. Leaves 
usually dotted. 

This character divides the present alliance from the last, to which it is other- 
wise most nearly related. Oncoba in Bixaceae is, in fact almost equally refer- 
able to Flacourtiaceae ; for if it agrees with this alliance in the absence of sterile 
stamens, and in the large number of the fertile ones, so does it also agree with 
Flacourtiaceae in its placentae spread all over the inside of the fruit. 

Order LIV. BIXACE.^. The Arnotto Tribe. 

Bixinea:, Kunth Diss, Malv, p. 17. (1822) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 259. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4-7, either distinct or cohering at the base, with an 
imbricated aestivation. Petals 5, like the sepals, or wanting. Stamens indefinite, distinct, 
inserted upon a receptacle at the base of the calyx ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary superior, 
sessile, 1 -celled ; ovules proceeding from 4 to 7 parietal placentae ; style single, or in 2 or 4 
divisions. Fruit capsular, or berried, 1 -celled, many-seeded. Seeds attached to parietal 
placentae, and enveloped in pulp; albumen either fleshy or very thin; embryo included, 
either straightish or curved, with leafy cotyledons ; radicle pointing to the hilum. — Trees 
or shrubs. Leaves alternate, -.simple, entire, usually with pellucid dots ; stipules deciduous, 
one only in Azara, often wanting ; peduncles axillary, 1 -many-flowered, with bracts. 

Anomalies. Corolla often wanting. 

Affinities. The carpological characters of this order are very much 
those of Cistaceae and Homaliacese ; from the former, Bixaceje differ in the po- 
sition of their radicle, and in many other particulars ; from the latter they are 
distinguished by their hypogynous stamens, and consequently superior fruit, 
by the distinct natm'e of the sepals and petals, when the latter are present, &c. 
Their dotted leaves are remarkable among all the neighbouring orders, and 
would alone suffice to characterise them, if they were constant, but they are 
occasionally not dotted. Some of the genera were formerly referred to Rosa- 
cese ; but the affinity of that order is very weak ; the plants formerly placed in 


it were imperfectly known. Oncoba connects the order with Flacourtiaceae, and 
seems equally allied to both ; it also joins both that and this present order to 
Passifloracese by the genus Smeathmannia, with which it accords in habit. 

Geography. All natives of the hotter parts of America, or of the islands 
of the Mauritius. 

Properties. Bixa yields the substance known to the English by the name 
of Amotto, and to the French by that of Rocou. It is the pulp that en- 
velopes the seeds, and which is slightly purgative and stomachic. Farmers 
use it to stain their cheeses, and dyers for a reddish colour. The bark of 
Ludia is said to be emetic : but it is uncertain whether that genus does not be- 
long to Homaliaceae. 


Echinocarpus, Blume. Oncoba, Forsk. 

Bixa, L. 

Abatia, R. et P. 
Banara, Aubl. 
Laetia, L. 

Thamnia, R. Br. 

Lundia, Thonn. 
Prockia, L. 

Lightfootia, Sw. 
Kuhlia, H. B. K. 
Ludia, Lam. 

Ascra, Schott. Dasyanthera, Presl. 

Trichospermum, Blum.Christannia, Presl. 
Azara, R. et P. Mayna, Aubl. 

Lindackeria, Presl. Piparea, Aubl. 

Group IV. 

Essential Character. — Calyx incompletely whorled, two of the sepals being exte- 
rior. PlacentcB not parietal in the ovary. Fruit never inferior. Albumen if present, of 
nearly the same capacity as the embryo. 

The natural orders collected under this head, seem to have some common 
bond of union, which separates them from the remainder of the series ; whe- 
ther that bond depends upon some peculiarity in the calyx or in any other 
organ. It must be confessed that the structure of the calyx, upon which I rely 
for my distinction, is sometimes, especially when the fruit is nearly full grown, 
but little appreciable, and yet I think it is capable of practical application in all 
cases, if it be remembered that plants with parietal placentae in the ovary, or 
inferior fruit, are excluded from this group. For example, Sauvagesieae have 
a complete calycose structure, but their ovary has parietal placentation, and 
therefore the sub-order belongs to the parietal group. In the Cistal alliance 
are comprehended the lowest forms of the calycose group, and it is here 
that we pass on the one hand into the Ranal alliance of the albuminous 
group through Cistus and Dendromecon ; and on the other into the Malval 
alliance of the Syncarpous group through Linaceae, Hugoniacese, and Malva- 
ceae. Polygalaceae seem to form one of the connections of this group with the 
last through Violaceae, and with the Apocarpous group through Leguminosae. 

Alliance I. GUTTALES, 

Essential Character. — Stamens indefinite in number. Albumen absent in the seeds. 
Petals equal in number to the sepals. 

This may be considered the highest form of the calycose group. The leaves 
in almost all the genera are opposite, and of a firm texture with a smooth sur- 
face, and the flowers are large and showy. This alliance differs from the 
Theal in the general tendency to a uniformity in number between the sepals and 


petals ; besides which the plants of the Theal alliance have in all cases alternate 
leaves, wdiich are very often serrated. The Cistal alliance is scarcely distin- 
guishable by any single character beyond the presence of albumen, and yet the 
orders it comprehends are in reality very peculiar. 

Order LV. GUTTIFER^, 1 

or \ The Mangosteen Tribe. 


GuTTiFERiE, Juss. Gen. 243. (1789) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 557. (1824) ; Cambesscdes 
Memoire (1828). 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermaphrodite, or unisexual. Sepals from 2 to 6, 
usually persistent, round, membranous, and imbricated, frequently unequal and coloured. 
Petals hypogynous, from 4 to 10, passing insensibly into sepals. Stamens numerous, either 
distinct, or combined in one or more parcels, hypogynous, rarely definite ; filaments of 
various lengths; anthers adnate, bursting inwards, sometimes very small, occasionally 
bursting outwards, sometimes 1 -celled, and sometimes opening by a pore. Disk fleshy, 
occasionally 5-lobed. Ovary solitary, superior, 1- or many-celled; ovules solitary, erect, or 
ascending, or numerous and attached to central placentae ; style none, or very short; stigma 
peltate, or radiate. Fruit either dry or succulent, 1- or many-celled, 1- or many-seed®d, 
dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds frequently nestling in pulp ; their coat thin and membra- 
nous ; always apterous, very frequently with an aril ; albumen none ; embryo straight ; 
cotyledons thick, inseparable ; radicle either turned to or from the hilum. — Trees or shrubs, 
occasionally parasitical, yielding resinous juice. Leaves without stipules, opposite, very 
rarely alternate, coriaceous, entire, with a strong midrib, and often with the lateral veins 
running through to the margin. Flowers usually numerous, axillary, or terminal, white, 
pink, or red, articulated with their peduncle. 

Anomalies. Havetia has the anthers immersed in a fleshy receptacle. The ovary of 
Calophylleae is 1 -celled, and the petals opposite the sepals. 

Affinities. In treating of Ternstromiacese use has been made of the 
excellent memoir of Cambessedes for the purpose of explaining the affinities of 
that order v/ith this ; and the following comparisons are drawn from the same 
source. European botanists are much in want of good observations upon liv- 
ing plants of Guttiferse, and there is no order that is more in need of elucida- 
tion from some skilful Indian botanist than this. Cambessedes remarks, that 
Guttiferse differ from Hypericacese in their branches, their leaves, and their 
articulated peduncles ; in the normal number of the parts of their flowers, 
which appears to be two and its multiples, instead of five, which obtains in 
Hypericacese ; in their anthers united the whole length with the filament, and 
not articulated at its summit ; in their seeds, which often have an aril, and are 
solitary in each cell of the ovary, a character found in no Hypericacese (the 
monospermous cells of the fruit of some Vismias is due to abortion) ; finally, in 
the structure of the embryo, which is different in the two orders. Hypericiu- 
cese, moreover, have the carpels often nearly distinct. Marcgraaviaceae are 
distinguished by their alternate leaves, the singular form of their lower bracts, 
their petals fi'equently united, their unsymmetrical flowers, and by their seeds 
being very small, and exceedingly numerous. Royle remarks that Guttiferse 
are in some respects allied to Ebenacese, as may be seen by comparing species 
of Garcinia with some species of Diospyrus. Illustr. p. 132. 

Geography. All natives of the tropics, the greater part of South Ame- 
rica ; a few are from Madagascar, none from the continent of Africa. They 
generally require situations combining excessive heat and humidity. 

Properties. The species all abound in a viscid, yellow, acrid, and pur- 
gative gum-resinous juice resembling Gamboge. Tliis gum-resin is obtained 
by removing the bark or by breaking the leaves and young shoots. Two 
kinds of Gamboge are known in Indian bazaars ; one the best, is the produce 


of Siam ; this is in rolls, having the appearance of being rolled or cast in 
moulds when in its soft state ; it is solid and compact in texture, and forms the 
best pigment. This is what is supposed to be procured from Stalagmitis Cam- 
bogioides, which, according to Wight and Arnott, is a species of Garcinia, 
and probably identical with G. cochinchinensis. The other kind in smaller 
pieces, granular, brittle, less veilued as a colour, and less effective as a purga- 
tive, is the produce of Ceylon. This, there can be little doubt is what is fur- 
nished by Xanthochymus pictorius. Many more species afford a similar 
substance although of inferior quality. Garcinia pictoria yields Gamboge 
which in its crude and unprepared state is superior to every other kind ; but it 
is not so permanent. Royles Illustr. p. 132. Many would, no doubt, yield 
useful timber, as Calophyllum angustifolium furnishes the straight spars called 
Peon, at Penang, and in the islands to the Eastward of the Bay of Bengal. 
The blossoms of Maesua ferrea are to be found in every bazaar in a dried state, 
under the name of nagkesur, being used in medicine as well as esteemed for 
their fragrance. The seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum yield an oil, and a 
resin exudes from the roots which is supposed by some authors to be the same 
as the Tacamahaca of the Isle of Bourbon. Ibid. The true East India Taca- 
mahaca is produced by Calophyllum Calaba. The powerful gastric cathartic 
properties of Gamboge are well known. If dissolved in water, and examined 
beneath a very powerful microscope, this substance will be found to consist 
entirely of active molecules. In the West Indies the juice of Mammea 
is employed to destroy the chiggers, little insects which attack the naked 
feet, introducing themselves into the flesh below the toe-nails. The bark 
of many kinds is astringent and slightly vermifugal. The berry of Garcinia 
Mangostana is believed to be the most grateM to the palate of all the 
fruits that are known. Other species, especially G. cornea and paniculata, 
also bear a grateful fruit. The Butter and Tallow-tree of Sierra Leone, which 
owes its name' (Pentadesma butyracea) to the yellow greasy juice its fruit 
yields when cut, belongs to this order. The flowers of Clusia insignis weep a 
considerable quantity of resin from the disk and stamens ; so much that Von 
Martins says he obtained an ounce from two flowers. See Nov. G. and Sp, 
3. 165. 


§ 1. Cluster, DC. 
Tovomita, Aubl. 
Marialva, Vand. 
Beauharnoisia, R. 
et P. 

Ochrocarpus, Pt. Th, 
Verticillaria, R. et P. 

Chloromyron, Pers. 
Clusia, L. 

Xanthe, W. 

Arrudea, Camb. 

Havetia, Kth. 
Quapoya, Aubl. 
Schweiggera, Mart. 
Micranthera, Chois. 

Bertolonia, Spr. 

,§ 2. MoRONOBEiE. 
Moronobea, Aubl. 

Symphonia, Juss. 
Chrysopia, Pet. Th. 
Aneuriscus, Presl. 

§ 3. Garcinie^, DC. 
Mammea, L. 
Pentadesma, R. Br. 
Rheedia, L. 

Garcinia, L. 
Cambogia, L. 
Mangostana, Gaertn, 
Stalagmitis, Murr. 
Xanthochymus, Rox. 
Brindonia, Pet. Th. 
Oxycarpus, Lour. 

Mesua, L. 
Calophyllum, L. 
Kayea, Wall. 

Apoterium, Bl. 

, Gy notroches, Bl. 
Macoubea, Aubl. 
Macanea, Juss. 
Macahanea, Aubl. 

Sub-Order? CANELLEJE. 

CANELLACEiE, Von Martius, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 3. 163. (1829) ; Conspectus, No. 300. 


Von Martius states in the place above quoted, “ that Platonia and Canella 
form a peculiar order, especially distinguished from Guttiferse by the presence 
of albumen.” He suggests that Moronobea may also belong to the same as- 
semblage. The ovules of- Canella are remarkably different from those of Gut- 
tiferae ; they hang in a single pair side by' side, and by short funicles, from 
near the apex of the solitary carpel of which the fruit consists. 


Properties. For Winters bark is sometimes substituted that of Canella 
alba, which it resembles in its aromatic pungent qualities. Fee. 


Canella, P. Br. Platonia, Mart. 

Winterana, L. 


Rhizobole®, DC. Prodr. 1, 599. (1824) ; Cambessedes in Aug. St, HU. FI. Bras. Merid. 

1. 322. (1827). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, more or less combined, imbricated in aestivation. 
Petals 5, thickish, unequal, arising along with the stamens from a hypogynous disk. Sta- 
mens extremely numerous, slightly monadelphous, arising in a double row from a disk, the 
innermost being shorter and often abortive ; anthers roundish. Ovary superior, 4-6-celled, 
4-6-seeded,* styles 4-6; stigma simple; ovules peltate. Fruit formed of 4-6-combined 
nuts, part of which are sometimes abortive; each nut indehiscent, 1 -seeded, 1 -celled, with 
a thick double putamen. Seed reniform, without albumen, with a funicle which is dilated 
into a spongy excrescence ; radicle very large, constituting nearly the whole of the almond- 
like substance of the nut, with a long 2-edged caulicle, having two small cotyledons at the 
top, and lying in a furrow of the radicle. — Trees. Leaves opposite, stalked, compound, 
without stipules. Flowers racemose. 

Affinities. A very distinct order, allied to Sapindacese, in its hyiiogy- 
nous flowers and its fruit ; in some measure also related to .dEsculaceae on ac- 
count of its opposite compound palmate leaves ; but in ^Esculaceae the radicle 
is small, and the cotyledons very large, while in Rhizobolacese the radicle is 
enlarged, and the cotyledons small. In both orders the albumen seems to be 
absorbed by the various parts of the embryo. De Candolle, Prodr. 1. 599. 
It is, however, with Guttiferae that Rhizobolacese best agree. “ In these two 
orders w*e find the leaves opposite and articulated at their base, hypogynous 
petals with an aestivation of the same nature ; numerous hypogynous stamens, 
and exalbuminous seeds. The large flowers of Caryocar call to mind those of 
most Guttiferae, its inflorescence is neaidy that of Moronobea ; its fruit has a 
relation to that of Mammea, and presents, in that genus as in several others of 
• the same order, a single seed in each cell.” Camh. in Aug. St. H. FI. Bras. 1. 

Geography. Six large trees found in the forests of the hottest parts of 
South America constitute the whole of the order. 

Properties. Some of them are known for producing the Souari (vulg6 
Suwnrrow) Nuts, of the shops, the kernel of which is one of the most delicious 
fruits of the nut kind that is known. An oil is extracted from them not infe- 
rior to that of the Ohve. 


Caryocar, L. 

Rhizoholus, Gaertn. 

- Saouari, Aubl. 

Pekea, Aubl. 


Mabcgraaviace^, Juss. Ann. Mus. 14. 397. (1809) ; DC. Prod. 1. 565. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Sepals from 2 to 7, usually coriaceous and imbricated. 
Corolla hypogynous ; sometimes gamopetalous, calyptriform, entire, or torn at the point. 


sometimes consisting of five petals. Stamens indefinite, inserted either on the receptacle 
or on a hypogynous membrane; filaments dilated at the base ; anthers long, innate, burst- 
ing inwards. Ovai'y single, superior, usually furrowed, many -celled, many, seeded ; style 
single ; stigma simple or capitate ; ovules numerous, attached to a central placenta. Cap- 
sule coriaceous, consisting of several valves which separate slightly ; dissepiments proceed- 
ing from the middle of the valves, but not meeting in the centre, so that the fruit is 1 -celled. 
Seeds very minute and numerous, nestling in pulp. — Shrubs, having sometimes a scramb- 
ling habit. Leaves alternate. Flowers in umbels or spikes. Peduncles naked, or furnished 
with either simple or cucullate hollow bracts. 

Affinities. The station of this order is uncertain ; it approaches Ebena- 
cese in its gamopetalous corolla cut round at the base, in the anthers attached 
by their base, and the alternate leaves : Ericaceae in the anthers and disk of 
the genus Antholoma : Hypericacese and Guttiferae in the hypogynous stamens, 
the polypetalous corolla of some genera, placentation and numerous seeds ; 
wherefore Jussieu stationed the order near Clusia. DC. Prodr. 1. 565. 
(1824). Turpin has somewhere remarked, that the bracts of this order 
offer a clear explanation of the conversion of a degenerated leaf into an 

Geography. All found in equinoctial America, except Antholoma, which 
is a native of New Caledonia. 

Properties. Handsome and curious plants, remarkable for their singular 
cucullate bracts. Nothing is known of their qualities. 


§ I.MarcgraaviEvE, DC. § 2. Norante^, DC. Ruyschia, Jacq. 

Antholoma, I.a Bill. Norantea, Aubl. Souroubea, Aubl. 

Marcgraavia, L. Ascium, Vahl. 

Order LVIII. HYPERICACE^. The Tutsan Tribe. 

Hyperica, Juss. Gen. 254. (1789). — Hypericine.e, Chois. Prodr. Hyp. 32. (1821) ; 

DC. Prodr. 1. 541. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. p. 41. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4-5, either more or less cohering, or wholly distinct, 
persistent, unequal, with glandular dots. Petals 4-5, hypogynous, with a twisted aestiva- 
tion and oblique vernation, often having black dots. Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, in 
three or more parcels ; anthers versatile. Ovary single, superior ; placenta at this time 
central ; styles several, rarely connate ; stigmas simple, occasionally capitate. Fruit a cap- 
sule or berry, of many valves and many cells ; the edges of the former being curved 
inwards. Seeds minute, indefinite, usually tapering, attached to a placenta in the axis or 
on the inner edge of the dissepiments ; embryo straight, with an inferior radicle and no 
albumen. — Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or trees, with a resinous juice. Leaves opposite, 
entire, sometimes dotted, occasionally alternate and crenelled. Floivers generally yellow. 
Infiorescence variable. 

Anomalies. Lancretia has 10 monadelphous stamens. Some species of Vismia have 
solitary seeds, according to Cambessedes. 

Affinities. Nearly allied to Guttiferae, from which they chiefly differ in 
their small round and versatile anthers, numerous styles, and polyspermous 
capsules. To Cistaceae they approximate in many points, differing principally 
in their fruit, polyadelphous stamens, and dotted leaves. With Saxifragaceae 
they appear to me to have some relation, through the medium of Parnassia, 
the fringed glands of which are analogous to the polyandrous fascicles of Hy- 
pericum. The leaves of Hypericaceae are very commonly marked with dots, 
v/hich are either transparent, or black and opaque. 

Geography. Very generally spread over the surface of the earth, inha- 
biting mountains and valleys, marshes and dry plains, meadows and heaths. 


Tlie following is the distribution of the species according to Choisy : — Europe 
19 ; North America, 41 ; South America, 21 ; West Indies, 1 ; Asia, 24 ; 
New Holland, 5 ; Africa and the neighbouring islands, 7 ; Azores and Cana- 
ries, 5 ; common to Europe and Asia, 4 ; common to Europe, Asia, and Africa, 
1. {Choisy Prodr. 1821.) Many, have however, to be added for Asia and 
South America. 

Properties. The juice of many species is shghtly purgative and febrifu- 
gal. In the European species this yellow juice being in small proportion to 
the essential od, and the rest of the vegetable matter, they have been used as 
tonics and astringents ; especially H. perforatum and H. Androssemum. Some 
of the American species of the order are possessed of a more copious yellow juice, 
and more energetic properties ; that obtained from Vismia guianensis, a Mexican 
and Surinam tree, is known in commerce and called American Gummi Gutta. 
Royles Illustr. 131. Hypericum hircinum is foetid. A gargle for sore throats 
is prepared in Brazil from the Hypericum connatum, commonly called Orelha 
de Goto. PI. Us. 61. A decoction of the leaves of another species, Hyperi- 
cum laxiuscidum, or Allecrim hraho, is reputed in the same country to be a 
specific against the bites of serpents. Ib. 62. 


§ 1. Hyperice^, DC. Sarothra, L. 
Ascyrum, L. Triadenium, Rafin. 

Hypericoides, Adans. Elodea, Pursh. 
Lancretia, DC. Martia, Spreng. 

Cratoxylon, Blume. Androssemum, All. 
Hypericum, L. 

Brathys, Mut. 

§ 2. Vismia, DC. Monoporina, I.S.Prsl. 

Vismia, Vand. Scyphcea,C. B.Fresl. 

Haronga, Pet. Thou. § 3. CarpodontejE, 
Harongana, Lam. Bartl. 

Arongana, Pers. Carpodontos, La Bill. 
Hcemocarpus, Noron. Eucryphiaj Cav. 

Godoya, R. et P. 


In the Botanical Register , t. 1819 (Dec. 1835), I have described a plant 
called Ochranthe, which agrees with Hypericaceee in having imbricated sepals, 
hypogynous petals and stamens, partly disjoined carpels, and in some degree 
in habit, but which differs in having definite stamens (5), stipules, and serrated 
leaves. Its fruit is unknown. To what order it really ought to be referred is 
uncertain ; but it appears to me so very remarkable a plant as to indicate very 
strong traces of a peculiar assemblage. 


Ochranthe, Lindl. 

Alliance II. THEALES. 

Essential Character. — Stamens indefinite in number. Albumen absent in the seeds. 
The petals and sepals not equal to each other in number, but gradually passing the one 
into the other. 

Here we have a kind of transition from Guttales to Acerales. Saurauja 
approaches Sapindacese in the panicled inflorescence and general character. 


Obder lix. ternstromiace.e. 

Ternstromiete, Mirhl. Bull. Philom. 381. (1813).— Ternstromiace.e, DC. Mtm. Soc. 

H. N. Genev. vol. 1. (1823) ; Prodr. 1. 523. (1824) ; Cambessedes Mtmoire (1828). 

— Theace^, Mirb. Bull. Phil. (1813). — Camelliete, DC. Tlieor. Elem. ed. 1. 

(1813) ; Prodr. 1. 529. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Flowers very rarely polygamous. Sepals 5 or 7, imbricated 
in aestivation, concave, coriaceous, deciduous, the innermost often the largest. Petals 5< 
6, or 9, not equal in number to the sepals, often combined at the base. Stamens very nume-. 
rous; filaments filiform, monadelphous or polyadelphous; anthers versatile, or adnate. 
Omry superior, with several cells; styles irova 3 to 7, filiform, more or less combined; 
ovules pendulous, or erect, or peltate. Capsule 2-7-celled and capsular, with the dehis- 
cence taking place in various ways ; sometimes coriaceous and indehiscent ; usually with a 
central column. Seeds large, attached to the axis, very few ; albumen none, or in very 
small quantity ; embryo straight, bowed or folded back, the radicle turned to the hilum ; 
cotyledons very large, often filled with oil, occasionally plaited lengthwise ; an aril some- 
times present. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, without stipules, usually 
undivided, now and then with pellucid dots. Peduncles axillary or terminal, articulated 
at the base. Flowers generally white, seldom pink or red, very rarely (in Cochlospermum) 

Anomalies. Cochlospermum has the ovary 1 -celled, with imperfect septa, to the 
margins of which the ovules are attached. Leaves very rarely opposite. Cambessedes. 

Affinities. This order originated in 1813, with Mirbel, who separated 
some of its genera from Aurantiacese, where they had been placed by Jussieu, 
and at the same time founded another closely allied order, under the name of 
Theacese. These opinions were substantially adopted by Kunth and De Can- 
dolle, the latter of whom, moreover, formed several sections among his 
Temstromiacese. It is, however, certain, that no solid difference exists between 
this last order and Theaceae or Camelhese, as they were called by De Can- 
dolle ; and Cambessedes, after a careful revision of the whole, has come to the 
conclusion, that even the sections proposed by De Candolle among Ternstro- 
miaceae are untenable. I shall profit by Cambessedes’ observations in aU I 
have to say upon the order. Ternstromiaceae may be compared, in the first 
place, with Guttiferae, with which they accord more closely than with any thing 
else, and in the affinities of which they entirely participate. They differ thus : 
in Ternstromiaceae the leaves are alternate, to which there are scarcely any 
exceptions ; they are always opposite in Guttiferae. In the former the normal 
number of the parts of the flower appears to be 5 and its multiples ; in Gut- 
tiferae it is evidently two. In the former the calyx is always perfectly distinct 
from the corolla; these two organs are usually confounded in the latter. 
Ternstromiaceae have the petals generally united at the base, and a twisted 
aestivation ; in Guttiferae they are distinct, with a convolute aestivation. The 
seeds of the former are almost always either destitute of albumen, or furnished 
with a membranous wing ; the latter have neither the one nor the other. The 
first have the radicle always near the hilum ; the second have it either near the 
hilum or turned in an opposite direction. Finally, in Guttiferae the cotyledons 
are very thick, and firmly glued together ; and this character, which is not 
observed in Ternstromiaceae, is the more important, as it is not liable to any 
exception. Ternstromiaceae are aUied to Hypericaceae through the medium of 
Carpodontos, a genus which, with the foliage of the latter order, has the fruit 
of the former ; and also of certain plants of H)rpericaceae, which, according to 
Cambessedes, have a definite number of seeds. With Marcgraaviaceae they 
agree through Norantea, which has the stamens slightly adherent to the base 
of the petals, and fixed anthers ; but that order is entirely different in habit, 
and is weU marked by its singular cucullate bracts, its fruit, and its wingless 


exalbuminous seeds. Many genera of TernstrdmiacesB, such as Kielmeyera 
and others, have the habit of Tiliaceae, while the fruit of Laplacea is strikingly 
like that of Luhea ; but the aestivation of the calyx and many other characters 
distinguish them. 

Geography. Although the plants of this order which are known in 
European gardens are chiefly from China or North America, these form but an 
inconsiderable part of the whole : 7 or 8 are all that 'are contained in the first 
of these countries, and 4 in the latter ; while between 60 and 70, all beautiful 
trees or shrubs, are natives of the woods of South America : about a score are 
known in the East Indies, and one in Africa. 

Properties. These are ill understood, but little being known of the 
greater part of the species. The tea which is so extensively consumed bv 
Europeans is produced by different species of Thea and Camellia : its slightly 
stimidating properties become narcotic in very hot latitudes, as at Penang. For 
a most valuable account of this plant see Royles Illustr. p. 107. An excellent 
table oil is expressed from the seeds of CameUia oleifera. The difi’erent species 
and varieties of Camellia japonica are the glory of gardeners. The fruit of a 
species of Saurauja is said to be acidulous, and to resemble Tomatoes in flavour. 
DC. The leaves of Kielmeyera speciosa are employed in Brazil for fomenta- 
tions, for which they are well adapted, on account of the mucilage in which 
' they abound. PL Us. 58. It is believed in Brazil, that a decoction of the 
roots of a plant called Butua do curvo (Wittelsbachia insignis. Mart., Max- 
imilianea regia. Ibid., Cochlospermum insigne, Aug. St. H.) has the power of 
healing internal abscesses. The Brazilians take it for all kinds of internal 
bruises. PI. Us. 57. Cochlospermum tinctorium is used in cases of amenorrhsea, 
and also as a yellow dye. FI. Seneg. 1. 100. The seeds of Cochlospermum 
Gossypium are surrounded with cotton of a soft silky nature, and the tree 
yields the gum called Kuteera, which in the North-Western Provinces of 
India is substituted for Tragacanth. Royle. 


Cochlospermum, Kth. 
Maximilianea, Mart. 
Wittelsbachia, Mart. 
Ternstromia, Mut. 

Tonabea, Juss. 
Adinandra, Jack. 
Cleyera, Thunb. 
Freziera, Swz. 
Lettsomia, R. et P. 
Eurya, Thunb. 

Saurauja, W. 

Apatelia, DC. 
Palava, R. et P. 
Stewartia, Cav. 
Malachodendron, Cav. 
Laplacea, Kth. 

Hcemocharis, Salisb. 
Gordonia, Ellis. 
Camellia, L. 

Ventenatia, P. de B. 
Bonnetia, Mart. 

Kieseria, Nees. 
Architaea, Mart. 
Mahurea, Aubl. 

Bonnetia, Schreb, 
Marila, Pers. 
Anisosticte, Bartl. 
Kielmeyera, Mart. 
Thea, L. 

Sasanqua, Nees. 

? Anneslea, Wall. 
Wikstrbmia, Schrad. 

Lindleya, Nees. 
Schima, Reinw. 
Geeria, Bl. 
Pyrenaria, Bl. 
Reinwardtia, Bl. 
Blumia, Spr. 

Alliance III. ACERALES. 

Essential Character. Stamens definite in number. Flowers usually unsymmetrical 
in their parts, or if symmetrical more or less irregular ; in the majority small and disposed 
in a compound infiorescence. 

Most nearly connected are all the orders of this alliance. Aceraceie are hardly 
different from Sapindacese, except in their opposite leaves. ALsculaceae used 
to be referred to Sapindacese. Polygalaceae are principally distinguished by 
their papilionaceous calyXj and Vochyaceae are scarcely more than calcarate 


Order LX. ACERACEiE. The Sycamore Tribe. 

Acera, Juss. Gen. 50. (1789) ; Ann. Mus. 18. 477. (1811). — AcERiNEi®, DC. Thtorie, 
ed. 2. 244. (1819) ; Prodr. 1. 593. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 55. (1829). 

'• Essential Character. — Calyx divided into 5, or occasionally from 4 to 9 parts, with 
an imbricated aestivation. Petals equal in number to the lobes of the calyx, inserted 
round an hypogynous disk. Stamens inserted upon an hypogynous disk, generally 8, not 
often any other number, always definite. Ovary 2-lobed ; style 1 ; stigmas 2. Fruit formed 
of two parts, which are indehiscent and samaroid; each 1-celled, with 1 or 2 seeds. Seeds 
erect, with a thickened lining to the testa; albumen none; embryo curved, with foliaceous 
wrinkled cotyledons, and an inferior radicle. — Trees. Leaves opposite, simple, rarely pin- 
nate, without stipules. Flowers often polygamous, sometimes apetalous, in axillary corymbs 
or racemes. 

Affinities. They chiefly differ from Sapindacese in their fruit having but 
2 carpels, the petals never being furnished with scales, and their opposite leaves. 
Geissois, referred to .Cunoniacese by Don, agrees with this order in habit, 
hypogynous stamens, chcarpellary fruit, and unsymmetrical flowers; but is 
apetalous and polyspermous, and has stipules. The internal structure of its 
seeds is unknown. 

Geography. Europe, the temperate parts of Asia, the north of India, and 
North America, are the stations of this order, which is unknown in Africa and 
the southern hemisphere. 

Properties. Tlie species are only known for the sugary sap of Acer sac- 
charinum and others, from which sugar is extracted in abundance, and for 
their light useful timber. 


Acer, L. Dobinaea, Hamilt. 

Negundium, Raf. 

? Geissois, Lab. 

Order LXI. SAPINDACE^. The Soap-Tree Tribe. 

Sapindi, Juss. Gen. 246. (1789). — SAPiNDACEiE, Juss. Ann. Mus. 18. 476. (1811); 

DC. Prodr. 1. 601. (1824); Cambessedes in Mem. Mus. 18. 1. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Flowers polygamous. Males. Calyx more or less deeply 
4-5-parted, or 4-5-leaved ; with an imbricated aestivation. Petals 4-5, or occasionally 
absent, alternate with the sepals, hypogynous, sometimes naked, sometimes with a doubled 
appendage in the inside; aestivation imbricated. Disk fleshy; sometimes occupying the 
base of the calyx, regular, nearly entire, expanded between the petals and stamens ; some- 
times glandular, incomplete, the glands stationed between the petals and stamens. Stamens 
8-10, rarely 5-6-7, very seldom 20, sometimes inserted into the disk, sometimes into the 
receptacle between the glands and the pistil ; filaments free or combined just at the base ; 
anthers turned inwards, bursting longitudinally. Rudiment of a pistil very small or none. 
Hermaphrodite Flowers. Calyx, petals, disk, stamens, as in the males. Ovary 3- 
celled, rarely, 2-4-celled, the cells containing 1, 2, 3, very seldom more, ovules. Style 
undivided, or more or less deeply 2- or 3 -cleft. Ovules when solitary erect or ascending, 
rarely (as in Hypelate) suspended ; when double the upper ascending, the lower suspended. 
Fruit sometimes capsular, 2-3-valved, sometimes samaroid, sometimes fleshy and inde- 
hiscent. Seeds usually with an aril ; their outer integument crustaceous or membranous, 
their interior pellucid. Albumen 0. Embryo seldom straight, usually curved, or spirally 
twisted. Radicle next the hilum. Cotyledons incumbent, sometimes combined into a 
thick mass. Plumule 2-lcaved. — Trees, or shrubs which often ciiiiib and have tendrils, 



seldom climbing herbs. Leaves alternate, compound, very rarely simple, with or without 
stipules, often marked with lines or pellucid dots. Flowers in racemes, or racemose pani- 
cles, small, white or pink, seldom yellow. Camhessedes. 


Affinities. From Aceracese these scarcely differ, except in their alternate 
leaves and petals, which have almost always an appendage on their face. In 
some respects near Meliacese, which agree in habit and in their pinnated leaves, 
but which are known by their monadelphous stamens and symmetrical flowers. 
To Polygalacese they are no doubt akin in the singidar combination of 8 sta- 
mens with 5 unequal sepals, and an uncertain number of petals ; and also in 
their aril, which may be compared to the caruncula of Polygalaceae, although 
somewhat difierent in its origin. The dried leaves resemble, as De Candolle 
remarlcs, those of Connaraceae. Their climbing habit and tendency to produce 
tendrils indicate a relation to Vitaceae, which, however, is not very near. 
Brown remarks, that although in the far greater part of this family the ovule 
is erect and the radicle of the embryo inferior, yet it includes more than one 
genus in which both the seeds and embryo are inverted. Congo y 427. (1818.) 

Geography. Natives of most parts of the tropics, but especially of South 
America and India. Africa knows many of them, but they are wanting in the 
cold regions of the north. None are found in Europe or the United States of 
America. Dodonsea represents the order in New Holland. 

Properties. It is singular that while the leaves and branches of many of 
these plants are unquestionably poisonous, the fruit of others is valuable as an 
article of the dessert. Thus the Long an, the Lit chi, and the Rambutan, fruits 
among the most delicious of the Indian archipelago, are the produce of dif- 
ferent species of Nephelium. Pierardia sativa and dulcis, to which belong the 
Rambeh and Choopa of Malacca, and Hedycarpus malayanus producing the 
Tampui, are other fruit-trees of the order. The fruit of Schmidelia eduhs is 
known at desserts in Brazil under the name of Fruta de parao ; it is said to 
have a sweet and pleasant taste. PI. Us. 67. That of Sapindus esculentus is 
very fleshy, and much esteemed by the inhabitants of Certao, by whom it is called 
Pittomba. Ibid. 68. Some species of Paullinia are, however, stated, upon 
various authorities, to be poisonous, especially the P. australis, to which prin- 
cipally Auguste de St. Hilaire attributes the poisonous quality of the Lecheguana 
honey, Ed. P. J. 14. 269 ; and P. cupania, which is used for making an 
intoxicating liquor. The aril of Paullinia subrotunda and of Blighia sapida is 
eatable. The leaves of Magonia pubescens * and glabrata, called Tinguy in 
Brazil, are used for stupifying fishes ; their bark is employed for healing sores 
in horses caused by the stings of insects. A. St. HU. Hist, des PI. 238. 
Serjania triternata is also employed as a fish poison. Royle. The fruit of 
Sapindus saponaria, and of several Indian species of the same genus, is used 
for the purposes of soap, owing to the presence of the vegetable principle 
called Saponine. Royle. The root of Cardiospermum halicacabum is aperient. 
Ainslie, 2. 204. 


§ 1. Sapinde^, Can 
Cardiospermum, L. 
Bridgesia, Camb. 
Urvillea, Kth. 
Serjania, PI. 
Toulicia, Aubl. 

Ponwa, Schreb. 
Paullinia, L. 
Cardiopteris, Wall. 

Sioja, Hamilt. 
Schmidelia, L. 
Allophyllus, L. 

Aporetica, Forst. 
Toxicodendron, Ga 
Ornitrophe, Juss. 
Gemella, Lour. 
Irina, Bl. 

Euceraea, Mart. 
Xanthoceras, Bge. 
Pappea, Eckl. 
Ptaeroxylon, Eckl. 
Prostea, Camb. 
Lepisanthes, Bl. 
Sapindus, L. 

Erioglossum, Bl. 
Moulinsia, Camb. 
Valenzuelia, Camb. 
Cupania, Plum. 
Vouarana, Aubl. 
Trigonis, Jacq. 
Molincea, Juss. 
Gelonium, Gaertn. 
Guion, Cav. 
Stadmannia, Lam. 
Blighia, Kbnig. 
Akeesia, Tuss. 

Bonnannia, Raf. 
Tina, R. et S. 
Ratonia, DC. 
Diplopetalum, Spr. 
Dimer eza. Lab. 
Mischocarpus, Bl. 
Talisia, Aubl. 
Harpullia, Roxb. 
Pierardia, Roxb. 
Hedycarpus, Jack. 
Nephelium, L. 
Pometia, Forst. 


Euphoria, Juss. 
Scytalia, Gaertn. 
Dimocarpus, Lour. 
Thouinia, Poit. 

Thyana, Hamilt. 
Hypelate, P. Browne. 
Schleichera, W, 



Kblreuteria, L. 
Cossignia, Commers. 
Llagunoa, R. et P. 

Amirola, Pers. 
Dodonaea, L. 

Magonia, A. St. H. 
Phaocarpus, Mart. 

Enourea, Aubl. 
Matayba, Aubl. 
Ephielis, Schreb. 
Ernst ingia. Neck. 
Aphania, Blume. 

Alectryon, Gaertn, 
Loxostylis, Spr. 
Harrisonia, R. Br. 
Eustathes, Lour. 
Valentinia, Siv. 
Pedicellia, Lour. 
Racana, Aubl. 

Sub-Order ? MILLINGTONIE.^. 

Jack in Malay. Misr. 2. 32 ; Hooker Journal, .377. — Milcingtoniace,®, Wight and Arnott 
in Ed. Ph. Journ. 15. 177. (1833); Prodr. Penins. 115. (1834); Royle Illustr. 
p. 139. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, unequal, somewhat in a double series: 
aestivation imbricative. Petals 5, inserted on the margin of the receptacle, deciduous, 
alternating with the sepals, of two kinds ; three outer ones orbicular, entire, with an imbri- 
cative aestivation; two interior smaller, acutely bifid, resembling scales. Stamens 5, oppo- 
site to the petals, and slightly united to them at the very base : three exterior sterile, 
opposite to the larger petals ; two interior fertile, opposite to the bifid petals ; filaments of 
the fertile stamens fiat : anther-cells globose, dehiscing transversely, placed side by side on 
the inner side of the saucer- shaped connective. Disk flat, thin, hypogynous, free except 
at its point of attachment with the ovary and receptacle. Ovary ovate, 2-celled ; ovules 2 
in each cell, superposed ; style simple, short, and thick ; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Fruit a 
1 -celled, 1 -seeded drupe; the dissepiment evanescent above, hardened and persistent at 
the base. Seed with a small cavity on one side, near the base. Albumen none, or extremely 
thin. Embryo curved: cotyledons thin, foliaceous, folded (chrysaloid) : radicle curved, 
pointing to the hilum. — Trees. Leaves alternate, without stipules, entire or rarely pin- 
nated. Infiorescence in panicles, terminal, or axillary near the extremity of the branches. 
Flowers small, inconspicuous, nearly sessile on very short peduncles that are arranged 
along the horizontal branches of the panicles. Wight and Arnott, 1. c. 

Affinities. The plants belonging to this assemblage are looked upon by 
Wight and Arnott as forming a family distinct from, but closely related to, 
Sapindacese. Tlie principal differences pointed out by those authors are, that 
in the latter the stamens are usually twice as numerous as the petals, which 
have scales or tufts of hair at their base ; and the hypogynous disk is fleshy. 
Other points are, indeed, adverted to, but they are either unimportant, or not 
clearly explained. These authors ‘do not take the same view of the structure 
of the genus as Roxburgh, but agree with Jack in considering the number of 
petals 5, of which three only are petaloid, and the other two bifid and adnate 
to the base of the two fertile stamens. It appears to me, however, that in 
reality, in M. simplicifolia at least, there is very great irregularity in the pro- 
portion of the parts of the flower ; in the calyx I find six pieces, two very 
minute and external, two larger, but unequal, next the first, and two more, also 
unequal, in the inside ; petals I see only three, on the face of the largest of 
which is a distinct trace of a rudimentary scale ; the stamens are five, three of 
them being deformed, lobed, and opposite the 3 petals, the other two fertile, 
alternating with two of the petals, with a membranous tooth on each side at 
the base (not the apex, as Roxburgh has it), and a remarkable saucer-like con- 
nective, on the upper face of which grow two anther-cells, the valves of which 
are extremely unequal. I do not, therefore, perceive how the genus differs 
from Sapindacese, except in the pistil being composed of two carpels instead of 
three. But although the number three is what usually prevails in Sapindacese, 
yet there are instances of two in Schmidelia, Irina, &c. and of four in Talisia 
and Dodonsea. 

In habit the genus Millingtonia resembles Semecarpus and Buchanania 
among Anacardiaceae. 


Geography. Timber-trees found in India from to 31^°, N. Lat. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Millingtonia, Roxb. 

Order LXII. .^SCULACEt^. The Horse-Chestnut Tribe. 

Hippocastane^, DC. Thtorie, ed. 2. 244. (1819) ; Prodr. 1. 597. (1824). — 

CASTANEACEiE, Link Enum. 1. 354. (1821). 

Essential Character. — Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed. Petals 5, or 4 by the abortion 
of one of them, unequal, hypogynous. Stamens 7-8 distinct, unequal, inserted upon a 
hypogynous disk; anthers somewhat incumbent. Omry roundish, 3 -cornered, 3 -celled ; 
style 1, filiform, conical, acute; ovules 2 in each cell. Fi'uit coriaceous, 1- 2- or 3-valved, 
1- 2- or 3-celled, 1- 2- or 3 -seeded. Seeds large, roundish, with a smooth shining coat, 
and a broad pale hilum ; albumen none ; embryo curved, inverted, with fleshy, very thick, 
gibbous, cohering cotyledons, germinating under ground; plumule unusu^ly large, 2- 
leaved ; radicle conical, curved, turned towards the hilum. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves oppo- 
site, without stipules, compound, quinate or septenate. Racemes terminal, somewhat 
panicled ; the pedicels with an articulation. 

Affinities. The want of symmetry in the parts of the flower, and their 
compound leaves, approximate jEsculaceae to Sapindacese ; the same charac- 
ter brings them near Aceracese, from both which they are distinguished by the 
structure of their fruit and seeds. They also approach Rhizobolacese, as is 
stated in speaking of that order. 

Geography. The north of India and North America contain the few spe- 
cies that belong to this order. 

Properties. Handsome trees or small bushes, chiefly remarkable for 
their large seeds, with an extensive hilum. These seeds contain a great quan- 
tity of starch, which renders them nutritive for man and many other animals. 
They also contain a sufficient proportion of potash to be useful as cosmetics, 
or as a substitute for soap ; they are bitter, and have been employed as a 
sternutatory. The bark of the common Horse Chestnut is bitter, astringent, 
and febrifugal. 


iEsculus, L. Macrothyrsus, Spach. 

Pavia, Boerh. Calothyrsus, Spach. 

Order LXIII. POLYGALACE^E. The Milkwort Tribe. 

PoLYGALEiE, Juss. Ann. Mus. 14. 386. (1809) ; R. Brown in Flinders (1814) ; Juss. Mem,. 
Mus. 1. 385. (1815) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 321. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 39. (1829) ; Aug. 
de St. Hilaire and Moquin-Tandon Mtm. Mus. 17. 313. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, very irregular, distinct, often glumaceous ; 3 exte- 
rior, of which 1 is superior and 2 anterior; 2 interior {the wings) usually petaloid, and 
alternate with the upper and lower ones. Petals hypogynous, usually 3, of which 1 is 
anterior and larger than the rest {the keel), and 2 alternate with the upper outer, and lateral 
inner sepals, and often connate with the keel ; sometimes 5, and then the 2 additional 
ones minute and between the wings and the lower sepals. Keel sometimes entire, and then 


either naked or crested ; sometimes 3-lobed, and then destitute of a crest. Stamens hypo- 
gynous, 8, usually combined in a tube, unequal, and ascending ; sometimes 4, and distinct ; 
the tube split opposite the upper sepal; anthers clavate, innate, mostly 1 -celled and open- 
ing at their apex, sometimes 2-celled; very rarely the dehiscence is longitudinal. Disk 
either absent or present, regular or irregular. Ovary superior, compressed, with 2 or 3 
cells, which are anterior and posterior, the upper one occasionally suppressed ; ovules soli- 
tary, very rarely twin, pendulous ; style simple, curved, sometimes very obHque and cucul- 
late at the apex, which is also entire or lobed ; stigma simple. Fruit usually opening 
through the valves ; occasionally indehiscent, membranous, fleshy, coriaceous, or drupa- 
ceous, winged or apterous. Seeds pendulous, with a caruncula next the hilum, naked or 
enveloped with hairs ; the outer integument crustaceOus, the inner membranous ; albumen 
abundant, fleshy, rarely reduced to a thin gelatinous plate, very seldom wanting ; embryo 
straight, or slightly curved, with the radicle next the hilum. — Shrubs or herbaceous plants. 
Leaves generally alternate, sometimes opposite, mostly simple, and always destitute of sti- 
pules. Flowers usually racemose, very often small and inconspicuous, but showy in many 
Polygalas. Pedicels with 3 bracts. 

Anomalies^ Flowers generally gamopetalous. Ovary sometimes 1 -celled by abortion. 
Fruit indehiscent in Mundia, Monnina, Securidaca, and Krameria, The latter has also no 

Affinities. The structure of this order has been explained by Aug. de 
St. Hilaire and Moquin-Tandon, from whose memoir above quoted, the fore- 
going character and almost all that is said here is extracted, and to which I 
refer those readers who wish to study the subject more intimately. Before 
adverting to the affinities of this order, it will be useful to consider what is the 
nature of the irregularity of the flowers ; an irregularity which is such as to 
obscure, in a great measure, the relative position of the sepals and petals. The 
calyx apparently consists of but three pieces, which are usually green, and like 
sepals in their common state ; but their real number is 5, the two coloured 
lateral petal-like bodies, sometimes lying within the apparent sepals, being in 
reality part of the series of the calyx. The corolla is mostly monopetalous, 
and, if carefully examined, formed of 3 pieces ; namely, the keel and two pe- 
tals, all soldered together. We have, therefore, an abortion of two petals, 
according to the laws of alternation : but this is not all ; there is not only an 
abortion of two petals, but of those two which would, if present, be found 
right and left of the keel. The monopetalous corolla is, therefore, formed by 
the cohesion of the two posterior and the one anterior petal of a pentapetalous 
corolla, of which the two lateral petals are suppressed. The keel has an ap- 
pendage of an anomalous character, called technically a crest, and often con- 
sisting of one or even two rows of fringes or divisions, originating not from 
the margin but from within it, and sometimes cohering in a common mem- 
brane at their base. Aug. de St. Hilaire has shewn that this crest is nothing 
more than the deeply-lobed middle segment of a keel, with these lobes in such 
a state of cohesion that the central lobe is pushed outwards, while the lateral 
ones cohere by their own margins and with its back. The stamens are only 
8, two therefore are suppressed ; or in Krameria 4, one being suppressed. I 
may remark, in addition, that the relative position of the flfth sepal and petal 
respectively, was first indicated by Brown. Denham 31. 

Polygalaceee are stationed by De Candolle between Droseraceae and Tre- 
mandraceae, and in the immediate vicinity of Violaceae. With the latter they 
are related on account of their hypogynous stamens, irregular flowers, and cu- 
cullate stigma ; and with Tremandraceae on account of the caruncula of their 
seed. To Fumarieae they approach in the general aspect of their flowers ; 
but if my theory of the structure of that order be admitted, their resemblance 
would not be so great as it appears to be. Leguminosae are, notwithstanding 
their perigynous stamens, an order with which Polygalaceae have great affinity ; 
the irregularity of coroUa is of a similar nature in both ; there is in I^egumi- 
nosae a tendency to suppress the upper lateral petals in Erythrina, as in Po^ 


Ivgala ; the ascending direction of the style and a cohesion of stamens are 
characters common to both orders. Many additional observations are made 
by St. Hilaire and Moquin-Tandon to the same effect. These authors, more- 
over, compare this order with Rutaceae ; but they appear to have finally decided 
upon the vicinity of Sapindaceae being its true position ; remarking that “ the 
calyx of Sapindaceae is unequal, the corolla very irregular, and the ovary of 
Schmidelia is usually 2-celled and 2-seeded like that of Polygala. Moreover, 
the gi'eater part of the genera of that order have, with a calyx of five divisions, 
a corolla with four pet^s, and the place of the fifth is manifestly vacant. This 
suppression is not exactly the same as what is observed in the coroUa of Poly- 
gala, where there is only 3 petals with 5 sepals ; but the suppression has more 
analogy with what concerns the stamens, since with a quinary number in 
the calyx each order has eight antheriferous filaments.” 

Geography. Most of the genera are limited to one or two of the five 
parts of the globe ; thus Salomonia is only found in Asia, Soulamea in the 
Moluccas, Muraltia at the Cape of Good Hope, and Monnina and Badiera in 
South America. Comesperma is found both in Brazil and New Holland, and, 
what is very remarkable, there is in the former comitry a species of the Cape 
genus Mundia. Polygala itself is found in four of the five parts ; under the torrid 
zone and in temperate climates, at Cayenne, and on the mountains of S^vitzer- 
land ; it is, however, very unequally ^stributed. This genus inhabits almost 
every description of station, — d^ plains, deep morasses, woods, mountains, 
cultivated and barren soils. Comesperma is only known in Brazilian woods, 
and Monnina and Krameria in open places. 

Properties. Bitterness in the leaves and milk in the root are their usual 
characteristics ; but the order has not been well investigated with respect to 
its qualities. Soulamea amara esteemed in the Moluccas and in Java as a 
medicine was called by Rumf “ Rex amaroris.” Hoyle. Polygala senega 
root is stimulant, diuretic, sialagogue, expectorant, purgative, emetic, and su- 
dorific, and also emmenagogue. It has been used with great success in croup. 
Barton, 2. 116. It and P. crotalarioides have been employed, the former in 
America, the latter in the Himalayas, as a cure against the bite of venomous 
reptiles. Royle. P. sanguinea, according to Barton, possesses similar quali- 
ties. A pecuhar vegetable principle, called Senegin, has been discovered by 
Gehlen in the root of Polygala senega, and Reschier is also said to have pro- 
cured a principle called Polygaline from the same plant ; but it is not knowm 
whether these two substances are the same. Stephens and Church, no. 103. 
Tlie bark of JMonnina polystachya, called Yallhoy in Peru, is stated to be ex- 
tremely useful in cases of dysentery. It also possesses detersive properties in 
a great degree. The ladies of Peru ascribe the beauty of their hair to the use 
of its infusion, and the silversmiths of Huanaco employ it for cleansing and 
polishing their wrought silver. Lambert’s Illust. Cinch. 132, &c. Krameria, 
a genus of an extremely anomalous stiaicture, is remarkable for its tonic 
and excessively astringent qualities. Its root is sold in Europe under 
the name of Ratanhia, and is one of the substances which in conjunction with 
gum kino, is used for adulterating port wine in England. According to Cadet, 
this root contains gallic acid, but neither tannin nor resin. Xanthophyllum 
furnishes timber of considerable size. Polvgala poaya is an active emetic. It 
is used successfully in Brazil in bilious fevers. Mart. Mat. Med. Bras. 12. 


Polygala, L. Comesperma, La Bill. Muraltia, Neck. 

Psychanthus, Rafin. Badiera, DC. Heisteria, Berg. 

Nylandtia, Dumort. Xanthophyllum, Rox. Mundia, Kunth. 
Brachytropis, DC. Jackia, Bl. Monnina, R. et P. 

Salomonia, Lour. Soulamea, Lam. Hebeandra, Bonpl. 

Securidaca, L. 
Bredemeyera, W. 
Krameria, Lofl. 
Cardiocarpus, Rnwdt. 
Hymenanthera, R. Br. 


From these plants Von Martins distinguishes (Cow5j!7ec^«5, no. 207, 1 835), as 
the type of an order to be called 


The genus Krameria to which reference has been already made. Of thi« 
remarkable plant, usually placed in Polygalacese, Auguste de St. Hilaire and 
Moquin-Tandon give the following character : — ' 

Krameria. — Sepals 3-4, irregular, much spreading, coloured, deciduous, arranged in 
2 or 3 rows, one of them, if it is present, superior, solitary, very small. Petals 5 (some- 
times 4, Kunth) , hypogynous, smaller than the calyx, irregular ; the three lower alternating 
with one exterior sepal, two intermediate, and a minute superior one, long, unguiculate ; 
the claws united at the base, occasionally with a small abortive lamina ; the two upper 
alternating with one external sepal and two intermediate ones, much smaller than the 
lower petals, remote from them, converging obliquely, sessile, rather thick. Stamens 4 
(sometimes 1 or 3, Kunth), hypogynous, unequal; two larger, ascending, alternating with 
the upper and lower petals, 2 smaller erect, close together, alternating with the lower 
intermediate petal ; filaments free, thick ; anthers continuous, immoveable, 2 -celled, opening 
at the end by a double pore. Disk 0. Ovary superior, 2-celled (incompletely 2-celled, 
Kunth), two seeded ; ovules 2, suspended from a little below the top of the cavity, turned 
away from the lower petals. Style single, terminal, ascending, awl-shaped. Stigma ter- 
minal, simple. Fruit between woody and leathery, globose, glochidate, by abortion 1 -seeded, 
indehiscent. Testa membranous. Albumen 0. Embryo straight ; cotyledons plano-convex, 
with two auricles below the base surrounding the radicle, which is superior. — Spreading 
many-stemmed under-shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, entire (3-leaved in K. cytisoides ) , 
without stipules, sometimes having in their axil bundles of little spines. Racemes simple, 
spike-shaped. Bracts of the stalks two. Hairs simple. 

Ten American species are known. 


VocHYSiACE^, Mart. Nov. Gen. 1. 123. (1824). — Vochysie.®, A. St. HU. M6m. Mus. 

6. 265. (1820) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 25. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4-5, combined at the base, imbricated in aestivation, 
the upper one calcarate. Petals 1, 2, 3 or 5, alternate with the segments of the calyx, 
and inserted into their base, unequal. Stamens 1-5, usually opposite the petals, rarely 
alternate with them, arising from the bottom of the calyx, for the most part sterile, 1 of 
them having an ovate fertile 4-celled anther. Ovary superior, or partially inferior, 3 -celled ; 
ovules in each cell solitary or twin, attached to the base of the axis ; style and stigma 1 . 
Capsule 3-cornered, 3-celled, 3-valved, the valves bursting along their middle. Seed with- 
out albumen, erect ; embryo straight, inverted ; cotyledons large, foliaceous, convolute, 
plaited; radicle short, superior. — Trees. Branches opposite, when young 4-cornered. 
Leaves opposite, sometimes towards the extremities of the branches alternate, entire, with 
2 stipules at the base. Flowers usually in terminal panicles or racemes. 

Anomalies. Ovary either superior or inferior. The leaves of Salvertia have no 

Affinities. “ An order at present but ill understood, in habit and flower 
somewhat allied to Guttiferse or Marcgraaviacese, but distinct from both in 
the stamens being inserted into the calyx ; perhaps more directly connected 
with Combretaceae, on account of the convolute cotyledons and inverted seeds ; 
and even perhaps allied to some Onagraceae, on account of the abortive soli- 
tary stamen.” DC. Prodr. 3. 25. Is not the order nearer Violaceae an 
affinity strongly pointed out by the irregular flowers, 3-locular ovarium, and 
stipules, but impeded by the perigynous insertion of the stamens ; or yet 
nearer Polygalaceae, from which the calcarate flowers and ascending ovules 
principally distinguish it. 


Geography. Natives of equinoctial America, where they inhabit ancient 
forests, by the banks of streams, sometimes rising up mountains to a consider- 
able elevation. They are often trees with large spreading heads. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Callisthene, Mart. 
Amphilochia, Mart. 
Lozania, Mutis. 
Agardhia, Spr. 


Vochya, Vand. 
Vochy, Aubl. 
Vochysia, Juss. 
Salmonia, Neck. 
Cucullaria, Schreb. 

Salvertia, St. Hil. 
Qualea, Aubl. 
Erisma, Rudg. 
Dehroea, Roem, et 

Ditmaria, Spreng. 

Alliance IV. CISTALES. 

Essential Character. — Flowers regular. Albumen present in the seeds. 

These can be confounded only with the Guttal aUiance, from which the 
hairy, thin, deeply- veined, and usually alternate leaves, together with a habit, 
which, although sometimes woody and even arborescent, is most commonly 
herbaceous, assist in distinguishing them. The orders ,vary from Chlena- 
ceae, which are the highest form, to Elatinaceae which is the lowest, through 
all gradations of developement. Elatinaceae are to Cistaceae what Fumaria is 
to Nelumbium, Hippuris to CEnothera, Viscum to Loranthus, and so on. Hugo- 
niaceae form a transition to Malvaceae in the next aUiance. 

Order LXV. ELATINACEi^L. The Water-Pepper Tribe. 

Elatine^, Cambesscdes in Me'm.Mus. 18. 225. (1829) ; Aug. de St. H. FI. Bras. 2. 159. 

(1830) ; FI. Seneg. 1. 42. (1832) ; Fischer and Meyer in Linncea, x. 69. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-5, distinct, or slightly connate at the base. Petals 
hypogynous, alternate with the sepals. Stamens hypogynous, usually twice as numerous 
as the petals. Ovary with from 3 to 5 cells, an equal number of styles, and capitate stig- 
mas. Fruit capsular, 3 -5 -celled, with the valves alternate with the septa which usually 
adhere to a central axis, but in Merimea to the valves separating from the axis. Seeds 
numerous, with a straight embryo, whose radicle is turned to the hilum, and little albumen. 
— Annuals, found in marshy places. Stems fistulous, rooting. Leaves opposite, with 

Affinities. This little order has been established by Cambessedes, who 
distinguishes it from Alsinacese, with which a part had been confounded, by 
the capitate stigmas, by the dehiscence of the fruit, by the little albumen, 
and by the straight not curved embryo. The species agree with Hyperica- 
cese in many respects, even in the presence of receptacles of resinous secre- 
tions ; but differ in having a persistent central axis in the fruit, definite stamens, 
and so forth. 

Geography. Found in marshes in the four quarters of the globe. The 
Elatines are natives of Europe and Asia, Bergias of the Cape of Good Hope and 
the East Indies, and Merimea of South America. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Elatine, L. Bergia, L. ? Tetradiclis, M. B. 

Crypta, Nutt. Merimea, Camb. Anisadenia, Wall. 


Order LXVI. LINACEiE. The Flax Tribe. 

Line^, DC. Theorie, ed. 1. 217. (1819) ; Prodr. 1. 423. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 53. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3-4-5, with an imbricated aestivation, continuous with 
the peduncle, persistent. Petals equal in number to the sepals, hypogynous, unguiculate, 
with a twisted aestivation. Stamens equal in number to the petals, and alternate with 
them, united at the base in a hypogynous ring, from which proceed little teeth opposite to 
the petals, and indicating abortive stamens ; anthers ovate, innate. Ovary with about as 
many cells as sepals, seldom fewer; styles equal in number to the cells; stigmas capitate. 
Capsule generally pointed with the indurated base of the styles, many-celled; each cell 
partially divided in two by an imperfect spurious dissepiment, and dehiscing with two 
valves at the apex. Seeds in each cell single, compressed, inverted ; albumen usually present; 
embryo straight, fleshy, with the radicle pointing towards the hilum ; cotyledons flat. — 
Herbaceous plants, or small shrubs. Leaves entire, without stipules, usually alternate. 
Petals fugitive. 

Affinities. It is remarked by De Candolle, that this order is intermediate, 
as it were, between Silenacese, Malvaceae, and Geraniacese, from all which, 
however, it is obviously distinguished. Aug. de St. Hilaire considers it a mere 
section of Geraniacese. But the want of a gynobasic structure, the strongly 
imbricated calyx, and the regular flowers, together with the constant presence 
of a small quantity of albumen in the seeds, rather point out its affinity with 
the Cistal alliance, and especially with Elatinacese, of which it is a sort of de- 
candrous exstipulate form. 

Geography. Europe and the north of Africa are the principal stations of 
this order, which is, however, scattered more or less over most parts of the 
globe. Several are natives of North and South America, 2 only are found in 
India, 1 in New Zealand, and none in New Holland ; for the L. angustifolium 
mentioned by De Candolle as having been sent him from that country, had 
probably, as he suggests, been introduced from Europe. It is stated by Ri- 
chardson, that the most northern limit of this order in North America is 54® 
N. Ed. P. J. 12. 209. 

Properties. The tenacity of their fibre, and the mucilage of their 
diuretic seeds, are striking characters of Linacese, which are also usually re- 
markable for the beauty of their flowers. The leaves of L. catharticum 
are purgative. Linum selaginoides is considered in Peru bitter and aperient. 


Linum, L. 

Reinwardtia, Dumort. 

Radiola, Gmel. 


HuGONiACEiE, Arnott Prodr. FI. Ind.Penins. 1.71. (1834). 

Essential Character. — Calyx without an involucre, persistent, 5-sepaled; sepals 
distinct, acute, unequal ; the two exterior lanceolate, densely pubescent on the back ; ano- 
ther dimidiate-ovate, the straight side pubescent, the rounded side testaceous and shining ; 
the two inner ones roundish ovate and suddenly pointed, testaceous, and shining except 
the short pubescent point: aestivation imbricated, quincuncial. Petals hypogynous, 5, 
alternate with the sepals, shortly unguiculate : aestivation twisted. Stamens hypogynous, 
10, afl fertile; filaments wmtQd. at the base into an urceolus, free and filiform above ; anthers 
cordate-ovate, erect, 2-celled, opening by two longitudinal clefts. Torus slightly elevated, 
supporting the staminal urceolus and the ovary. Ovary roundish, coriaceous, glabrous, 


5 celled ; ovules 2 in each cell, pendulous, collateral; styles 5, distinct ; slightly 

dilated and lobed. Fruit (a nuculanium) with a fleshy epicarp, enclosing 5 distinct, bony, 
1 -seeded carpels ; seeds pendulous. Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen ; cotyledons flat, 
foliaceous : radicle short, superior, pointing to the hilum. — Shrubs. Leaves alternate, or 
sometimes crowded and opposite near the flowers. Stipules 2, subulate. Peduncles 
axillary 1 -flowered, often by abortion transformed into circinnate spines. Arnott, 1. c. 

Affinities. The only genus referable here has been placed by De Can- 
dolle with doubt in Chlenacese, to which we cannot agree ; that order having 
the calyx and gynoeceum in a ternary, while the corolla and androeceum follow 
the quinary arrangement. Kunth hesitatingly places it in Buttneriacese and 
the tribe Domheyaceae, and there is no doubt that the afhnity is very great ; 
it is now separated on account of the imbricate (not valvate) calyx, the ovules 
pendulous (not erect or ascending), and the radicle superior (not inferior) ra- 
ther than invalidate the character of the order by its insertion. In many 
points it agrees with the character (hut not with the habit) of Oxalidaceae, 
forming another link between the group of Malvaceous orders, and Gera- 
niacese. Arnott, 1. c. 


Hugonia, L. 


ChlenacEjE, Thouars Hist. Veg. Afr. Austr. 46. (1806) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 521. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Involucre 1-2-flowered, persistent, of variable form and tex- 
ture. Sepals 3, small ; aestivation imbricated ? Petals 5 or 6, hypogynous, broader at the 
base, sometimes cohering there. Stamens either very numerous, or sometimes only 10 ; 
filaments either cohering at the base into a tube, or adhering to the tube of petals ; anthers 
roundish, adnate, or loose, 2-celled, Ovary single, 3-celled; style 1, filiform; stigma 
triple. Capsule 3-celled, or 1 -celled by abortion. Seeds solitary or numerous, attached 
to the centre, suspended; embryo green, central; albumen fleshy according to Jussieu, or 
horny according to Du Petit Thouars; cotyledons foliaceous, wavy. — Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves alternate, with stipules, entire. Stipules deciduous. Flowers in panicles or 
racemes. DC. 

Anomalies. Leptolaena has definite stamens. 

Affinities. The monadelphous stamens and involucrated flowers indi- 
cate an affinity with Malvaceae. But Jussieu refers the order rather to the 
vicinity of Ebenaceae, considering it monopetalous, and the seeds albuminous. 
Very httle is, in fact, known of these plants. To me it appears that their im- 
bricated calyx, regular flowers and albumen place them in the Cistal alli- 
ance of Calycose Polypetalous Dicotyledons, and in the vicinity of Cistaceae. 

Geography. There are only eight certain species, which are all natives 
of Madagascar. 

Properties. Handsome shrubs, with fine flowers, often red; but no- 
thing is known of their qualities. 


Sarcolsena, Pet. Thou. Schizolaena, Pet. Thou. 

Leptolaena, Pet. Thou. Rhodolaena, Pet. Thou. 


Order LXIX. CISTACEi^. The Rock-Rose Tribe. 

CiSTi, Juss. Gen. 294. (1789).— Cistoide^, Tabl. 3.219. (1799). — Cistine^e, DC. 

Prodr. 1. 2G3. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 36. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, continuous with the pedicel, persistent, unequal, 
the three inner with a twisted aestivation. Petals 5, hypogynous, very fugitive, crumpled 
in aestivation, and twisted in a direction contrary to that of the sepals. Stamens indefi- 
nite, hypogynous, distinct; anthers innate. Ovary distinct, 1- or many-celled ; oww/eswith 
the foramen at their apex; style single; stigma simple. Fruit capsular, usually 3- or 5- 
valved, occasionally 10-valved, either 1 -celled with parietal placentae in the axis of the 
valves, or imperfectly 5- or 10-celled with dissepiments proceeding from the middle of the 
valves, and touching each other in the centre. Seeds indefinite in number. Embryo 
inverted, either spiral or curved in the midst of mealy albumen. Radicle remote from the 
hilum. — Shrubs or herbaceous plants. Branches often viscid. Leaves usually entire, oppo- 
site or alternate, stipulate or exstipulate. Racemes usually unilateral. Flowers white, yellow, 
or red, very fugacious. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Violacese, with which they were for- 
merly confounded, by their indefinite stamens and inverted embryo; from 
Bixaceae by this last character, by their mealy albumen, habit, and not having 
the leaves ever dotted ; from Hypericacese by the latter character, and the struc- 
ture of the fruit ; they are akin to Papaveraceae by the genus Dendromecon. 
But their true station seems to be in the vicinity of Linaceae, Hugoniaceae, and 
Chlenaceae, to the first of which they approach by the genus Lechea. 

Geography. S. Europe and the north of Ajfrica are the countries that 
Cistaceae chiefly inhabit. They are rare in North America, extremely un- 
common in South America, and scarcely known in Asia. 

Properties. None, except that the resinous balsamic substance, called 
Labdanum, is obtained from Cistus creticus, and neighbouring species. 


Cistus, Tourn. Lechea, L. 

Helianthemum, Tourn. Hudsonia, L. 


Reaumurie.®, Ehrenberg in Ann. des. Sc. 12. 78. (1827). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-parted, surrounded externally by imbricated bracts. 
Petals 5, hypogynous. Stamens definite or indefinite, hypogynous, with or without an 
hypogynous disk ; anthers peltate. Ovary superior ; styles several, filiform, or subulate. 
Fruit capsular, with 2 to 5 valves, and as many cells, and a loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds 
definite, villous, erect ; embryo straight, surrounded by a small quantity of mealy albumen ; 
radicle next the hilum. — Shrubs. Leaves fleshy, scale-like, or small, alternate, without sti- 
pules. Flowers solitary. 

Affinities. Ehrenberg suggests {Ann. des Sc. 12. 78.) that Reaumuria 
and Hololachna, both of which have, according to him, hypogynous stamens, 
may constitute a httle group, to be called Reaumuriacese. To me the order ap- 
pears more nearly related to Hypericaceae than to either Mesembryaceae or Ta- 
maricaceae. From the former it chiefly differs in its succulent habit, and definite 
villous seeds, agreeing, in Reaumuria at least, even in the obliquity of the 
veins of the petals, and in the leaves being dotted. From Mesembryaceae its 
hypogynous stamens and seeds distinguish it ; from Tamaricaceae its plurilocu- 
lar ovary and distinct styles ; from Nitrariaceae its erect villous seeds, distinct 
styles, and hypogynous stamens. 


Geography. Natives of the Mediterranean and the milder parts of 
northern Asia. 

Properties. Saline matter is present in great abundance. Reaumuria 
vermiculata is used at Alexandria as a cure for the itch, being apphed bruised 
externally, and taken internally in the form of a decoction. Forsk. FI. ceg. 
arah. 101. 


Reaumuria, L. Hololachna, Ehr. 

Group V. 

Essential Character. — The carpels compactly united into a solid pistil. Calyx not 
having the sepals in a broken whorl. PlacentcB not parietal. Ovary not inferior. Carpels 
not placed obliquely upon a central gynobase ; or if they are, then either in more rows 
than one or of a larger number than 5. 

The characters of this group are negative rather than positive, but the 
orders collected under it seem generally to have a common and obvious bond 
of union. Tlie highest aUiances in regard to structure are the Malval and 
Melial, the lowest the Silenal, in which, among Alsinacese, the force of deve- 
lopement seems as it were worn out. The only mistake that is Hkely to occur 
is the confounding some gynobasic genera with this group ; but such an error 
will be avoided if it is remembered that the truly gynobasic orders have never 
more than 5 carpels; hence Malva itself, which in some respects may be 
looked upon as gynobasic, is divided from the Gynobaseous group by its numerous 
carpels. Aurantiacese connect this Syncarpous group with the Gynobaseous 
by Luvunga, which is almost a Xanthoxylum, and Lythracese join it with 
the Epigynous through the medium of Melastomaceae. There is no polypeta- 
lous group in which the tendency to be apetalous is so common as here. 

Alliance I. MALVALES, 

Essential Character. — ^Estivation of the calyx valvate. Carpels 4, or a larger num- 
ber. Stamens generally monadelphous ; the calyx long and tubular when that is not the 
case. Hairs mostly starry. 

The valvate aestivation of the calyx clearly divides this from all the other 
aUiances except the Rhamnal, and from that the numerous cai-pels, and far 
more highly developed coroUa often distinguish it neatly. 


STERCULiACEiE, Vent. Malm. 2. 91. (1799) ; Endl. Meletem. p. 30. (1832). — Herman- 
niace^, Juss,. — Byttneriace^, Brown in Flinders, 2. .540. (1814) ; Kunth. Diss. 
p. 6. (1822); DC. Prodr. 1. 481. (1824); Aug. St. HU. FI. Bras. mer. 1. 139. 
(1827) ; a section of Malvaceae. — Bombace^e, Kunth. Diss. Malv. p. 5. (1822) ; 
DC. Prodr. 1. 475. (1824) ; A. St. Hilaire FI. Br. merid. 1. 257. (1827), a section 
o/ Malvaceae ; Ed. pr. No. 26. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Calyx either naked or surrounded with an involucre, consist- 
ing of 5 sepals, more or less united at the base, with a valvular, or nearly valvular aestiva- 


tion, except where the calyx is irregularly ruptured. Petals 5, or none, hypogynous, con- 
volute in sestivation, often saccate at the base, and variously lengthened at the apex. Sta- 
mens definite or indefinite, monadelphous in various ways, some among them being often 
sterile ; anthers 2-celled, turned outwards, sometimes anfractuose. Pistil consisting of 5, 
or rarely 3, carpels, either distinct or cohering into a single ovary, often seated upon a 
columnar gynophore. Styles equal in number to the carpels distinct or united ; ovules 
erect if definite ; sometimes indefinite. Fruit capsular, with 3 or 5 cells. Seeds with a 
strophiolate apex, often winged, sometimes woolly ; albumen oily or fleshy, rarely wanting ; 
embryo straight, with an inferior radicle ; cotyledons either foliaceous, flat, and plaited, or 
rolled round the plumule, or else very thick, but this only in the seeds without albumen. 
— Trees or shrubs. Pubescence often stellate. Leaves alternate, simple, often toothed, 
with stipules. Inflorescence variable. 

Anomalies. The carpella of Sterculia and Erythropsis are distinct, and their flowers 
have no petals. True Buttneriaceae have five abortive stamens. Waltheria has but one 
carpel, four being abortive. Cheirostema is apetalous.. 

Affinities. It appears that we have two different assemblages of plants 
in the old Malvaceae of authors, whereof a part have 2 celled anthers, and the 
remainder 1 -celled ones. The former circumstance hmits the order Sterculia- 
ceae, which comprehends several remarkable sets that might, if there were any 
difference in their sensible properties, be separated into so many distinct orders. 
Of these Helictere^ have an irregular calyx and corolla ; Sterculie^ no 
petals, and definite stamens placed at the end of a long column ; Bombace^ a 
calyx with a ruptile dehiscence, usually woolly seeds, and the cells of the an- 
thers anfractuose ; Dombey^, a part of the stamens sterile, and flat well 
formed petals ; Byttnerie^, a part of the stamens sterile, and small petals 
bagged at the base ; Lasiopetale^, a petaloid calyx, and rudimentary petals 
or 0 ; and Hermannie^, spirally twisted petals with only 5 stamens, and 
those opposite the petals. The monadelphous stamens of Sterculiacese dis- 
tinguish that order from Tiliacese and Dipteracese. Their valvate calyx is 
the great mark of combination which unites them with these last-mentioned 
orders. The fruit of Sterculia often exhibits beautiful illustrations of the real 
nature of that form of fruit which botanists call the follicle, and helps to de- 
monstrate that it, and hence all simple carpels, are formed of leaves, the sides 
of which are indexed, and the margins dilated into placentae, bearing ovules. 
In Firmiana platanifolia, in particular, the foUicles burst and acquire the form 
of coriaceous leaves, bearing the seeds upon their margin. But, notwithstanding 
this peculiarity of the distinct carpels, on account of which Sterculia would, as 
the type of an order, be referable to another group, it is impossible to doubt 
tliat Reevesia, a remarkable Chinese plant, having the habit and peculiar con- 
firmation of anthers found in Sterculia, along with the petals and fruit of 
Pterospermum, completely identifies the genus with the polypetalous syncar- 
pous group. 

Geography. India, New Holland, the Cape of Good Hope, and South 
America, with the West Indies, are the chief countries inhabited by this order, 
taken collectively ; hut its various sections are each characterised by peculiari- 
ties of geographical distribution. Thus : — 

Sterculiece are principally found in India and equinoctial Africa ; 5 or 6 only 
have been discovered in Mexico and South America. 

DombeytE are all African, East Indian, or South American. 

Of Hermanniece two-thirds are found exclusively at the Cape of Good 
Hope ; the remainder are chiefly West Indian and South American ; about 
one-tenth are natives of the East' Indies, and two or three are found in the 
South Seas. 

The Byttneriece are principally natives of South America and the West 
Indies ; about one-seventh is found in the East Indies, a similar number 
in New Holland, and a single species, Glossostemon Bruguieri, in Persia. 


Lasiopetalea are exclusively from New Holland. 

Properties. These, like the orders most nearly related to them, are 
chiefly remarkable for the abundance of mucilage they contain. The seeds of 
Sterculia acuminata aflbrd the Kola spoken of by African travellers, which, 
when chewed or sucked, renders the flavour of water, even if half putrid, 
agreeable. The seeds of the Chicha, Sterculia Chicha, are eaten as nuts 
by the Brazilians. PI. Usuelles, 46. The Gum Tragacanth of Sierra Leone 
is produced by a species of Sterculia {St. Tragacantha Mihi). Sterculia urens 
of Coromandel yields a gum which is exceeding like Tragacanth, and has 
been imported as such into England. Hoyle. The pod of Sterculia foetida is, 
according to Horsfield, employed in gonorrhoea in Java. The leaves are con- 
sidered repellant and aperient. A decoction of the fruit is mucilaginous and 
astringent. Ainslie, 2.119. The bark of a species of Sterculia is employed 
in the Moluccas as an emmenagogue ; and the seeds of all that genus are 
filled with an oil, which may be expressed and used for lamps. There is a 
slight acridity in the seeds of Sterculia. The Waltheria Douradinha is used 
in Brazil as a remedy for venereal disorders, for which its very mucilaginous 
nature renders it proper. PI. Usuelles, 36. The fruit of Guazuma ulmifolia 
is filled with a sweet and agreeable mucilage, which the Brazilians suck with 
mucK pleasure. In Martinique the young bark is used to clarify sugar, for 
which the copious mucilage it )delds when macerated qualifies it. In the same 
island the infusion of the old bark is esteemed as a sudorific, and useful in 
cutaneous diseases. Ibid. 47. The bark of Kydia calycina is applied in India 
to the same purpose. Royle. The buttery, slightly bitter substance, called 
Cocoa, is obtained from the seeds of Theobroma Cacao, and from this Choco- 
late is prepared. The fibrous tissue of the bark of many species is so tough 
as to be well adapted for manufacturing into cordage ; this is more especially 
the case with Sterculia guttata, Microlsena spectabilis, and Abroma augustum. 
Royle. Bombax pentandrum, the Cotton Tree of India, yields a gum, which 
is given in conjunction with spices in certain stages of bowel complaints. 
Ainslie, 2. 97. The largest tree in the world is the Adansonia, or Baobab 
Tree, the trunk of which has been found with a diameter of 30 feet ; but its 
height is not in proportion. “ It is emollient and mucilaginous in all its parts. 
The leaves di'ied and reduced to powder constitute Lalo, a favourite article 
with the Africans, which they mix daily with their food, for the purpose of 
diminishing the excessive perspiration to which they are subject in those cli- 
mates ; and even Europeans find it serviceable in cases of diarrhoea, fevers, 
and other maladies. The fruit is, perhaps, the most useful part of the tree. 
Its pulp is slightly acid and agreeable, and frequently eaten ; while the juice 
is expressed from it, mixed with sugar, and constitutes a drink, which is va- 
lued as a specific in putrid and pestilential fevers.” Hooker Bot. Mag. 2792. 
The dried pulp is mixed with water, and administered, in Egypt, in dysentery. 
It is chiefly composed of gum, like Gum Senegal, a sugary matter, starch, and 
an acid which appears to be the malic. Delile, Cent. 12. The fruit of the Durian 
is considered one of the most dehcious productions of nature ; it is remarkably 
foetid, and therefore disagreeable to those who are unaccustomed to it, but it 
universally becomes in the end a favourite article of the dessert. It is found 
in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, where it is cultivated extensively ; 
see Hort. Trans. 5. 106. The seeds of many of the species are enveloped in 
long hairs, like those of the true Cotton : it is found, however, that they can- 
not be manufactured, in consequence of no adhesion existing between the hairs. 
The woolly coat of the seeds of the Arvore de Paina (Chorisia speciosa), and 
several species of Eriodendron and Bombax, is employed in dififerent countries 
for stuffing cushions, aud for similar domestic purposes. PI. Us. 63. Helic- 
teres Sacarolha, called by the latter name only in Brazil, is used against vene- 



real disorders : a decoction of the root is administered. It is supposed that 
its effects depend upon its mucilaginous properties. Ibid. 64. 


§ 1. HELICTEREiE.Endl 
Quararibea, Aubl. 
Myrodia, Sw. 

Matisia, Humb. 
Methoriura, Endl. 
Helicteres, L. 

Isora, Endl. 

Alicteres, Neck. 
Orthothecium, Endl. 
Ungeria, Endl. 
Reevesia, Lindl, 

§ 2.STERCULiEiE, Endl, 
Pterygota, Endl. 
Heritiera, Ait. 

Balanopteris, Gaertn 
Triphaca, Lour. 
Sterculia, L. 

Chichaea, Presl. 
Biasolettia, Presl. 
Southwellia, Salisb. 
Cola, Endl. 
Cavallium, Endl. 
Hildegardia, Endl. 
Scaphium, Endl. 
Firmiana, Marsigl. 
Erythropsis, Lindl. 

Trichosiphum, Endl. 
Brachychiton, Endl. 

§ 3. BoMBACEiE, Endl. 
Cheirostemon, Humb. 
Ochroma, Swz. 

Durio, L. 

Erione, Endl. 

Chorisia, Kth. 
Campylanthera, Endl. 
Eriodendron, DC. 
Gossampinus, Hamilt. 

, Salmalia, Endl. 
Eriotheca, Endl. 
Bombax, L. 

, Borabycospermum, 

Carolinea, L. 
Adansonia, L. 
Ophelus, Lour. 
Montezuma, Moc.etS. 
Pourretia, W. 

§ 4. DOMBEYiE, DC. 

Ruizia, Cav. 
Pentapetes, L. 
Assonia, Cav, 
Dombeya, Cav, 

Brotera, Cav. 
Melhania, Forsk. 
Trochetia, DC. 

Velaya, Adans. 
Astrapaea, Lindl. 
Kydia, Roxb. 

? Vantanea, Aubl. 

Lemniscia, Schreb. 
Eriolaena, DC. 
Microchlaena, Wall. 
Wallichia, DC. 
Jackia, Spr. 

Goethea, Nees. 

Theobroma, L. 

Cacao, Tourn, 
Abroma, L. 

Guazuma, Plum. 

Bubroma, Schreb. 
Glossostemon, Desf. 
Commersbnia, Forst. 
Bhttneria, Loefl. 

Rulingia, R. Br. 
Ayenia, L. 

Kleinhbvia, L. 
Actinophora, Wall. 

Pentaglottis, Wall, 
Prosthesia, Bl, 

Visenia, Bl. 
Maranthes, Bl. 
j 6. Lasiopetale^, 

7. 431 (1821). 
Seringia, Gay. 

Gaya, Spreng. 
Lasiopetalum, Sm. 
Guichenotia, Gay. 
Thomasia, Gay. 
Keraudrenia, Gay. 

§ 7. Hermanniea;,Jus. 
. Melochia, L. . 
Riedlea, Vent. 

Visena, Houtt. 
Mougeotia, Kth. 
Glossospermum, Wall. 
Physodium, Presl, 
Waltheria, L. 

Altheria, Thouars. 
Llermannia, L. 

Lophanthus, Forst. 
Mahernia, L. 
Jurgensia, Spr. 
Medusa, Lour. 

Order LXXII. MALVx\CE^E. The Mallow Tribe. 

Malvaceae, Juss. Gen. 271. (1789) in part.-. Brown in Voy. to Congo, p. 8. (1818) ; 

Kunth. Diss. p. 1. (1822); DC. Prodr. 1. 429. (1824); Lindl. Synops. p. 40. 

(1829). — Malvace^, § Malveae, St. HU. FI. Bras. mer. 1. 173. (1827). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, very seldom 3 or 4, more or less united at the 
base, with a valvate aestivation, often bearing external bracts forming an involucre. Petals 
of the same number as the sepals, hypogynous, with a twisted aestivation, either distinct 
or adhering to the tube of the stamens. Stamens usually indefinite, sometimes of the 
same number as the petals, hypogynous; filaments monadelphous ; anthers 1 -celled, reni- 
form, bursting transversely. Ovary formed by the union of several carpels round a com- 
mon axis, either distinct or coherent ; styles the same number as the carpels, either united 
or distinct ; stigmas variable. Fruit either capsular or baccate, its carpels being either 
monospermous or polyspermous, sometimes united in one, sometimes separate or separa- 
ble ; dehiscence either loculicidal or septicidal. Seeds sometimes hairy ; albumen none, 
or in small quantity ; embryo curved, with twisted and doubled cotyledons. — Herbaceous 
plants, trees, or shrubs. Leaves alternate, more or less divided, stipulate. Hairs stellate. 
Peduncles usually axillary. 

Anomalies. In Malope the carpels are numerous, and distinct, not arranged in a sin- 
gle row, as in the rest of the order. 

Affinities. The relation of Malvaceae with Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae, and 
Elaeocarpaceae, is clearly indicated by their general accordance in structure, and 
especially by the valvate aestivation of their calyx. With other orders they 
also agree in numerous points ; as, with Ranunculaceae in the indefinite stamens 


and distinct aggregate caqDels of Malope ; with Temstromiacese in their mo- 
nadelphous stamens ; with Chlenacese in the presence of an involucre below 
the flower, and monadelphous stamens ; with Linaceae in their mucilaginous 
properties, definite seeds, many-celled fruit, and unguiculate petals; and 
through the medium of this last order with Silenaceae. 

Geography. These plants are found in great abundance in the tropics, 
plentifully in the hotter parts of temperate regions, but gradually diminishing 
to the north. Thus in Sicily they form ■A of the flowering plants(Pre 5 /.), in 
France {Humboldt), in Sweden 2 ^ {Wahl.), in Lapland unknown, in the 
temperate parts of North America in the equinoctial parts of the same 
continent 5 or, taking into account only the vegetation of the vaUeys, they, 
according toHumboldt, form -jL of the flowering plants in the tropics, 
the temperate zone, and are not found in the frigid zone. But these calcula- 
tions no doubt include Sterculiacese. 

Properties. The uniform character is to abound in mucilage, and to be 
totally destitute of all unwholesome qualities. The use to which Mallows and 
Marsh-mallows are applied in Europe is well known. Similar properties are 
possessed by extra- European species. Sida cordifolia mixed with rice is used 
to alleviate the bloody flux. Emolhent fomentations are prepared from Sida 
mauritiana by the Hindoo doctors. Ainslie, 1. 205. The flowers of Ben^ao 
de Deos, Abutilon esculentum, are used in Brazil as a boiled vegetable. PI. 
Usuelles, 51. A decoction of Sphseralcea Cisplatina is administered in the 
same country in inflammations of the bowels, and is generally employed for 
the same purposes as the Marsh-mallow in Europe. Ih. 52. Pavonia diure- 
tica is prescribed in Brazil as a diuretic ; it is supposed to act rather as an 
emollient. Ibid. 53. The wood is always very light, and of little value. 
Rocket-sticks are obtained from the hght straight stems of Sida micrantha. 
Ibid.A9. The chewed leaves of another species, S. carpinifolia, are applied in 
Brazil to the punctures of wasps. Ib. 50. The bark is often so tenacious as 
to be manufactured into cordage. Malva crispa was found by CavaniUes to 
be fit for this purpose ; and several species of Hibiscus are employed in like 
manner in tropical countries. From the fibres of the bark of Hibiscus arb- 
oreus the whips are manufactured with which the negro slaves are lashed in the 
West India Islands. The plant is called Mohoe or Mohaut. Hamilt. Prodr. 
49. Sida abutila is said to be cultivated in China, as we know Hibiscus 
cannabinus, or Sun, is in India, as a substitute for hemp. Various other spe- 
cies are named as furnishing serviceable fibres. Boyle, p. 84. The petals of 
some are astringent ; this property exists in Malva Alcea {DC.) and in Hibis- 
cus Rosa sinensis, of which the Chinese make use to blacken their eyebrows 
and the leather of their shoes. Ih. The leaves of Althsea rosea are said to 
yield a blue colouring matter not inferior to indigo. Ed. P. J. 14. 376. A de- 
coction of the root and stem of Urena lobata is employed in Brazil as a remedy 
in windy colic ; the flowers are used as -an expectorant in dry and inveterate 
coughs. The bark furnishes good cordage. PI. Us. 56. A few species, such 
as Hibiscus Sabdariflfa and suratensis, &c., are shghtly acid. The unripe fruit 
of the Ochro, Gombo, Gobbo, or Hibiscus esculentus, is a favourite ingredient 
in soups, which are thickened by the mucilaginous quality of this plant. Hi- 
biscus longifolius or Ramturai, is applied in the same way in India. Boyle. 
The musky seeds of Abelmoschus moschatus are considered cordial and 
stomachic, and by the Arabians are mixed with cofice. Ainslie, 2. 73. The 
root of Sida lanceolata is intensely bitter, and is considered a valuable stomachic. 
Ainslie, 2. 179. It has been supposed that the root of Althaea officinalis con- 
tains a pecuhar alkaline principle called Althein; but it has since been stated 
by Plisson that it does not exist ; what was taken for it having been Asparagin. 
Brewster, 8. 369. The Cotton of commerce is the hairy covering of the seeds 


of several species of Gossypium. For an excellent account of this plant, see 
Royles Illvstr. p. 84. 


Malope, L. 

Palavia, Cav. 
Kitaibelia, VV. 

Malva, L. 

Sphaeralcea, A. S. H. 

Modiola, Mnch. 
Althaea, L. 

Alcea, L. 

Lavatera, L. 

Stegia, liam. 

Olbia, Med. 
Anthema, Med. 
Malachra, L. 

Urena, L. 

Wissadula, Medik. 

Sida, L. 

Malvinda, Med. 
Napaea, L. 

Gaya, Kth. 
Bastardia, Kth. 
Abutilon, Mnch. 
Nuttallia, Dick. 

Callirhoe, Nutt. 
Lagunea, Cav. 
Solandra, Murr. 
Triguera, Cav. 
Lagunaria, Endl. 
Cristaria, Cav. 
Anoda, Cav. 

Pavonia, Cav. 

Malache, Trow. 
Periptera, DC. 
Achania, Sw. 

Malvaviscus, DC. 
Lebretonia, Schrank. 
Lopimia, Mart. 
Hibiscus, L. 

Trionum, Med. 
Kosteletskya, Presl. 
Abelmoschus, Med. 

Bamia, R. Br. 
Decaschistia, W. et A. 
Paritium, A. St. H. 

Thespesia, Corr. 

Malvaviscus, Gaertn. 
Gossypium, L. 
Redoutea, Venten. 
Cienfuegosia, Cav. 
Fugosia, Juss. 
Cienfuegia, Willd. 
Senra, Cav. 

SenrvBa, Willd. 
Serreea, Spreng. 

Ingenhousia, Moc. et 

? Lexarza Llave. 


Eu®ocARPEiE, Juss. Ann. Mus. 11. 223. (1808); DC. Prodr. 1. 519. (1824); Arnotty 
Prodr. Penins. Ind. 1.81. (1834). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 or 5, with a valvular aestivation, and no involucre. 
Petals 4 or 5, hypogynous, lobed or fringed at the point, very rarely perigynous, or 0. 
Disk glandular, somewhat projecting. Stamens hypogynous or rarely perigynous, some 
multiple of the sepals (8-80) ; filaments short, distinct ; anthers long, filiform, 4- cornered, 
2-celled, the cells opening by an oblong pore at the apex. Ovary two or many-celled ; 
style 1, very rarely 4. Fruit variable, either indehiscent, dry, or drupaceous, or dehiscent ; 
sometimes by abortion 1-celled. Seeds 1, 2, or more in each cell; albumen fleshy ; embryo 
erect, with flat, leafy cotyledons (inverted ; radicle superior, Arnott) . Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves alternate, entire or serrated, simple, with deciduous stipules. Flowers racemose. 

Anomalies. Crinodendron is apetalous. 

Affinities. This order differs from Tiliacese only in the fringed petals, 
and anthers opening by two pores at the apex. DC. Kunth combines the 
two. Diss. Malv. p. 16. 

Geography. Of the described species, 10 are found in the East Indies, 
4 in South America, 2 in New Holland, and 2 in New Zealand ; several more, 
however, exist in India. 

Properties. Handsome trees or shrubs, with showy flowers. The fur- 
rowed, sculptured, bony fruit of the Elaeocarpi, being freed from its pulp, forms 
handsome necklaces, which are not uncommonly set in- gold, and sold in the 
shops. The TVdimQ julpai or olive is appHed to the fruit of some species of 
Elseocarpus, which is eaten ; while that of others is dried and used in the 
curries of the natives of India, and is also pickled. Royle, p. 104. Roxburgh 
did not succeed in extracting any oil from the fruit. Id. 


Elaeocarpus, L. Ganitrus, Gaertn. Vallea, Mutis. Acronodia, Bl. 

Aceratium, DC. Dicera, Forst. Tricuspidaria, R. et P. Acrozus, Spreng. 

Adenodus, Lour. Friesia, DC. Tricuspis, Pers. Monocera, Jack. 

Crinodendron, Mol. 



Order LXXIV. DIPTERACE^E. The Camphor-Tree Tribe. 

DiPTEROCARPEiE, Blume Bijdr. p, 222. (1825); FI. JavcB (1829); Wight and Arnott, 
Prodr. FI. Ind. Penins. 1. 83. (1834). 

Essential Character. — Calyx tubular, 5-lobed, unequal, persistent, and afterw^ards 
enlarged, naked at the base ; gestivation imbricated. Petals hypogynous, sessile, often 
combined at the base ; aestivation contorted. Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, distinct, or 
slightly and irregularly polyadelphous; anthers innate, subulate, opening longitudinally 
towards the apex ; filaments dilated at the base. Ovary superior, without a disk, few- 
celled; oywZes in pairs, pendulous ; single ; stigma simple. coriaceous, 1 -celled 

by abortion, 3-valved or indehiscent, surrounded by the calyx, having tough leafy enlarged 
permanent divisions which crown the fruit. Seed single, without albumen ; cotyledons, 
twisted and crumpled, or unequal and obliquely incumbent ; radicle superior. — Elegant 
trees, abounding in resinous juice. Leaves alternate, involute in vernation, with veins run- 
ning out from the midrib to the margin ; stipules deciduous, oblong, convolute, terminating 
the branches with a taper point. Peduncles terminal, or almost so, in racemes or panicles ; 
flowers usually large. 

Affinities. Very near Elaeocarpacese, but also allied to Malvaceae in the 
contorted aestivation of the corolla, and the crumpled cotyledons : the order 
differs from the latter in having the stamens either distinct or partially com- 
bined, long narrow 2-celled anthers, and pendulous ovules; and from the 
former in the petals not being fringed, and in want of albumen. Tlie resinous 
juice, compound superior ovary, drupaceous fruit, numerous long anthers, 
irregular coloured calyx, and single exalbuminous seed, ally it, as Blume 
remarks, to Guttiferae, from which the stipules and the aestivation of the corolla 
abundantly distinguish it. The enlarged foliaceous unequal segments of the 
calyx, while investing the fruit, point out this family at once. 

Geography. Only found in India, and especially in the eastern islands of 
the Indian Archipelago, where, according to Blume, they form the largest 
trees of the forest. Shorea robusta limits the northern distiibution of the 
order, being found all along the foot of the Himalaya. 

Properties. Here belongs the famous Camphor tree of Sumatra, Dry- 
obalanops Camphora, which is no doubt a species of Dipterocarpus. The 
camphor is found in a concrete state in the cavities and fissures in the heart of 
the tree. It is less volatile than the common camphor of commerce. Ed. 
P. J. 6. 400. See remarks upon this tree in Blume’s Flora Javce. It also 
yields the camphor- oil of Borneo and Sumatra; the latter is supposed to be 
camphor in a partially formed state. Shorea robusta yields a balsamic resin 
used in the temples of India under the name of ral or dhoona : Sal, the best 
and most extensively used timber in India, is produced by this tree. Royle. 
Vateria indica produces the resin called in India copal (in England known by 
the name of Gum animi), as very nearly approaching the true resin of that 
name. In its recent and fluid state it is used as a varnish (called Piney 
varnish) in the south of India {Buchanans Mysore, II. 476), and dissolved by 
heat, in closed vessels, is employed for the same purpose in other parts of 
India. As. res. XII. 539. Royle, 107. It is extremely tenacious and solid, 
but melts at a temperature of 97| Fahr. Brewster, 4. 186. Other kinds of 
resin are furnished by other species ; as, by Shorea robusta and Tumbugaia, the 
dhoona or dammer pitch, generally used in India for marine pui-poses, and as 
incense ; by various species of Dipterocarpus, the balsam called by the natives of 
India gurjun, by the Cinghalese dhoonatil, and by the English wood-oil. 
As. res. 1. c. 


Lophira, Afz. 
Hopea, Wall. 
Shorea, Wall. 

Dipterocarpqs, Gaertn. 
Caryolobis, Gaertn. 
Dryobalanops, Gaertn. 
Pterigium, Gaertn. 

Vateria, L. 


Order LXXV. TILIACEiE. The Linden Tribe. 

TiLiACEiE, Juss. Gen. 290. (1789) in part.; Kunth. Malv. Diss. p. 14. (1822) ; DC. Prodr. 

1. 503. (1824); Lindl. Coll. p. 54. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 or 5, with a valvular aestivation, usually with no 
involucre. Petals 4 or 6, entire, usually with a little pit at their base ; very seldom want- 
ing ; most commonly the size of the sepals. Stamens generally indefinite, hypogynous, 
distinct ; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally ; in Sparmannia the outer stamens are 
barren. Disk formed of glands, equal in number to the petals, at the base of which they 
are placed, adhering to the stalk of the ovary. Ovary single, composed of from 4 to 10 
carpels ; style one ; stigmas as many as the carpels. Fruit dry, of several cells. Seeds 
numerous ; embryo erect in the axis of fieshy albumen, with fiat foliaceous cotyledons . — 
Trees or shrubs, very seldom herbaceous plants. Leaves simple, stipulate, toothed, alternate. 
Flowers axillary. 

Anomalies. Petals sometimes absent. Diplophractum is remarkable for having an 
extremely anomalous fruit, with several spurious cells, and with the placentae apparently 
in the circumference instead of the axis. Apeiba has sometimes as many as 24 cells in the 
fruit. Brown notices the existence of an African genus of this order (Christiania, DC.), 
remarkable in having a calyx of 3 lobes, while its corolla consists of 5 petals ; the fruit 
composed of 5 single-seeded capsules, connected only at the base. Cong. 428. 

Affinities. These resemble Sterculiacese, Malvacese, and the orders allied 
to them, in most respects, and especially in the valvate sestivation of their 
calyx. They are known by their glandular disk and distinct stamens, with 
2-celled anthers. 

Geography. The principal part of the order is found within the tropics 
all over the world, forming mean weed-like plants, or shrubs, or trees, with 
handsome, usually white or pink, flowers. A small number is peculiar to the 
northern parts of either hemisphere, where they form timber- trees. 

Properties. They have all a mucilaginous, wholesome juice. The leaves 
of Corchorus olitorius are used in Egypt as a pot-herb. The berries of some 
of them are succulent and eatable. The species are more remarkable for 
the toughness of the fibres of their inner bark, which are used for various 
economical purposes. Fishing lines and nets, rice bags or gunny, and a coarse 
kind of hnen called tat, are made in India of Corchorus capsularis ; and the 
Russian mats of commerce are manufactured from the Tilia. The bark of 
Luhea paniculata is used in Brazil for tanning leather. The wood of Luhea 
divaricata, which is white and light, but very close grained, makes good 
musket-stocks, and wooden soles for shoes. The Brazilians call all such 
Acoita cavallos, because the sticks they use for driving their cattle are obtained 
from them. PI. Us. 66. The flowers of Tilia, separated from the bracts, are 
used in infusion, according to Host (FI. Austr. 2. 63), with much success in 
vertigo and spasms ; they promote perspiration and alleviate coughs. But if 
the bracts and fruits are mixed with the flowers, the infusion then becomes 
astringent, and conflnes the bowels. Some species of Grewia, as G. sapida, 
asiatica, &c. yield pleasant, acid berries much used in the manufacture of 
sherbet. The wood of Grewia elastica, called dhamnoo, affords timber highly 
valued for its strength and elasticity, and, therefore, much used for bows, the 
shafts of carriages, &c. Royle. The excellent light timber called Trincomalee 
wood, employed in the construction of the excellent Massoola boats of Madras, 
is furnished by Berrya Ammonilla. Id. 


Sparmannia, Th. 
Heliocarpus, L. 

Montia, Houst. 
Entelea, R. Br. 

Antichorus, L. 

Carrichtera, Scop. 
Corchorus, L. 
Honckenya, W. 

Triumfetta, L. 

Bartramia, Gsertn. 
Porpa, Blume. 

Grewia, L. 
Microcos, L. 
Mallococca, Forst, 
Chadara, Forsk. 


Columbia, Pers. 

Colona, Cav. 

Tilia, L. 

Diplophractum, Desf. 
Sloanea, L. 

Neesia, Bl. 
Esenbeckia, Bl. 

Apeiba, Aubl. Luhea, Willd. 

Aubletia, Schreb. Berrya, Roxb. 

Oxytandrum, Neck. Brownlowia, Roxb. 

Muntingia, L. Vincentia, Hook. 

Christiania, DC. 

Alegria, Moq. et Sess. Ablangea, Aubl. 

Trichocarpus, Schrb. 

Hasseltia, H. B. K. 
Vatica, L. 
Xeropetalum, Del. 
Espera, Willd. 

Trilix, L. 

Mollia, Mart. 

Order LXXVI. LYTHRACE^. The Loosestrife Tribe. 

SAi.icARiiE, Juss. Gen. 330. (1789) ; Lindl. Synops. 71. (1829) ; Au^. de St. H. Ann. Sc. 

Nat. 2. ser. 1. p. 1. and 333. (1834). — Calycanthem^e, Vent. Tabl. 3. 298. (1799). 

— Salicarin^, Link Enum.l. 142. (1821). — Lythrari^, Diet. Sc. Nat. 27. 

453. (1823) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 75. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Calyx monosepalous, the lobes with a valvate or separate 
aestivation, their sinuses sometimes lengthened into other lobes. Petals inserted between 
the lobes of the calyx, very deciduous, sometimes wanting. Stamens inserted into the 
tube of the calyx below the petals, to which they are sometimes equal in number ; some- 
times they are twice, or even thrice, and occasionally four times as numerous ; anthers 
adnate, 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary superior, 2- or 4-celled ; style filiform ; 
stigma usually capitate. Capsule membranous, covered by the calyx, usually 1 -celled, 
dehiscing either longitudinally or in an irregular manner. Seeds numerous, small, without 
albumen, adhering to a central placenta ; embryo straight ; radicle turned towards the 
hilum ; cotyledons fiat and leafy. — Herbs, rarely shrubs. Branches frequently 4-cornered. 
Leaves opposite, seldom alternate, entire, without either stipules or glands. Flowers 
axillary, or in terminal spikes or racemes, in consequence of the depauperation of the upper 

Anomales. Occasionally apetalous. 

Affinities. In many respects this order resembles Onagraceee, from 
which the superior ovary and many-ribbed calyx distinguish it ; also Melasto- 
macese, from which the superior ovary, the veining of the leaves, and the 
aestivation of the stamens divide it. With Labiatae it has often a resemblance 
in habit, but this goes no further. Malvaceae, however, appear to be the plants 
to which Lythraceae the most nearly approach, as is indicated by Lagerstromia 
and Hibiscus, as well as by Lythrum itself, and Napaea. Their strictly peri- 
gynous stamens place them in a widely different affinity according to the 
French school. TTieir resemblance to Celastraceae is completely established by 
the genus Adenaria. 

Geography. Tlie Lagerstromias are all Indian or South American. The 
true Lythraceae are European, North American, and natives of the tropics of 
both hemispheres. Lythrum Salicaria, a common European plant, is singular 
for being found in New Holland, and for also being the only species of that 
order yet described from that country. 

Properties. Astringency is a property of the Lythrum Salicaria, 
which is reputed to have been found useful in inveterate diarrhoeas : another 
species of the same genus is accounted in Mexico astringent and vulnerary. 
The flowers of Grislea tomentosa, (Lythrum } Hunteri,) are employed in India, 
mixed with Morinda, for dyeing, under the name of Dhaee. Hunter, As. Res. 
4. 42. Nessea salicifolia, a plant remarkable, in an order with red or purple 
flowers, for its yeUow corolla, is said to excite violently perspiration and the 
urinary secretion. The Mexicans consider it a potent remedy for venereal 
diseases, and call it Hanchinol. DC. Lawsonia inermis is the plant from 
which the Henne of Egypt is obtained. Women in that country stain their 
fingers and feet of an orange colour with it. It is also used for dyeing skins 
and maroquins reddish yellow, and for many other purposes. It contains no 


-tannin. Ed. P. J. 12. 416. The leaves of Ammannia vesicatoria have a 
strong muriatic smell ; they are extremely acrid, and are used by the native 
practitioners of India to raise blisters, in rheumatism, &c. : bruised and ap- 
plied to the part intended to be blistered, they perform their office in half an 
hour, and most effectually. Ainslie, 2. 93. 


Rotala, L. 

Symmetria, Bl. 
Cryptotheca, Blume. 
SutFrenia, Bell. 
Ameletia, DC. 

Peplis, L. 

Chahrma, Adans. 
Ammannia, L. 
Cornelia, Ard. 

Lythrum, L. 
Salicaria, Tourn. 
Pythagorea, Rafin. 
Anisotes (13). 
Pleurophora, Don. 
Cuphea, Jacq. 
Melanium, P. Br. 
Parsonia, P. 
Balsamona, Vand. 
Acisanthera, P. Br. 
Fatioa, DC. 

Pemphis, Forst. 
Diplusodon, Pohl. 

Priedlandia, Cham. 
Nesaea, Commers, 
Heimia, Link. 
Decodon, Gmel. 
Crenea, Aubl. 
Lawsonia, L. 
Antherylium, Rohr. 
Dodecas, L. 

Ginoria, Jacq. 

Adenaria, H. B. K. 
G'rislea, Loefl. 
Woodfordia, Salisb. 



Lagerstroemia, L. 
Munchhausia, L. 
Adambea, Lam. 
Duabanga, Hamilt. 
Lafdensia, Vand. 

Calyplectus, R. et P. 
Physocalymna, Pohl. 

Alliance II. MELIALES. 

Essential Character. — ^Estivation of calyx imbricated. Carpels four or a larger 
number. Stamens very generally monadelphous in a kind of cup. Seldom or never hairy. 

While the last alliance contains plants universally mucilaginous, with the 
exception of the astringent Lythracese ; this comprehends genera which are 
mostly more or less aromatic or bitter. The number of carpels being usually 
at least four, and often seven distinguishes the alliance with almost certainty 
from Euphorbiales. 

Order LXXVII. MELIACE.^. The Bead-tree Tribe. 

MELiAi, Gen. 263. (1789) ; Mem. Mus. 3. 436. (1817); DC. Prod. 1. 619. (1824); 

Adr. de Juss. Memoire (1830). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 3, 4, or 5, more or less united. Petals the same num- 
ber, hypogynous, conniving at the base, or even cohering, usually having a valvate aestiva- 
tion. Stamens twice as many as the petals ; filaments cohering in a long tube ; anthers 
sessile within the orifice of the tube. Disk frequently highly developed, surrounding the 
ovai*y like a cup. Ovary single, with the same number of cells as petals, or fewer (3-2) 
very seldom many more (10-12) cells; style 1 ; stigmas distinct or combined ; ovules 1 or 2 
in each cell, very rarely 4. Fruit berried, drupaceous or capsular, often, in consequence of 
abortion, 1 -celled, the valves, if present, having the dissepiments in their middle. Seeds 
without albumen, not winged, with or without an aril ; albumen fieshy, (Meliece) usually 
absent (Trichiliece) . — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, without stipules, simple or 

Affinities. This order was ill understood until it was investigated 
by Adrien de Jussieu, from whose memoir I borrow the principal part of 
what follows. It is, no doubt, related to Aurantiacese, notwithstanding that 
CaneUa, which was considered a case of transition, is removed from it. The 
inflorescenee of Aurantiacese terminates in dichotomies with a central and 
praecocious flower, the union that sometimes occurs between the filaments of 
that order, the number of stamens often double that of the petals and their re- 
lative length, the embryo with a short radicle drawn back between the thick 


cotyledons, are all points in wliicli tliere is an accordance between the two 
orders. The occasionally monadelphous stamens of Rutacese designate an ana- 
logy with that order, which is confirmed by the general tendency in both cases 
to produce two OMiles in each cell of the ovary. Tlie number and the relative 
position of the parts of the flower, shew an affinity with Sapindaceae, and the 
structure of the seeds of that order is often absolutely the same as that of Me- 
liacese ; their accordance in habit is incontestable, and in fact the species of the 
two orders are often mixed together in herbaria. Burseraceae and Spondiaceae 
have also their degree of affinity. Cedrelaceae are chiefly distinguished by 
their winged seeds and the stamens being in a less degree monadelphous. 

Geography. Found all over the world ; in about equal quantities in Ame- 
rica and Asia, and four times fewer in Africa ; but these proportions are possi- 
bly due to the difference in the degree that those parts of the world have been 
examined. They do not extend further to the north than 40° ; Melia Azeda- 
rach is naturalised as it were in Provence ; and an Hartighsea exists in New 
Zealand. Tlie extra-tropical species are, however, extremely rare. 

Properties. Bitter, astringent, and tonic qualities belong to the species 
of this order, but often developed in so considerable a degree as to render their 
employment dangerous without much pi'ecaution. A Brazilian plant called 
Jito is a powerful purgative, but Piso in mentioning it, warns us against the 
danger of emplo}dng it, and says that it is more often a poison than a medicine ; 
it is supposed to be a species of Guarea. Trichilia cathartica is reputed to 
have similar properties. The juice of the bark of Guarea Aubletia is a purga- 
tive and a violent emetic ; the bark of Guarea trichilioides has similar quali- 
ties. The same power is assigned to the Arabian Elcaija (Trichilia emetica). 
Jacquin says that the negresses employ the root of T. trifoliolata to procure 
abortion. The root of Melia Azedarach is bitter and nauseous, and is used in 
North America as anthelmintic ; the pulp that surrounds the seeds is said to be 
deleterious ; but this is denied by Turpin, who asserts that dogs which he has 
seen eat it experienced no inconvenience ; and children in Carohna eat the seeds 
with impunity. Ach. R. It is supposed that the Melia Azedarachta, orNeem- 
free of India, possesses febrifuge properties. See Trans, of M. and Ph. Soc. 
of Calcutta, 3. 430. A kind of Toddy, which the Hindoo doctors consider a 
stomachic, is obtained by tapping this, which is also called the Margosa-tree. 
Ainslie, 1. 453. From the fruit of the same plant an oil is obtained, which is 
fit for burning and for other domestic purposes, and, as Ach. Richard well ob- 
sers^es {Bot. Med. 708.), is another instance, after the Olive, of the pericarp 
yielding that substance which is usually obtained from the seed. This oil is 
.'^aid to possess antispasmodic qualities. DC. Blume attributes to the root of 
Sandoricum indicum properties similar to those of Melia ; but the latter has a 
repulsive odour, while the other is aromatic. It is employed against leuco- 
rhsea, combined with the bark of the root of Carapa obovata, which is bitter and 
astringent. Rumf mentions the extreme bitterness of Xylocai-pus granatum. 
An alliaceous odour found in two species of Cedrela also occurs in a very pro- 
minent degree in some species of Dysoxylum and Hartighsea; the Javanese 
mountaineers use the fruit of these trees as garlic. Blume suspects that some 
species of Epicharis have similar properties. A warm pleasant- smelling oil is 
prepared from the fruit of Trichilia speciosa, which the Indian doctors consi- 
der a valuable external remedy in chronic rheumatism and paralytic aflections. 
Ainslie, 2. 71. Some delicious fruits of the Indian archipelago, called Lang- 
sat, or Lanseh, and Ayer Ayer, are species of the genus Lansium ; they have 
a watery pulp, with a cooling pleasant taste. Milnea edulis is another plant 
of the order, with eatable fruit. See further Royle's Illustrations, p. 141. 



§ 1. Melie^, a. de J. 
Quivisia, J. 

Gilibertia, Gmel. 
Calodryum, Desv. 
Turraea, L. 

Melia, L. 

Azedarach, Tourn. 
Azadirachta, Ad. J. 
Mallea, Ad. J. 
Cipadessa, Bl. 

§ 2. Trichilie^e, 

A. de J. 

Amoora, Roxb. 
Aphanamixis, Bl. 
Nemedra, Ad. J. 
Andersonia, Roxb. 
Sphaerosacme, Wall. 
Milnea, Roxb. 
Walsura, Roxb. 
Dysoxylum, Bl. 
Chisocheton, Bl. 

Schizochit on, Spreng. 
Synoum, Ad. J. 
Hartighsea, Ad. J. 
Epicharis, Bl. 

Cabralea, Ad. J. 
Didymocheton, Bl. 
Goniocheton, Bl. 
Sandoricum, Cav. 
Lansium, Jack. 
Ekebergia, Sparm. 
Heynea, Roxb. 
Schoutensia, Endl. 
Trichilia, L. 

Portesia, J. 

Elcaja, Forsk. 
Moschoxylum, Ad. J. 

Guarea, L. 

Guidonia, PI. 

Carapa, Aubl. 

Persoonia, W. 
Xylocarpus, Kon. 
Calpandria, Bl. 

Aglaia, Lour. 
Camunium, Rumf. 
Cambaria, Commer. 

Naregamia, W. et A. 
Stemmatosiphon, Poh. 
Aitonia, L. 


CEDRELEiE, Brown in Flinders, 64. (1814). — MeliacejE, § Cedreleae, DC. Prodr. 1. 624. 

• (1824). — CEDRELACEiE, A. de J. Mtmoire (1830). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4-5-cleft. Petals 4-5, longer. Stamens 8-10 ; the 
filaments either united into a tube (Swieteniece), or distinct (Cedreleee) , and inserted into an 
hypogynous disk. Style and stigmas simple. Cells of the ovary equal in number to the 
petals or fewer (3), with the ovules 4, or often more, imbricated in two rows. Fruit cap- 
sular, "with the valves separable from the dissepiments with which they alternate. Seeds flat, 
winged ; albumen thin or npne. — Trees with timber which is usually compact, scented, and 
beautifully veined. Leaves alternate, pinnated, without stipules. Flowers in terminal 
panicles. Ad. de J. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Meliaceae, in whose affinities they partici- 
pate. Chiefly distinguished by their winged and indefinite seeds. Flindersia, 
a genus established by Brown in the Appendix to Captain Flinders’ Voyage, 
differs from Cedrelacese both in the insertion of its seeds, which are erect, in 
the dehiscence of its capsules, and also in having moveable dissepiments ; these 
last, however. Brown considers as segments of a common placenta, having a 
peculiar form. Flindersia, and Chloroxylon are distinct from the rest of the 
order, in having the leaves dotted with pellucid glands, in which respect they 
serve to connect Cedrelaceae with Aurantiacese, and, notwithstanding the ab- 
sence of albumen, even with Rutacese. See the Appendix and Atlas to Flin- 
ders’ Voyage. 

Geography. These are common to the tropics of America and India, but 
have not yet been found on the continent of Africa, nor in any of the adjoining 
islands. Brown Congo, 465. 

Properties . The wood of the order is in general fragrant, in consequence of 
the presence of an aromatic principle. The bark of Cedrela is fragrant and resin- 
ous ; that of C. Toona, and of Swietenia Mahagoni, is also accounted febrifugal. 
The mahogany wood used by cabinet makers is the produce of the last-men- 
tioned plant. The bark of Soymida febrifuga, the Rohuna of Hindostan, 
called on the Coromandel coast the Red Wood Tree, is a useful tonic in India 
in intermittent fevers ; but Ainslie found that if given beyond the extent 
of 4 or 5 drachms in 24 hours, it deranged the nervous system, occasioning 
vertigo and subsequent stupor. That of Khaya, the Kassou-Khaye of Sene- 
gal, is a common febrifuge in the swampy districts on the banks of the Gambia. 
Cedrela febrifuga bark is said by Blume to be employed successfully against 
the intermittent fevers of Java ; he observes that it is tonic and useful in cases 
of diarrhcea, &c., but that it should never be used where there is a tendency to 

inflammation. An essential oil is -found in Flindersia and Cliloroxylon, as is 
indicated by their dotted leaves. The young shoots of Cedrela angustifoha 
have a powerful smell of garlic, according to Ruiz and Pavon. Ad. de Juss. 
Mem. Meliac, Satin Wood m the produce of Chloroxylon Swietenia, 

which is one of the plants that yield the wood oil of India. Royle. Oxleya 
xanthoxyla, a large tree, is the Yellow -wood of New South Wales. 


§ 1. SwiETENiiE, Ad. J. Khaya, Ad. J. Flindersia, R. Br. Odontandra, Kth. 

Swietenia, L. Soymida, Ad. J. Cedrela, L. Oxleya, Hooker. 

Roia, Scop. Chikrassia, Ad. J. Cedrus, Miller. ? Ixionanthes, Jack. 

Plagiotaxis, Wall. § 2. Cedrele.®, A. de J. Johnsonia, Adans. 

Chloroxylon, DC. 


Humiriace^, de Jussieu in St. HU. Flora Bras. Merid. 2. 87. (1829), 

Martius Nov. Gen. 2. 147. (1826) ; Conspect. iVo. 303. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 'm. 5 divisions. alternate with the lobes of the 

calyx, and equal to them. Stamens hypogynous, 4 or many times as numerous as the 
petals, monadelphous ; anthers 2-celled, with a fleshy connective, extended beyond the 2 
lobes. Ovary superior, usually surrounded by an annular or toothed disk, 5-celled, with 
from 1 to 2 suspended ovules in each cell ; style simple ; stigma lobed. Fruit drupaceous, 
with 5 or fewer cells. Seed with a membranous integument; embryo straight, oblong, 
lying in fleshy albumen ; radicle superior. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, 
coriaceous, without stipules. Flowers somewhat cymose. 

Affinities. These are not well made out; they differ from Mehacese 
very much in habit, and in many respects in fructification, especially in having 
the aestivation of the corolla quincuncial, not valvate, and the stamens some- 
times indefinite; the anthers of Humiriaceae, as Von Martius observes {Nov. 
Gen. 8{C. 2. 147,), are very different from those of Meliaceae in the great dila- 
tion of their connective ; their albuminous seeds and slender embryo are also 
at variance with Meliaceae. In the latter respect, and in their balsamic wood,, 
they agree better with Styraceae, as also in the variable direction of the embryo. 
Besides these points of affinity. Von Martius compares Humiriaceae with 
Chlenaceae, on account of both orders containing definite and indefinite 
monadelphous stamens, several stigmas, partially abortive cells, inverted al- 
buminous seeds, and a singular complicated vernation, by which two lon- 
gitudinal lines are impressed upon each leaf. To me it appears, that the 
real affinity is with Aurantiacese ; an affinity indicated by their inflore- 
scence, the texture of their stamens, their disk, their winged petioles, and 
their balsamic juices. 

Geography. All Brazilian trees. 

Properties. Humirium floribundum, when the trunk is wounded, yields 
a fragrant liquid yellow balsam, called Balsam of Umiri, resembling the pro- 
perties of Copaiva and Balsam of Peru. Martius, 


Humirium, Mart. 

Sacoglottis, Mart. 

Hcllcria, Mart. 

: Ohdeb LXXX. AUltANTIACE^E. Tub Orange Tribk. 

AuRANTiACEiE, CoH'. Anil. Mus. 6. 376. (1805) ; Mirb. Bull. Philom, 379. (1813) ; DC. 

Prodr. 1. 536. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Calyx urceolate or campanulate, somewhat adhering to the 
disk, short, 3- or 5-toothed, withering. Petals 3 to 5, broad at the base, sometimes dis- 
tinct, sometimes slightly combined, inserted upon the outside of a hypogynous disk, 
slightly imbricated at the edges. Stamens equal in number to the petals, or twice as many, 
or some multiple of their number, inserted upon a hypogynous disk ; filaments flattened at 
the base, sometimes distinct, sometimes combined in one or several parcels ; anthers termi- 
nal, innate. Ovary many-celled ; style 1, taper; stigma slightly divided, thickish. Fruit 
pulpy, many-celled, with a leathery rind replete with receptacles of volatile oil, and some- 
times separable from the cells ; cells often filled with pulp. Seeds attached to the axis, 
sometimes numerous, sometimes solitary, usually pendulous, occasionally containing more 
embryos than one; raphe and chalaza usually very distinctly marked; embryo straight; 
cotyledons thick) fleshy ; plumule conspicuous. — Trees or shrubs, almost always smooth, 
and filled every where with little transparent receptacles of volatile oil. Leaves alternate, 
often compound, always articulated with the petiole, which is frequently winged. Spines, 
if present, axillary. 

Affinities. Readily known by the abundance of oily receptacles which are 
dispersed over all parts of them, by their deciduous petals, and compound leaves 
with a winged petiole. They are nearly related to Amyridacese and Connaracese 
on the one hand, and to various genera of Diosmeae on the other, but are dis- 
tinguished from them all by a variety of obvious characters. It is more diffi- 
cult to distinguish Aurantiaceae from Xanthoxylaceae unless attention is paid 
to the gynobasic structure of the latter ; and this is made out with difficulty in 
the ovary ; their ripe fruit is, however, very different. Luvunga is remark- 
able for having the climbing habit of Xanthoxylaceae, and the fruit of the 
Orange tribe. The raphe and chalaza are usually distinctly marked upon the 
testa, and sometimes beautifully. De Candolle considers the rind of the 
Orange to be of a different origin and nature from the pericarp of other 
fruit, and more analogous to the torus or disk of Nelumbiaceae ; but if the 
ovary and ripe fruit are compared, it will be readily seen that this hypothesis 
is untenable, and that there is no difference between the rind of an orange and 
an ordinary pericarp. 

Geography. Almost exclusively found in the East Indies, whence they 
have in some cases spread over the rest of the tropics. Two or three species 
are natives of Madagascar ; one is described as found wild in the woods of 
Essequebo ; and Prince Maximilian of Wied Neuwied speaks of a wild Orange 
of Brazil, called Caranja da terra, which has by no means the delicious refresh- 
ing qualities of the cultivated kind, but a mawkish sweet taste. Travels, 76. 
Limonia laureola is remarkable as the only plant of this family found on the 
tops of cold and lofty mountains, where it is for some months of the year bu- 
ried under the snow. The Hill people of India call it Kidar-patri and Kuthar-^ 
chara, and fancy that it is by feeding on its leaves that the musk acquires its 
peculiar flavour. Hoyle. 

Properties. The wood is universally hard and compact; they abound 
in a volatile, fragrant, bitter, exciting oil ; the pulp of the fruit is always more 
or less acid. DC. The Orange, the Lemon, the Lime, and the Citron, fruits 
which, although natives of India, have now become so common in other coun- 
tries as to give a tropical character to a European dessert, are the most re- 
markable products of this order. If to this be added the excellence of their 
wood, and the fragrance and beauty of their flowers, I know not if an order 
more interesting to man can be pointed out. The fruits just mentioned are not, 
however, its only produce. The Wampee, a fruit highly esteemed in China 
and the Indian archipelago, is the jiroducc of Cookia punctata. The berries 


of Glycosmis citrifolia are delicious ; those of Triphasia are extremely a^reea- 
ble. The productiveness of the common Orange is enormous. A single tree 
at St. Michael’s has been known to produce 20,000 oranges fit for packing, 
exclusively of the damaged fruit and the waste, which may be calculated at 
one-third more. The juice of the Lime and the Lemon contains a large quan- 
tity of citric acid. Turner, 632. Oranges contain malic acid. Ih. 634. A 
decoction of the root and bark of vLgle Marmelos is supposed, on the Malabar 
coast, to be a sovereign remedy in hypochondriasis, melancholia, and palpita- 
tion of the heart ; the leaves in decoction are used in asthmatic complaints, 
and the fruit a little unripe is given in diarrhoea and dysentry. Roxburgh 
adds, that the Dutch in Ceylon prepare a perfume from the rind ; the fruit is 
most delicious to the taste, and exquisitely fragrant and nutritious, but laxa- 
tive ; the mucus of the seed is a good cement for some purposes. Ainslie, 2. 
87. The leaves of Bergera Konigii are considered by the Hindoos stomachic 
and tonic ; an infusion of them toasted stops vomiting. The green leaves are 
used raw in dysentery; the bark and root internally as stimuli. Ihid. 2. 139. 
The young leaves of Feronia elephantum havd, when bruised, a most delight- 
ful smell, very much resembling anise. The native practitioners of India con- 
sider them stomachic and carminative. Its gum is very like gum arabic. Ib. 
2, 83. See further Royle’s Illustrations, p. 129. 


Atalantia, Corr. 
Triphasia, Lour. 
Limonia, L. 
Cookia, Sonner. 
Quinaria, Lour. 
Aulacia, Lour. 

Murraya, Keen. 
Marsana, Sonner. 
Chalcas, Lour. 
Bergera, Keen. 
Clausena, Burm. 

Glycosmis, Corr. 
[Feronia, Corr. 
iEgle, Corr. 
Belou, Adans. 

Citrus, L. 
Luvunga, Hamilt. 
Sclerostylis, Bl. 
Micromelum, Bl. 
Chionotria, Jack. 

Order LXXXI. SPONDIACE^. The Hogplum Tribe. 

SpoNDiACEiE, Kunthin Ann. Sc. Nat. 2. 362. (1824) ; Martius Conspectus, No. 268. (1835). 

Terebintace^, trib. 3. DC. Prodr. 2. 74. (1825). 

Essential Character. — Flowers sometimes unisexual. Calyx 5-cleft, regular, per- 
sistent or deciduous. Petals 5, inserted below a disk surrounding the ovary, somewhat 
valvate or imbricate in aestivation. Stamens 10, perigynous, arising from the same part as 
the petals. DwA annular, in the males orbicular, with 10 indentations. Ovary superior, 
sessile, from 2- to 5-celled; styles 5, very short; stigmas obtuse; ovule I in each cell, 
pendulous. Frwif drupaceous, 2-5 -celled. Seeds vfWhoxiX, albumen -, cotyledons p\diXio-con- 
vex ; radicle superior, pointing to the hilum (inferior in Spondias, according to Gcertner) . 
Trees without spines. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, without pellucid dots, a few 
simple leaves occasionally intermixed. Stipules 0. Inflorescence axillary and terminal in 
panicles or racemes. 

Affinities. According to the French school, related to Anacardiaceae 
in the structure of the fruit, which is almost that of Mangifera. Spondiaceae 
are, however, essentially distinguished by their syncarpous fruit, and the ab- 
sence of a resinous juice ; and appear to differ from Aurantiaceae in little be- 
yond their perigynous stamens, large disk (which is remarkably dilated), and 
undotted leaves. The transition to Aurantiaceae is through Bergera and its 
allies in the latter order. 

Geography. Natives of the West Indies, the Society Islands, and the 
Isle of Bourbon. 


Properties. The fruit of several species of SpoiidicU is eatable in the 
West Indies, where they are called Hog Plums. 


Spondias, L. 

Poupartia, Comm. 

Lannea, G. et P. 


Essential Character. — ^Estivation of the calyx valvate. Carpels fewer than four, 
sometimes slightly adhering to the calyx. Hairs if present never starry. All shrubs. 

About the strict relationship of Rhamnacese, Chailletiaceae, and Nitrariaceae, 
there will probably be little difference of opinion. These three orders, especi- 
ally the first, are only to be distinguished from certain Euphorbiaceae with some 
difficulty ; Rhamnales were formerly considered a part of the same order as Ce- 
lastraceae. Tremandraceae are usually reckoned next akin to Polygalaceae, 
but it seems to me better to remove them from the immediate vicinity of that 
order, on account of their calyx not having the strongly imbricated structure 
of that order. Burseraceae are allied to Spondiaceae in this, and to Amyrida- 
ceae in the apocarpous alliance, and is one of the cases that connect the two. 

Order LXXXII. RHAMNACE^. The Buckthorn Tribe. 

Rhamni, Juss. Gen. 376. (1789). — Rhamne^, DC. Prodr. 2. 19. (1825) ; Brongniart 
Mtmoire sur les Rhamntes, (1826) ; Lindl. Syndps. 72. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx monophyllous, 4-5-cleft, with a valvate aestivation. 
Petals distinct, cucullate, or convolute, inserted into the orifice of the calyx, occasionally 
wanting. Stamens definite, opposite the petals. Disk fleshy. Ovary superior, or half 
superior, 2-3- or 4-celled ; ovules solitary, erect. Fruit fleshy and indehiscent, or dry and 
separating in 3 divisions. Seeds erect ; albumen fleshy, seldom wanting ; embryo almost 
as long as the seed, with large flat cotyledons, and a short inferior radicle. — Trees or shrubs, 
often spiny. Leaves simple, alternate, very seldom opposite, with minute stipules. Floivers 
axillary or terminal. 

Anomalies. Sometimes the ovary is inferior. Leaves opposite in Colletia and Reta- 
nilla. Stipules and petals often wanting. 

Affinities. Under this name have been for a long time confounded four 
orders, very different in characters, and even in natural affinities, the peculiari- 
ties of three of which have been pointed out by Ad. Brongniart in his memoir 
upon the subject, and a fourth has been distinguished by myself. These orders 
are Rhamnacese properly so called, Celastracese, Aquifoliaceae, and Staphylea- 
cese, the respective affinities of which will be found under each. Brongniart 
indicates the relation that Rhamnacese bear, thus : if we take the insertion of 
stamens as the most important distinction of plants, it wiU be found that 
among polypetalous orders with perigynous stamens, Pomese are those to 
which Rhamnacese have the closest relation, agreeing with them in the ovary, 
the cells of which are determinate in number, in the ascending ovules, and in 
their alternate leaves usually having two stipules at their base ; the number 
and position of their stamens, and the structure of their seeds, separate them 
widely. But if the insertion of the stamens is left out of consideration, they 


•will be found to have many characters in common with Biittneriese {Brown in 
Flinders, 22.) ; such as, the aestivation of the calyx, the form of the petals^ the 
position of the stamens in the front of those petals, the structure of the ovary 
and seeds in many important points ; the principal difference between them 
are, in fact, the stamens being turned outwards in Biittneriese, which are also 
destitute of a disk, have hypogynous stamens, and always 2 or more ovules. 
Euphorbiacese are allied to Rhamnacese ; but the constant separation of sexes 
in the former family, their hypogynous stamens and suspended ovules, are ob- 
vious marks of distinction. Nitrariacese may be compared with Rhamnacese 
in several points. 

Geography. Found over nearly all the world, except in the arctic zone ; 
the maximum of species is said to be dispersed through the hottest parts of 
the United States, the south of Europe, the north of Africa, Persia, and India 
in the northern hemisphere, and the Cape of Good Hope and New Holland 
in the southern. Some of the genera appear to be confined to particular 
countries, as all the true Ceanothuses to North America, Phyhcas to the Cape, 
'Cryptandra and Pomaderris to New Holland. 

Properties. The berries of various species of Rhamnus are \fiolent pur- 
gatives, and have been highly spoken of in dropsy. They also yield a dye, 
vaiying in tint from yellow to green ; the ripe berries of R. catharticus, mixed 
with gum arabic and hme-water form the green colour known under the name 
of Bladder-green. The French berries of the shops (Graines d’ Avignon, Yr.J 
are the fruit of Rh. infectorius and saxatilis, and amygdalinus. The fruit of 
Zizyphus is destitute of these purgative quahties, and, on the confrary, is often 
wholesome and pleasant to eat, as in the case of the Jujube and the Lote, the 
latter of which is known to have given their name to the classical Lotophagi. 
The peduncles of Hovenia dulcis become extremely enlarged and succulent, and 
are in China a fruit in much esteem, resembhng in flavour, as it is said, a ripe 
Pear. Some species are astringent. Sageretia theezans is used for tea by the 
poorer classes in China ; an infusion of the twigs of Ceanothus americanus has 
been named as useful, on account of its astringency, to stop gonorrhoeal dis- 
charges ; antis)q)hilitic virtues are ascribed to the root of the same, and also of 
Berchemia volubilis ; and it is said, by Rumphius, that in the Moluccas the 
bark of Zizyphus Jujuba is employed as a remedy for diarrhoea.^ Brongn. See 
Boyle' s Illustrations , p. 169. 


Paliurus, Tourn. 
Aspidocarpus, Neck. 
Aubletia, Lour. 
Ziz^’^phus, Tourn. 
Condalia, Cavan. 
Berchemia, Neck. 

(Enoplia, Hedw. 
Ventilago, Gaertn. 
Sageretia, Brongn. 
Karwinskia, Zucc. 

Rhamnus, L. 
Marcorella, Neck. 
Cervispina, Dill. 
Frangula, Tourn. 
Scutia, Commers. 
Retanilla, Brongn. 
Colletia, Kunth. 
Discaria, Hooker. 
Trevoa, Hooker. 
Hovenia, Thunb. 
Colubrina, Rich. 

Ceanothus, L. 

Forrestia, Rafin. 
Willemetia, Brong. 
Pomaderris, La B. 

Pomatoderris, Schult. 
Cryptandra, Sm. 
Trichocephalus, Bron. 
Tittmannia, Brongn. 

Moesslera, Rchb. 
Phylica, L. 

Soulangia, Brongn. 

Gouania, L. 

Retinaria, Gaertn. 
Crumenaria, Mart. 
Lepionurus, Bl. 
Crypteronia, Bl. 
Pennantia, Forst. 

Goupia, Aubl. 

Glossopetalum, Sch. 
Carpodetus, Forst. 

? Phaleria, Jack. (14) 


Chailletia:, R. Brown Cong. p. 23. (1818 ). — Chailletiace.®, DC. Prodr. 2. 57. (1825). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, with an incurved valvate aestivation. Petals 5, 
alternate with the sepals, and arising from the base of the calyx, usually 2-lobed. Stamens 


5, alternate with the petals, and combined with them at the base; anthers ovate, versatile. 
Glands usually 5, hypogynous, opposite the petals. Ovary superior, 2- or 3-celled ; ovules 
twin, pendulous ; simple; stigma obsoletely 3-lobed. Fruit drupaceous, rather dry, 
1- 2- or 3-celled. Seeds solitary, pendulous, without albumen ; embryo thick, with a thick 
superior radicle and fleshy cotyledons. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, with two stipules 
entire. Flowers small, axillary, their peduncle often connate with the petiole. 

Affinities. Whether what are here called petals are not rather abortive 
stamens is doubted by botanists, and hence the station of the order is by one 
referred to Polypetalse, and by another to Apetalse, and is compared, on the one 
hand, with Anacardiacese or Rosacese, and, on the other, with Samydacese and 
Cupuliferae. To me it seems that what appear to be petals are so ; a fact which 
it is difficult to doubt, when it is remembered that both organs are mere trans - 
formations of one common type, and that it is in appearance and position only 
that they differ. De Candolle stations the order between Homalinaceae and 
Aquilariaceae ; it agrees with the former in the presence of glands round the 
ovary, but differs in its superior ovary with the placentae in the axis, and many 
other characters. Rhamnaceae, with which it agrees so much in habit, seem, 
upon the whole to claim the closest kindred with it. 

Geography. Of the few known species belonging to this order, 2 are 
found in Sierra Leone, 2 in Madagascar, 2 in equinoctial America, and 1 in 

Properties. The fruit of Chailletia toxicaria is said to be poisonous. 
That of Moutabea is said by Aublet to be harmless. 


Chailletia, DC. Tapura, Aubl. Moutabea, Anol. Moacurra, Roxb. 

Patrisia^ Rohr. Rohria, Schreb. Cryptostomum, Schr. Wahlenbergia, R.Br. 

Mestotes, Sol. 

Dichapetalum, Thou. 

Leucosia, Thouars. 


Tremandrace^, R. Brown in Flinders, p. 12. (1814) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 343. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 or 5, equal, with a valvular aestivation, slightly’ 
cohering at the base, and deciduous. Petals equal in number to the sepals, with an invo- 
lute aestivation, enwrapping the stamens, much larger than the calyx, and deciduous. Sta- 
mens hypogynous, distinct, 2 before each petal, and therefore either 8 or 10; anthers 2- or 
4-celled, opening by a pore at the apex. Ovary 2-celled ; ovules from 1 to 3 in each cell, 
pendulous ; style 1 ; stigmas 1 or 2. Fruit capsular, 2-celled, 2-valved ; dehiscence locu- 
licidal. Seeds pendulous, ovate, with a thickened appendage at the apex, but with no 
appendage about the hilum ; embryo cylindrical, straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen ; 
the radicle next the hilum. — Slender heath-like shrubs, with their hairs usually glandular. 
Leaves alternate or whorled, without stipules, entire or toothed. Pedicels solitary, axillary 
1 -flowered. Flowers often large and showy. 

Affinities. Not very certain ; many genera probably still remain to be 
discovered. According to De Candolle, they are related to Polygalacese ; 
from which they differ in a number of points, especially in their distinct stamens 
and regular flowers ; agreeing with them in having a remarkable tumour, called 
a caruncula, at one end of the seeds, which are also definite and pendulous in 
both orders, and in the porous dehiscence of the anthers. With the exception 
of the stamens being hypogynous, instead of perigynous, they may be rather 
considered as approaching Rhamnaceae, to which the position and definite. 


number of theii' stamens, the definite seeds, syncai*pous fruit, and albuminous 
seeds ally them. 

Geography. All natives of New Holland. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Tetratheca, Sm. 
Tremandra, R. Br. 


Nitrariacea:, Ed. Pr. No. 149. (1830) ; Martiiis Conspectus, No. 255. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, 5-toothed, fleshy. Corolla of 5 petals, which 
arise from the calyx, with an inflexed valvular aestivation. Stamens 3 times the number of 
the petals, perigynous ; anthers innate, with 2 oblique longitudinal lines of dehiscence. 
Ovary superior, 3- or more celled, with a continuous fleshy stjfle, at the apex of which are 
as many stigmatic lines as there are cells ; ovules pendulous, by means of a long funiculus. 
Fruit drupaceous, opening by 3 or 6 valves. Seeds solitary, with no albumen, and a straight 
embryo, with the radicle next the hilum. — Shrubs -with, deciduous succulent alternate leaves, 
which are sometimes fascicled. Flowers in cymes, or solitarjL 

Affinities. I take Nitraria to be the type of an order related on the one 
hand to Chenopodiacese, and on the other to Rhamnaceae, agreeing with both 
in a multitude of characters, and with the latter in habit. De Candolle in- 
cludes Nitraria and Reaumuria among his Ficoideae spuriae, at the same time 
expressing a doubt whether they belong either to that or even to the same 
order. To me it appears that the affinities of Reaumuria are greater with Hy- 
pericum or Cistus, and I accordingly adopt Ehrenberg’s proposed separation 
of that genus along with Hololachna, the Tamarix songarica of Pallas, into a 
little order to be called Reaumuriaceae. The affinity of Nitraria with those Te- 
tragoniaceae in which the ovary is inferior and compound (a part of Ficoideae 
of authors) is undoubtedly great, especially with Tetragonia ; but its very dif- 
ferent embryo, and the pecuhar aestivation of the petals, which is much more 
like that of Rhamnaceae, remove it from the former order. 

Geography. Natives of western Asia and the north of Africa. One 
species is described from New Holland. 

Properties. Slightly saline. Otherwise unknown. 


Nitraria, L. 


Terebintacea:, Juss. Gen. 368. (1789) in part. — Burserace^, Kunth in Ann. Sc. Nat. 

2. 333. (1824). — ^Terebintacea:, trib. 4. DC. Prodr. 2. 75. (1825). 

Essential Character — Flowers hermaphrodite, occasionally unisexual. Calyx per- 
sistent, somewhat regular, with from 2 to 5 divisions. Petals 3-5, inserted below a disk 
arising from the calyx ; (estivation usually valvate. Stamens 2 or 4 times as many as the 
petals, perigynous, all fertile. Disk orbicular or annular. Ovary 2-5-celled, superior, ses- 
sile ; style i or 0 ; stigmas equal in number to the cells ; ovules in pairs, attached to the 
axis, collateral. F^'uit drupaceous, 2- 5-celled, with its outer part often splitting into valves. 


Seeds without albumen ; cotyledons either wrinkled and plaited, or fleshy ; radicle superior, 
straight, turned towards the hilum. — Trees or shrubs, abounding in balsam, resin, or gum. 
Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, occasionally with stipules, usually without pellucid 
dots. Floivers axillary or terminal, in racemes or panicles. 

Affinities. This order may be considered analogous in the syncarpous 
alliance to Amyridaceae and Anacardiaceae in the apocarpous, and hence al- 
though in a linear arrangement it is widely separated from these orders, yet it 
may be considered a case of transition from one alliance to the other. Its val- 
vate petals and few carpels place it near Rhamnaceae, and divide it indepen- 
dently of other circumstances from Anacardiaceae. 

Geography. Exclusively natives of tropical India, Africa, and Ame- 

Properties. They have all an abundance of fragrant resinous juice, which 
is, however, destitute of the acridity and staining property of Anacardiaceae. 
The resin of Boswellia is used in India as frankincense, and also as pitch. It 
is hard and brittle, and, according to Roxburgh, is boiled with some low- 
priced oil to render it soft and fit for use. The native doctors prescribe it, 
mixed with ghee (clarified butter), in cases of gonorrhoea, and also in what 
they call Ritta Kaddapoo, which signifies flux accompanied with blood. The 
wood is heavy, hard, and durable. Ainslie, 1. 137. The Boswellia serrata, 
called Libanus thurifera by Colebrooke, produces the gum-resin Olibanum, a 
substance chiefly used as a grateful incense, but which also possesses sti- 
mulant, astringent, and diaphoretic properties. Ihid. 1.267. A kind of 
coarse resin is obtained from Boswellia glabra, and is used boiled with oil for 
pitching the bottom of ships. Ihid. The Bursera paniculata, called Bois de 
Colophane in the Isle of France, gives out, from the slightest wound in the 
bark, a copious flow of limpid oil of a pungent turpentine odour, which soon 
congeals to the consistence of butter, assuming the appearance of camphor. 
Brewster, 2. 182. The gum of Canarium commune has the same properties as 
those of the Balsam of Copaiva ; the three-cornered nuts are eaten in Java both 
raw and dressed, and an oil is expressed from them, which is used at table 
when fresh, and for burning when stale. The raw nuts are, however, apt to 
bring on diarrhoea. Ainslie, 2. 60. Balsam of Acouchi is produced by Icica 
acuchini. Gum elemi by Icica heptaphylla, Balm of Gilead by Balsamodendron 
Gileadense, Myrrh by Balsamodendron Myrrha, Opobalsamum or Balsam of 
Mecca by B. Opobalsamum, a substance like Gum elemi by Icica Icicariba, and 
Carana, and a yeUow concrete essential oil by Bursera acuminata. See further 
Royle’s Illustrations, p. 175. 

Boswellia, Roxb. 

Libanus, Colebr. 
Bursera, Jacq. 
Protium, Burm. 


Canarium, L. • Marignia, Comm. Sorindeia, Thouars. 

Pimela, Lour. Dammara, Gaertn. Garuga, Roxb. 

Icica, Aubl. Colophonia, Comm. Hemprichia, Ehr. 

Balsamodendron, Kth. Hedwigia, Swz. 

Balsamea, Gled. 

Elaphrium, Jacq. 


Essential Character. — Alstivation of calyx imbricated. Carpels fewer than four ; 
very often three. Hairs frequently starry if present. 

The reasons for considering Euphorbiaceae a polypetalous order are given 
under the proper head. The imbricated calyx completely separates this alii- 


ance from Malvales to which it materially approaches in habit, and in the 
monadelphous and even indefinite stamens, in the stellate hairs, &c., and also 
from Rhamnales with which Celastraceae very much agree. We find here the 
same tendency to combine the petals into a tube, in Stackliousiacese and Fou- 
quieracese, as occurs so remarkably among Diosmese in the next group. In 
both these cases, however, the petals readily separate at their base, as the fruit 
increases in size. 


The Euphorbium Tribe. 

Euphorbi.®, Juss. Gen. 385. (1789). — EuPHORBiACEiE, Ad. de Juss. Monogr. (1824) ; 

Lindl. Synops. 220. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Calyxlohed, inferior, with 
various glandular or scaly internal appendages ; (sometimes wanting) . Corolla either con- 
sisting of petals or scales equal in number to the sepals, or absent ; sometimes more nume- 
rous than the sepals, sometimes united at the base. Males : Stamens definite or indefinite, 
distinct or monadelphous ; anthers 2-celled. Females : Ovary superior, sessile, or stalked, 
2- 3- or more celled ; ovules solitary or twin, suspended from the inner angle of the cell ; 
styles equal in number to the cells, sometimes distinct, sometimes combined, sometimes 
none ; stigma compound, or single with several lobes. Fruit generally consisting of 3, 
dehiscent cells, separating with elasticity from their common axis. Seeds solitary or twin, 
suspended, with an aril ; embryo enclosed in fleshy albumen ; cotyledons flat ; radicle 
superior. — Trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants, often abounding in acrid milk. Leaves oppo- 
site or alternate, simple, rarely compound, usually with stipules. Flowers axillary or ter- 
minal, usually with bracts, sometimes enclosed within an involucre. 

Anomalies. Carpels occasionally 2, or more than 3. Ricinus does not milk, except 
in the middle of the summer. 

Affinities. It is usual to consider Euphorbiacese an apetalous order, be- 
cause of the want of a corolla in the genera with which European Botanists 
are most familiar. And accordingly we find these plants sometimes stationed 
near Urticaceee, with which they have scarcely a point in common, except the 
absence of petals, or close by Myristicaceae, with which they have even less 
kindred. But if instead of considering the imperfectly developed genera of 
Europe as typical of the true structure of the order, we look to those of 
tropical countries we shall find that the apetalous character by no means 
holds good with them. In Aleurites, for example, the petals are as much de- 
veloped as in a Malvaceous plant ; the same thing occurs in Jatropha, Elaeo- 
cocca, and others ; and, in fact, upon looking through the genera described by 
Adrien de Jussieu in his Monograph, it appears that out of 61 genera no fewer 
than 32 have petals. The tendency of the order is, therefore, at least as great 
to form petals as to want them. Now, if the sum of the affinity of Euphorbia- 
cese and other orders be calculated, it wiU be found that it is with Malvaceae 
and Rhamnaceae that they most agree, and especially with the former. Their 
habit, and general appearance, are so much alike that one might easily mis- 
take some Crotons, Aleurites, &c., for Malvaceae ; the starry structure of the 
hairs, the monadelphous stamens, the definite number of ovules in a definite 
number of united carpels, are all further and important points of resemblance. 
The relationship of Euphorbiaceae to Rhamnaceae was long ago perceived by 
Jussieu, and has been since adverted to by Adolphe Brongniart {Monogr. des 
Rham. p. 35.). Brown, too, in omitting Euphorbiaceae from the apetalous 
orders, in his Prodromus, may be conjectured to have entertained a similar 
opinion ; and Auguste de St. Hilaire enquires (Plantes Usuelles, no. 18,) whe- 
ther they are not intermediate between Malvaceae and Menispermaceae. 


Geography. This extensive order, which probably does not contain 
few'er than 1500 species, either described or undescribed, exists in the greatest 
abundance in equinoctial America, where about 3-8ths of the whole number 
have been found ; sometimes in the form of large trees, frequently of bushes, 
still more usually of diminutive weeds, and occasionally of deformed, leafless, 
succulent plants, resembling Cactacese in their port, but diflbring from them 
in every other particular. In the Western world they gradually diminish as 
they recede from the equator, so that not above 50 species are known in North 
America, of which a very small number reaches as far as Canada. In the 
Old World the known tropical proportion is much smaller, arising probably 
from the species of India and equinoctial Africa not having been described 
with the same care as those of America ; not above an eighth having been 
found in tropical Africa, including the islands, and a sixth being perhaps about 
the proportion in India. A good many species inhabit the Cape, where they 
generally assume a succulent habit ; and there are almost 1 20 species from 
Europe, including the basin of the Mediterranean : of these, 1 6 only are found 
in Great Britain, and 7 in Sweden. 

Properties. The excellent monograph of Adrien de Jussieu contains the 
best information that exists upon this subject ; and I accordingly avail myself 
of it, making a few additions to his facts. The general property is that of ex- 
citement, which varies greatly in degree, and consequently in effect. This 
principle resides chiefly in the milky secretion of the order, and is most 
powerful in proportion as that secretion is abundant. The smell and taste of a 
few are aromatic ; but in the greater part the former is strong and nauseous, 
the latter acrid and pungent. The hairs of some species are stinging. The 
bark of varies species of Croton is aromatic, as Cascarilla ; and the flowers of 
some, such as Caturus spiciflorus, give a tone to the stomach. Many of them 
act upon the kidneys, as several species of Phyllanthus, the leaves of Mercu- 
rialis annua, and the root of Ricinus communis. Several are asserted by au- 
thors to be useful in cases of dropsy ; some Phyllanthuses are emmenagogue. 
The bark of several Crotons, the wood of Croton Tiglium and common Box, 
the leaves of the latter, of Cicca disticha, and of several Euphorbias, are sudo- 
rific, and used against syphilis ; the root of various Euphorbias, the juice of 
Commia, Anda, Mercurialis perennis, and others, are emetic ; and the leaves 
of Box and Mercurialis, the juice of Euphorbia, Commia, and Hura, the seeds 
of Ricinus, Croton Tiglium, &c. &c., are purgative. Many of them are also 
dangerous, even in small doses, and so fatal in some cases, that no practi- 
tioner would dare to prescribe them ; as, for example, Manchineel. In fact, 
there is a gradual and insensible transition, in this order, from mere stimulants 
to the most dangerous poisons. The latter have usually an acrid character, 
but some of them are also narcotic, as those Phyllanthuses the leaves of which 
are thrown into water to intoxicate fish. Whatever the stimulating principle 
of Euphorbiacese may be, it seems to be of a very volatile nature, because ap- 
plication of heat is sufficient to dissipate it. Thus the root of the Jatropha 
Manihot or Cassava, which when raw is one of the most violent of poisons, 
becomes a wholesome nutritious article of food when roasted. In the seeds 
the albumen is harmless and eatable, but the embryo itself is acrid and dan- 
gerous. Independently of this volatile principle, there are two others belong- 
ing to the order, which require to be noticed ; the first of these is Caoutchouc, 
that most innocuous of all substances, produced by the most poisonous of all 
families, which may be almost said to have given a new arm to surgery, and 
which has become an indispensable necessary of life ; it exists in Artocarpeie 
and elsewhere, but is chiefly the produce of species of Euphorbiacese. Tlie 
other is the preparation called Turnsol, which, although chieflv obtained from 



Crozophora (Croton) tinctoria, is to be produced equally abundantly from 
many other plants of the order. 

The properties of Euphorbiacese are so important, that I do not think I 
should fiilfil the object of this work, if I did not, in addition to the foregoing 
general view of the order, add a detailed list of the qualities of the most impor- 
tant species named by writers. 

In some parts of Persia where Box-trees abound the Camel cannot be em - 
ployed, because it is found impracticable to prevent that animal from browzing 
upon the Box-leaves, which invariably prove poisonous to it. Acalypha Cu- 
pameni, an Indian herb, has a root which, bruised in hot water, is cathartic ; 
a decoction of its leaves is also laxative. Rheede, 10. 161. The nut of Aleu- 
rites ambinux is eatable and aphrodisiac, hut rather indigestible. Commers. 
according to Ad. de J. The nuts of another species are eaten in Java and the 
Moluccas ; but they are intoxicating unless they are roasted. Bumph. The 
Anda of Brazil is famous for the purgative qualities of its seeds, which are 
fuUy as powerful as those of the Palma Christi. The Brazilians make use of 
them in cases of indigestion, in liver complaints, the jaundice and dropsy. 
The rind, roasted on the fire, passes as a certain remedy for diarrhoea brought 
on by cold. According to Marcgraaf, the fresh rind steeped in water com- 
municates to it a narcotic property which is sufficient to stupify fish. Martins 
Amcrn. Monac. p. 3. The seeds are either eaten raw, or are prepared as an 
electuary; they yield an oil, which is said, M. Auguste de St. Hilaire, to be 
drying and excellent for painting ; in short, much better than nut oil. PL 
UsneUes, 54. The bark of Briedelia spinosa, an Indian shrub, is, jaccordingto 
Roxburgh, a powerful astringent ; the leaves are greedily eaten by cattle, 
which by their means free themselves of intestinal worms. The leaves of 
common Box are sudorific and purgative : according to Hanway, camels eat 
them in Persia, but they die in consequence. Ad. de J. Tlie flowers of Catu- 
rus spiciflorus are spoken of as a specific in diarrhoea, either taken in decoction 
or in conserve. Burm. Ind. 303. The succulent fruit of Cicca disticha and 
racemosa is sub- acid, cooling, and wholesome. Its leaves are sudorific, and 
its seeds cathartic. Tlie capsules of Cluytia coUina are poisonous, according 
to Roxburgh. The root and bark of Codiseum variegatum are acrid, and 
excite a burning sensation in the mouth if chewed : but the leaves are sweet 
and cooling. Rumphius. The juice of Commia cochinchinensis is white, tena- 
cious, emetic, purgative, and deobstruent. Cautiously administered, it is a 
good medicine in obstinate dropsy and obstructions. Lour. 743. The Quina 
Blanca of Vera Cruz is produced by the Croton Eluteria of Swartz, and is 
probably the Cascarilla of Europe. Schiede in Ann. des Sc. 18. 217. The 
drastic oil of Tiglium is expressed from the seeds of Croton Tiglium, formerly 
known in Europe under the name of Grana molucca. It is said, by Ainslie, 
to have proved in a singular manner emmenagogue. Mat. Med. 1. 108. A 
decoction of Croton perdicipes, called Pe de Perdis, Alcamphora, and Cocal- 
lera, in different provinces of Brazil, is much esteemed as a cure for syphilis, 
and as a useful diiu'etic. PI. Us. 59. The root of another species, called 
Velame do Campo, C. campestris has a purgative root, also employed against 
syphilitic disorders. lb. 60. The leaves of a species of Croton (C. gratissi- 
mum, Burchell,) are so fragrant as to be used by the Koras of the Cape of 
Good Hope as a perfume. Burch. 2. 263. Crozophora tinctoria yields the 
preparation called Turnsol ; the plant itself is acrid, emetic, and drastic. An 
abundance of useful oil is obtained from two species of Elaeococca ; it is, how- 
ever, only fit for burning and painting, on account of its acridity. Ad. de J. 
Six sorts of European Euphorbias are named, by Deslongchamps, as fit sub- 
stitutes for Ipecacuanha, the best of which he states to be E. Gerardiana, 
the powdered root of which vomits easily in doses of 18 or 20 grains. Ainslie, 


1. 123. The 'root of Euphorbia Ipecacuanha is said, by Barton, to be equal 
to the true Ipecacuanha, and in some respects superior ; it is not unpleasant 
either in taste or smell. Barton, 1. 281. Various species of fleshy Euphorbia, 
especially the Euph. antiquorum and canariensis, produce the drug Euphor- 
bium of the shops, which is the inspissated milky juice of such plants. In 
India it is mixed with the oil expressed from the seeds of Sessamum orien- 
tate, and used externall} in rheumatic affections, and internally in cases of 
obstinate constipation. It is little used in Europe. Orfila places it among 
his poisons. Ainslie, 1. 121. Euphorbia papillosa is administered, in Brazil, 
as a purgative ; but is apt, if given in too strong a dose, to cause dangerous 
superpurgations. PI. Usuelles, 18. The juice of the leaves of Euphorbia 
nereifolia is prescribed by the native practitioners of India, internally as a 
purge and deobstment, and externally, mixed with Margosa oil, in such cases 
of contracted limb as are induced by ill-treated rheumatic affections. 
The leaves have, no doubt, a diuretic quality. Ainslie, 2. 98. The leaves and 
seeds of Euphorbia thymifolia are given, by the Tamool doctors of India, in 
worm cases, and in certain bowel affections of children. Ibd. 2. 76. The same 
persons give the fresh juice of Euphorbia pilulifera in aphthous affections. The 
fresh acrid juice of Euphorbia Tirucalli is used in India as a vesicatory. Ih. 

2. 133. The Ethiopians are said, by Virey, to form a mortal poison for their 
arrows from the juice of Euphorbia heptagona. Hist, des Medic. 299. The 
juice of Excsecaria AgaUocha, and even its smoke when burnt, affects the eyes 
with intolerable pain, as has been experienced occasionally by sailors sent 
ashore to cut fuel, who, according to Rumphius (2. 238.), having accidentally 
rubbed their eyes with the juice, became blinded, and ran about like distracted 
men, and some of them Anally lost their sight. The famous Manchineel tree, 
Hippomane MancineUa, is said to be so poisonous, that persons have died from 
merely sleeping beneath its shade. This is doubted, indeed, by Jacquin, who, 
however, admits its extremely venomous qualities ; but it is by no means im- 
probable that the story has some foundation in truth, particularly if, as Ad. de 
Jussieu truly remarks, the volatile nature of the poisonous principle of these 
plants is considered. The juice of Hura crepitans is stated to be of the same 
fatal nature as that of Excsecaria ; its seeds are said to have been administered 
to negro slaves as purgatives, in number not exceeding 1 or 2, with fatal con- 
sequences. Ad. de J. The powdered fruit of Hysenanche globosa is used in 
the colony of the Cape of Good Hope to poison hysenas, as nux vomica to poi- 
son stray dogs in Europe. From the seeds of Jatropha glauca the Hindoos 
prepare, by careful expression, an oil which, from its stimulating quality, they 
recommend as an external application in cases of chronic rheumatism and pa- 
ralytic affections. Ainslie, 2. 6. The seeds of Jatropha Curcas are purgative 
and occasionally emetic ; an expressed oil is obtained from them, which is 
reckoned a valuable external application in itch and herpes ; it is also used, a 
little diluted, in chronic rheumatism. The varnish used by the Chinese for 
covering boxes is made by boiling this oil with oxide of iron. The leaves are 
considered as rubefacient and discutient ; the milky juice is supposed to have 
a detergent and healing quality, and dyes linen black. Ihid. 2. 46. The 
roots of the Jatropha Manihot, or Mandiocca, yield a flour (Cassava) of im- 
mense importance in South America : this is obtained by crushing the roots, 
after the bark has been removed, and then straining off the water ; after which 
the mass is gradually dried in pans over a fire. Tapioca is a preparation of 
the same root. The seeds of several species of Jatropha are purgative, but 
they sometimes act so dangerously as to require extreme caution in adminis- 
tering them. Mercurialis perennis is purgative and dangerous. According to 
Sloane, it has sometimes produced violent vomiting, incessant diarrhoea, a 
burning heat in the head, a deep and long stupor, convulsions, and even death ; 

yet this very plant, when boiled, has been eaten as a potherb. The leaves of 
Maprounea brasiliensis, or the Marmeleiro do Campo of Brazil, yields a black 
dye, which is, however, fugitive. A decoction of its root is also administered 
in derangement of the stomach ; — a most remarkable circumstance, if we con- 
sider the close relation that is borne by it to Manchineel and other most poi- 
sonous trees. According to Auguste de St. Hilaire, the Maprounea is destitute 
of the milky juice of Sapium, Excsecaria, Hippomane, and other dangerous ge- 
nera. PL Us. 65. The seeds of Omphalea are eaten safely, if the embryo is 
first removed ; if this is not done, they are cathartic. Both Pedilanthus tithy- 
maloides and padifolius are used medicinally in the West Indies : the former, 
known under the name of Ipecacuanha, is used for the same purposes as that 
drug ; the latter, called the Jew Bush, or Milk plant, is used in decoction of 
the recent plant as an antisyphilitic, and in cases of suppression of the menses. 
Hamilt. Prodr. FI. Ind. 43. The root, leaves, and young shoots of Phyllan- 
thus Niruri are considered, in India, deobstruent, diuretic, and healing. The 
leaves are very bitter, and a good stomachic. Ainslie, 2. 151. Some other 
species, particularly Ph. urinaria, are powerful diuretics. The fruit of Phyllan- 
thus Emblica is frequently made into pickle ; it is acid, and, when dry, very 
astringent. Ibid. 1, 240. The bruised leaves of Phyllanthus Conami are used 
for inebriating fishes. Aubl. 928. The boiled leaves of Plukenetia corniculata 
are said to be an excellent potherb, for which purpose the plant is cultivated in 
Amboyna. Rumph. The purgative quality of Ricimis, the Castor oil plant, 
is well known ; the root is said to be diuretic. The juice of Sapium aucupa- 
rium is reputed poisonous. A case is mentioned by Tussac {Journ. Bot. 1813. 
1. 117.) of a gardener whose nostrils became swollen and seized with erysipe- 
latous phlegmasis, in consequence of the fumes only of this plant. The root 
of Tragia involucrata is reckoned, by the Hindoo doctors, among those medi- 
cines which they conceive to possess virtues in altering and correcting the ha- 
bit in cases of cachexia, and in old venereal complaints attended with anoma- 
lous symptoms. Ainslie, 2. 62. There is reason to believe that the timber 
imported from the coast of Africa, under the name of African Teak, belongs to 
some tree of this order. From a species of a tree, stated by Brown to be of 
an unpublished genus, it is said that a substance resembling caoutchouc is pro- 
cured in Sierra Leone. Congo, 444. The true caoutchouc is furnished by 
Siphonia elastica, a Surinam and Brazilian tree. 

§ 1. BuxejE, Bartl. 
Drypetes, Vahl. 
Sarcococca, Lindl. 
Plagianthus, Forst. 
Thecacoris, Adr. J. 
Adenocrepis, Bl. 
Pachysandra, Mich. 
Buxus, L. 

Tricera, Schreb. 

Crantzia, Sw. 
Securinega, Juss. 
Geblera, F. et M. 
Savia, Willd. 
Actephila, Bl. 
Leiocarpus, Bl. 
Amanoa, Aubl. 
Richeria, Vahl. 
Fliiggea, Willd. 


Epistylium, Sw. 
Scepasma, Bl. 
Gynoon, Adr. Juss. 


Glochidium, Forst. 

Bradleia, Gaertn. 
Glochidionopsis, Bl. 
Anisonema, Adr. J. 
Leptonema, Adr. J. 
Poranthera, Rudge. 
Cicca, L. 

Cheramela, Rumph. 
? Tricarium,, Lour. 
Emblica, Gagrtn. 
Kirganelia, Juss. 
Phyllanthus, L. 

Nymphanthus, Lour. 
? Breynia, Forst. 
Niruri, Adans. 
Conami, Aubl. 
Melanthesa, Bl. 
Sauropus, Bl. 
Cyclostemon, Bl. 
Trigostemon, Bl. 
Ryparosa, Bl. 
Xylophylla, L. 
Genesiphylla, L’Her. 

Menarda, Commers. 
Micranthea, Desf. 
Agyneja, L. 
Andrachne, L. 
Telephioides, Mcench. 
Limeum, Forsk. 
Eraclissa, Forsk. 
Arachne, Neck. 
Cluytia, Ait. 

- Clutia, Boerh. 
Altora, Adans. 
Cratochwilia, Neck. 
Briedelia, Willd. 

§ 3. RiciNEAi, Bartl. 
Argythamnia, P. Br. 

Ateramnus, P. Br. 
Ditaxis, Vahl. 
Chiropetalum, A. de J. 
Caperonia, A. St. H. 
Crozophora, Neck. 

Tournesolia, Scop. 
Croton, L. 
Ricinocarpus, Boerh . 

Brunsvia, Neck. 
Cascarilla, Adans. 
Tridesmis, Lour. 
Aroton, Neck. 
Luntia, Neck. 
Cinogasum, Neck. 
Crotonopsis, Michx. 
Leptomon, Rafin. 
Friesia, Spreng. 
Adelia, L. 

Bernardia, Houst. 

Baliospermum, Bl. 
Spathiostemum, Bl. 
Acidoton, Sw. 
Adriana, Gaudich. 
Adisca, Bl. 

Cheilosa, Bl. 
Rottlera, Roxb. 
i Mallotus, Lour. 
Codiseum, Rumph. 
Phyllaurea, Lour. 


Gelonium, Roxb. 
Erythrocarpus, Bl. 
Hemicyclia, W. et A. 
Hisingera, Hell. 
Mozinna, Orteg. 

Loureria, Cav. 
Amperea, Adr. J. 
Ricinocarpus, Desf. 
Echinosph(sra, Sieb. 
Roeperia, Spreng. 
Ricinus, L. 

Janipha, Kunth. 

Manihot, Adans. 
Jatropha, Kunth. 
Castiglionia, R. et P. 
Curcas, Adans. 
Bromfeldia, Neck. 
Cnidoscolus, Pohl. 
Jussievia, Houst. 
Bitwncea, Rafin. 
Adenorhopium, Pohl. 
Elaeococca, Commers. 
Dryandra, Thunb. 
Vernicia, Lour. 
Ostodes, Bl. 

Aleurites, Forst. 
Ambinux, Commers. 
Camirium, Rumph. 
Anda, Pis. 

Joannesia, Velloz. 

Siphonia, Rich. 

Hevea, Aubl. ^ 
Mabea, Aubl. 
Elateriospermum, Bl. 
Hyaenanche, Lamb. 

Toxicodendron, Thb. 
Garcia, Vahl. 

§ 4. AcALYPHEiE,Bart. 
Alchornea, Sw. 

Hermesia, Bonpl. 
Cleidion, Bl. 
Conceveibum, Rich. 
Claoxylon, Adr. J. 
Erythrochilus, Bl. 
Macaranga, Pet. Thou. 

Panopia, Noronh. 
Mappa, Adr. J. 
Caturus, L. 

Galurus, Spreng. 
Acalypha, L. 

Cupameni, Adans. 
Mercurialis, L. 
Anabaena, Adr. J. 
Plukenetia, L. 

Tragia, Plum. 

Schorigeram., Adans. 
Cnesinosa, Bl. 

§ 5. HlPPOMANEiE, 


Microstachys, Adr. J. 
Sapium, Jacq. 
Stillingia, L. 
Adenopeltis, Adr. J. 
Triadica, Lour. 
Homalanthus, Bartl. 
Omalanthus, A. de J. 
Carumbium, Rnwdt. 
Hippomane, L. 
Pachystemon, Bl. 
Hura, L. 

Gyrostemon, Desf. 
Sebastiania, Spreng. 
Excaecaria, L. 
Gymnanthes, Sw. 
Gussonia, Endl. 
Baloghia, Endl. 
Colliguaya, Molin. 
Gomraia, Lour. 
Styloceras, Adr. J. 
Maprounea, Aubl. 

Mgopricon, L. fil. 
Omphalea, L. 
Omphalandria, P. 

Duchola, Adans. 

§ 6. Euphorbie^, 

Dalechampia, L. 
Anthostema, Adr. J. 
Hendecandra, Eschs. 
Euphorbia, L. 
Tithymalus, Tourn. 
Athymalus, Neck. 
Keraselma, Neck. 
Treisia, Haw. 
Dactylanthes, Haw. 
Medusea, Haw. 
Galarrhoeus, Haw. 
Esula, Haw. 
Anisophyllum, Haw. 
Pedilanthus, Neck. 
Monotaxis, Brongn. 
Pseudanthus, Sieb. 

Margaritaria, L. fil. 
Suregada, Roxb. 
Hexadica, Lour. 
Homonoia, Lour. 
Cladodes, Lour. 
Echinus, Lour. 
Lascadium, Rafin. 
Synzyganthera, P. 

Didymandra, Willd. 
Peridium, Schott. / 
Pera, Mut. 

Order LXXXVIL* EMPETRACEiE. The Crowberry Tribe. 

Empetre^, Nutt. Gen. 2. 233.; Don. in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. (1826) ; Hooker in Bot. 

Mag. t. 2758. (1827) ; Lindley’s Synopsis, 224. (1829) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. p. 372. 

(1830); Arnott in Edinb. Ency cl. 129. (1832). 

Essential Character. — Mowers unisexual. Sepals hypogynous imbricated scales. 
Stamens equal in number to the inner sepals, and alternate with them ; anthers roundish, 
2-celled, the innermost of which are sometimes petaloid, the cells distinct, bursting longi- 
tudinally. Oi'ary superior, seated in a fleshy disk, 3- 6- or 9-celled; ovules solitary, 
ascending ; style 1 ; stigma radiating, the number of its rays corresponding with the cells 
of the ovary. Fruit fleshy, seated in the persistent calyx, 3- 6- or 9-celled ; the coating ot 
the cells bony. Seeds solitary, ascending ; embryo taper, in the axis of fleshy watery albu- 
men ; radicle inferior. — Small acrid shrubs with heathlike evergreen leaves without stipules ; 
and minute ^owm in their axils. 

Affinities. According to Don this order holds a kind of intermediate 
place between Euphorbiaceae and Celastraceae, agreeing in habit with the for- 
mer, especially with Micranthea, and some species of Phyllanthus, more than 
with the latter. In this view Arnott and Bartling concur. Until lately I 
had an idea that a relation might be better established with Urticaceae and 
Myricaceae, but I now feel that I was wrong, and give it up. 

Geography. A very small group, comprising a few species from North 
America, the south of Europe, and the Straits of Magellan. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Empetrum, L. 
Coema, Don. 
Ccratiola, Michx. 



Stackhouses, R. Br. in Flinders, 555. (1814). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 1-leaved, 5-cleft, equal, with an inflated tube. Petals 
5, equal, arising from the top of the tube of the calyx ; their claws combined in a tube 
longer than the calyx ; their limb narrow, stellate. Stamens 5, distinct, unequal (2 alter- 
nately shorter), arising from the throat of the calyx. Ovary superior, 3- or 5-lobed, the 
lobes distinct, each with a single erect ovule ; styles from 3 to 5, sometimes combined at 
the base ; stigmas simple. Fruit of from 3 to 5, indehiscent, winged, or wingless pieces ; 
column central, persistent. Embryo erect, in the axis of, and almost as long as, the fleshy 
albumen. — Herbaceous plants. Leaves simple, entire, alternate, sometimes minute. Stipules 
lateral, very minute. Spifte terminal, each flower with 3 bracts. 

Affinities. Between Celastraceae and Euphorbiacese, according to 
Brown ; from the latter of which they differ in the structure of their fruit, 
and in the position of their seeds, besides other characters ; from the former 
in the presence of stipules, in the cohesion of the petals in a tube, in the want 
of a fleshy disk, in the deeply lobed ovary, and so on. 

Geography. A few New Holland shrubs compose all that is known of 
the order. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Stackhousia, Sm. 


FouQUiERACEiE, DC. Prodr. 3. 349. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, imbricated, ovate, or roundish. Petals 5, combined 
in a long tube, arising from the bottom of the calyx or torus, regular. Stamens 10 or 12, 
arising from the same line as the petals, but distinct from them, exserted ; anthers 2-celled. 
Ovary superior, sessile ; style filiform, trifid at the apex; ovules numerous. Capsule 3- 
cornered, 3-celled, 3-valved; valves bearing tbe dissepiments in the middle. Seeds in part 
abortive, compressed, winged, affixed to the axis ; embryo straight, in the centre of thin 
fleshy albumen ; cotyledons flat. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves entire, oblong, fleshy, clustered 
in the axil of a spine or a cushion. Flowers scarlet, arranged in a terminal spike or 

Affinities. Separated from Portulacacese by De Candolle, as he tells us 
{Mem. Portal. 4.), for the following reasons: 1. because the petals cohere 
in along tube of the same nature as that of gamopetalous Crassulaceae : 2. be- 
cause the capsule consists of three locuhcidal cells, that is to say, which se- 
parate through the middle, forming three septiferous valves; and, 3. because 
the embryo is straight, with flat cotyledons, and stationed in the centre of 
fleshy albumen. They approach the monopetalous Crassulaceae in the struc- 
ture of their flower ; and Tumeraceae and Loasacese in the form of their fruit. 
DC ; much more, however, Stackhousiaceae, and hence the Euphorbial alli- 
ance in general which they may be considered to connect with Portulacaceae in 
the Silenal alliance. 

Geography. All Mexican. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Fuuquiera, DC. 


Celastrine.®, R. Brown in Flinders, 22. (1814) ; DC. Prodr. 2. 2. (1825) ; Ad. Brongniart 
Memoire sur les Rhamntes, 16, (1826) ; Lindl. Synops.14. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 or 5, imbricated, inserted into the margin of an 
expanded torus. Petals inserted by a broad base, under the margin of the disk, with an 
imbricate aestivation. Stamens alternate with the petals, inserted into the disk, either at 
the margin or within it ; anthers innate. Disk large, expanded, flat, closely surrounding 
the ovary, covering the flat expanded torus. Ovary superior, immersed in the disk and 
adhering to it, with 3 or 4 cells; cells 1- or many-seeded; ovules ascending from the axis, 
attached to a short funiculus. Fruit superior ; either a 3- or 4-celled capsule, with 3 or 4 
septiferous valves; or a dry drupe, with a 1- or 2-celled nut, the cells of which are 1- or 
many-seeded. Seeds ascending, seldom inverted by resupination, either provided with an 
•aril, or without one ; albumen fleshy ; embryo straight ; cotyledons flat and thick, with a 
short inferior radicle. — Shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite. Flowers in axillary 

Anomalies. Flow’ers unisexual in Maytenus. Petals none in Alzatea. 

Affinities. Formerly confounded with Rhamnacese, this order was first 
separated by Brown, who distinguished it particularly by the relation which 
its stamens bear to the petals. It also differs in its imbricated calyx, and in 
its disk being hypogynous. According to Brongniart, Celastracese have more 
relation to several orders with hypogynous stamens than to any with perigy • 
nous ones, erpecially to Malpighiacese, to which they are related through Hip- 
pocratese, which are in fact, according to Brown, scarcely distinct from Celas- 
trace 0 e. Brong. Mem. p. 15. Manifestly akin to such genera as Phyllanthus 
in Euphorbiaceae. 

Geography. Natives of the warmer parts of Europe, North America, 
and Asia, but far more abundant beyond the tropics than within them ; a great 
number of species inhabit the Cape of Good Hope. Some are found in Chile 
and Peru, and a few in New Holland. 

Properties. I find little recorded about the properties of the species of 
this order, except a remark by De Candolle, that a decoction of the young 
branches of Maytenus is employed in Chile as a wash for swellings produced 
by the poisonous shade of the tree Lithi. Essai, 123. ed. 2. ; and a few ob- 
servations by Royle {Illustr. p. 167.) He mentions an acrid principle having 
been detected among the species, which acts with a more or less activity ; and 
the seeds of several yield an oil which is useful for burning. That of Celastrus nu- 
tans is said in India to be of a stimulant nature, and to be used in medicine. The 
bark of Evonymus tingens is in the inside of a beautiful light yellow colour, 
similar to that of some species of Rhamnus ; it is used to mark the tika on the 
forehead of Hindoos, and might be employed as a dye. It is also considered 
useful in diseases of the eye. The leaves of Celastrus edulis, Kat of the 
Arabs, would appear from Forskahl’s account, to be of a stimulating nature. 


Evonymus, L. 
Celastrus, L. 

Cat ha, Forsk. 
Evonymoides, Moen. 
Hcenkea, R. et P. 
Maytenus, Feuill. 
Cyrilla, L. 
Mylocaryum, W. 
Cliftonia, Sol. 

Polycardia, Juss. 
Elaeodendron, Jacq. 
Rubentia, Commers. 
Neerija, Roxb. 
Schrebera, Retz. 
Portenschlagia, Trat. 
Ptelidium, Pet. Thou. 

Seringia, Spreng. 
Dulongia, H. B. K. 

Pleurostylia, W. et A. 
Actegeton, Bl. 
Kurrimia, Wall. 

Bhesa, Arnott. 
Wimmeria, Schlecht. 
Asterocarpus, Eckl. 
Scytophyllum, Eckl. 
Lauridia, Ecki. 
Mystroxylon, Eckl. 

Crocoxylon, Eckl. 
Fraunhoferia, Mart. 
Microtropis, Wall. 
Olinia, Thunb. (15) 

Alzatea, R. et P. 
Tralliana, Lour. 
Perrottetia, H. B. K. 
Schffiffera, Jacq. 



HiPPOCRATiCEiE, Juss. Ann. Mus. 18.483. (1811). — HipPOCRATEACEi®, in Humb. 

N. G. Am. 5. 136. (1821) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 567. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, very seldom 4 or 6, very small, combined as far as 
the middle, persistent. Petals 5, very seldom 4 or 6, equal, hypogynous ? somewhat im- 
bricated in aestivation. Stamens 3, very seldom 4 or 5 ; filaments cohering almost as far as 
the apex into a tube dilated at the base, and forming about the ovary a thick disk-like cup ; 
anthers 1 -celled, opening transversely at the apex, 2- or even 4-celled. Ovary concealed 
by the tube, 3 -cornered, distinct ; style 1 ; stigmas 1-3 ; ovules erect. Fruit either consist- 
ing of 3 samaroid carpels, or berried with from 1 to 3 cells. Seeds in each cell 4, or more, 
but definite, attached to the axis in pairs, some of them occasionally abortive, erect, with- 
out albumen j embryo straight ; radicle pointing towards the base ; cotyledons fiat, ellip- 
tical oblong, somewhat fleshy, cohering when dried. — ^Arborescent or climbing shrubs, 
which are almost always smooth. Leaves opposite, simple, entire or toothed, somewhat 
coriaceous. Racemes axillary, in corymbs or fascicles, flowers small, not shewy. 

Affinities. The ternary number of the stamens, along with the quinary 
number of the petals and sepals, is the prominent characteristic of this sub - 
order, which was formerly included in Aceracese by Jussieu, which is placed 
between Erythoxylese and Marcgraaviaceae by De Candolle, but which is, to 
all appearance, much more nearly related to Celastracese, as Brown has re- 
marked ; for “ the insertion of the ovules is either towards the base, or is 
central ; the direction of the radicle is always inferior.” Brown, Congo, 427. 
In fact there seems to be nothing to divide Hippocratese from Celastracese ex- 
cept the cohesion of the filaments of the former into a cup. The samaroid 
fruit, which is so remarkable, and which connects the order with Malpighia- 
cese, is not universal, but merely characteristic of certain genera. In Hippo- 
cratea ovata the testa and cotyledons are furnished in the inside with innume- 
rable trachea-like threads ; the same economy has been remarked by Du Petit 
Thouars in the pericai*p of Calypso. DC. Prodr. 1 . 567. The only similar cases 
of this curious structure with which I am acquainted are in Collomia, in which I 
have detected it {Bot. Reg. fol. 1166.), and in Casuarina, in which it has been 
described : plants having no apparent affinity with Hippocratese. 

Geography. The principal part are South American, about 1 -seventh are 
natives' of Africa or the Mauritian Islands, and the same number has been re- 
corded as East Indian. 

Properties. The fruit of Tonsella (Salacia) pyriformis, a native of Sierra 
Leone, is eatable. It is about the size of a Bergamot Pear ; its flavour is rich 
and sweet. Hort, Trans. The nuts of Hippocratea comosa are oily and sweet. 
Swartz. 1. 78. 

Hippocratea, L. 
Anthodon, R. et P. 

Anthodus, Mart. 
Raddisia, Leand. 


Salacia, L. 

Tontelea, Aubl. 
Johnia, Roxb. 
Tonsella, Schreb. 
Sicelium, P.Browi 

Lacepedea, H. B. K. 

Triceraja, Willd. 
Calypso, Thouars. 


Trigoniace^. Martius Conspectus, No. 247. (1835). 

The idea of this sub- order (?), which contains at present but the single 
genus Trigonia, originated with Cambessedes, who, in referring {FI. Bras, 
merid. 2. 113) it to Hippocratese, instead of Polygalacese, considers it destined 
to become the type of a new order, alhed on the one hand to Hippocrateae, and 
on the other to Leguminosse, with which it has great relationship on account 
of tiie number and relative position of the parts of the flower. Von Martius., 

in naminj^ tlie order, places it next Moringacese ; and it is not improbable that 
there may be some connection between the two. 

The following is the character given by Cambessedes of the genus. 

Trigonia, Aubl. — Calyx persistent, more or less deeply 5 parted ; the segments ra- 
ther unequal. Petals 5, unequal ; the upper larger, gibbous at the base, concave, ascend- 
ing ; the two lateral smaller, flat ; the two lowest converging, unequal-sided, keeled. Sta- 
mens 10 - 12 , out of the centre, over against the lower petals ; filaments combined in a tube 
which is longitudinally split in front, the 2-4 lateral ones smaller and imperfect ; anthers 
fixed by their back, turned inwards, 2-celled, the cells opening by a longitudinal cleft. 
Glands (abortive stamens) 2-4, opposite the upper petal, at the base of the ovary. Pistil 
free; style continuous; stigma terminal, 3 -lobed ; ouary 3 -celled, with several ovules in 
each cell ; ovules attached to the inner angle of the cells. Capsule 3-cornered, 3-celled, 
septicidally 3-valved ; the valves forming the partitions by their indexed edges. Seeds 
attached to a central 3-cornered axis, woolly. Testa papery ; albumen fleshy. Embryo cen- 
tral, straight, with a small radicle remote from the hilum ; cotyledons large, round, flat. 
— Climbing sarmentaceous shrubs. Leaves stipulate, opposite, quite entire. Flowers race- 
mose ; the racemes axillary, or panicled and termini. ^Estivation of calyx and petals 
imbricated. Stamens erect in the bud. FI. Bras. Merid. 2. 112. 

OiiDER XCI. STAPHYLEACEiE. The Bladder-Nut Tribe. 

CELASTRiNEiE, § Staphyleaceae, DC. Prodr. 2. 2. (1825). — Staphyleacse, Lindl. Synops. 

75. (1829) ; Ed. Pr. No. 97. (1830) ; Martius Conspectus, iVo.'249. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Sepals, 5, connected at the base, coloured, with an imbri- 
cated aestivation. Petals b, alternate, with an imbricated aestivation. Stamens b, alternate 
with the petals, perigynous. Disk large, urceolate. Ovary 2- or 3-celled, superior ; ovules 
erect ; styles 2 or 3, cohering at the base. Fruit membranous or fleshy, indehiscent or 
opening internally, often deformed by the abortion of some of the parts. Seeds ascending, 
roundish, with a bony testa ; hilum large, truncate ; albumen none ; cotyledons thick. — 
Shrubs. Leaves opposite, pinnate, with both common and partial stipules. Flowers in 
terminal, stalked racemes. 

Anomalies. Flowers unisexual in Turpinia. 

Affinities. Combined with Celastraceae by De Candolle, but distin- 
guished by Ad. Brongniart {Mem. sur les Rhamnees, p. 16.), this order appears 
to me to be essentially characterised by its opposite pinnated stipulate leaves, 
and to indicate an affinity between Celastracese and Sapindace**3e. 

Geography. The very few species which belong here are irregularly 
scattered over the face of the globe. Of the genus Staphylea, 1 is found in 
Europe, 1 in North America, 1 in Japan, 2 in Jamaica, 1 in Peru ; and of Tur- 
pinia, 1 is Mexican, and 1 East Indian. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Staphylea, L. Turpinia, Venten. 

Staphylodendron,To\\vn. Dairy mpelea, Roxb. 
? Bumalda, Thunb. 

Order XCII. M A L P I G H I A C E 
The Barbadoes Cherry Tribe. 

MALPiGHiACEiE, Juss. Gen. 252. (1789) ; Ann. Mus. 18. 479. (1811) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 577. 


Essential Character. — Sepals 5, slightly combined, persistent, generally with a defi- 
nite number of conspicuous glands. Petals 5, unguiculate, inserted in a hypogynous disk. 


occasionally rather] unequal, very seldom wanting. Stamens 10, alternate with the petals, 
seldom fewer, occasionally solitary; filaments either distinct, or partly monadelphous ; 
anthers roundish. Ovarxj 1, usually 3-lobed, formed of 3 carpels, more or less combined ; 
styles 3, distinct or combined ; ovules suspended. Fruit dry or berried, 3-celled or 3-lobed, 
occasionally 1- or 2-celled by abortion. Seeds solitary, pendulous, without albumen; 
embryo more or less cur\’^ed, or straight; radicle short; lobes leafy or thickish. — Small 
trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing. Leaves opposite, scarcely ever alternate, simple, with- 
out dots, with stipules mostly. Flowers in racemes or corymbs. Pedicels articulated in 
the middle, with 2 minute bracts. 

Anomalies. Styles sometimes distinct. Leaves in an African species alternate. Petals 
occasionally wanting. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Aceracese by the ungtiiculate petals, the 
glandular calyx, and the symmetrical flowers. Brown remarks, that the in- 
sertion of the ovule is always towards its apex, or considerably above its mid- 
dle ; and the radicle of the embryo is uniformly superior, in which point 
Banisteria ofiers no exception to the general structure, although Gsertner has 
described its radicle as inferior. Congo, 426. Tlie claws to the petals and the 
samaroid fruit, distinguish the order readily from those in its neighbour- 
hood. Those genera of Hippocrateee, which have a similar fruit, have sessile 

Geography. Almost exclusively found in the equinoctial parts of Ame- 
rica ; of 180 species enumerated by De Candolle, only 5 are East Indian, 1 
is fomid at the Cape, 1 in Arabia, and 5 in equinoctial Africa, or the conti- 
guous islands. 

Properties. Little is known of this subject. The wood of some kinds is 
bright red. The fruit of many is eaten in the West Indies ; the hairs of a few 
species are painfully pungent. The bark of Malp. Moureila, according to 
Aublet, is employed in Cayenne as a febrifuge. The bark of the Chapara Man- 
teca, Malpighia crassifolia, is astringent, and is used in infusion or decoction 
taken inwardly, as an antidote to the Rattlesnake bite. It is also employed 
successfully as a remedy for abcesses in the lungs. Edinh. N. Ph. Journal, 
June, 1830, p. 169. 


§ 1. Malpighie.®, DC. 
Malpighia, L. 
Byrsonima, Rich. 
Bunchosia, Juss. 
Galphimia, Cav. 
Caucanthus, Forsk. 

§ 2. Hiptage®, DC. 
Hiptage, Gaertn. 
Gcertnera, Schreb. 

Molina, Cav. § 3. Banisterie®,DC. Banisteria, L. 

Platynema, W. et A. Hiraea, Jacq. Heteropteris, H. B. K. 

TristeIlateia,Pet.Thou. Mascagnia, Berter. Stigmaphyllon, J. 

Zymum, Noronh. Triopteris, L. Tricomaria, Hook. 

Thryallis, L. Tetrapteris, Cav. Peixotoa, A. de J. 

Aspicarpa, Rich. Vargasia, Bertero. Fimbriaria, A. St. H. 

Acosmus, Desv. Triaspis, Burch. Pterandra, A. de J. 

Gaudichaudia, H.B.K. Acridocarpus, Guill. Ancistrocladus, Wall. 

Camarea, A. St. H. Anomalopteris,G.I>on.Tainet\a., Bl. 


Erythroxyle®, Kunth in Humb. N. G. Am. 5. 175, (1821) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 573. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, combined at the base, persistent. Petals 5, 
hypogynous, broad at the base, wdth a plaited scale there, equal, the margins lying 
upon each other in aestivation. Stamens 10 ; filaments combined at the base into a cup; 
anthers innate, erect, 2-celled, dehiscing lengthwise. Ovary 1 -celled, or 3-celled, with 
2 cells spurious ; styles 2, distinct ; stigmas 3, somewhat capitate, or united almost to the 
point; ovule solitary, pendulous. Fruit drupaceous, 1-seeded. Seed angular; albumen 
corneous ; embryo linear, straight, central ; cotyledons linear, flat, leafy ; radicle superior, 
taper, straight ; plumule inconspicuous. — Shrubs or trees ; young shoots often compressed 
and covered with acute imbricated scales. Leaves alternate, seldom opposite, usually 
smooth ; stipules axillary. Flowers small, whitish or greenish. Peduncles with bracts at 
the base. 

Affinities. Separated from Malpighiaceae by Kunth on account of the 


appendages of the petals, the presence of albumen, the fruit being often 1 -celled 
by abortion, and the peculiar habit. DC. But there do not appear to be pe- 
culiarities enough for more than a sub-division of Malpighiaceae. 

Geography. Chiefly West Indian and South American. A few are found 
in the East Indies, and several in the Mauritius and Madagascar. 

Properties. The wood of some is bright red ; that of E. hypericifolium 
is called in the Isle of France Bois d'huile. A permanent reddish brown dye 
is obtained from the bark of Erythroxylum suberosum, called in Brazil Gallinha 
choca and Mercurio do campo. PI. Us. 69. 

Erythroxylon Coca is a plant much used by the miners of Peru for its re- 
markable power in stimulating the nervous system, in which respect it much 
resembles opium. Its leaves are chewed with a small mixture of finely pow- 
dered chalk. No efiects that have been ascribed to the immoderate use of 
opium are exceeded by what seems the consequence of chewing the Coca leaf. 
See a curious account of this plant in Poppig's reise in Chile, vol 2. translated ; 
in Hooker s Companion to the Bot. Mag. vol. 1. p. 161. 


Erythroxylum, L. 

Sethia, H. B. K. 

Alliance V. SILENALES, 

Essential Character. — Embryo rolled round mealy albumen; or, if this is not the 
case, herbaceous plants with the joints of the stem tumid ; or with scales replacing leaves 
upon rod-like branches. Almost all herbs or small shrubs. 

The lowest form of the Syncarpous group ; and apparently a degeneration 
of Malvales, with which the genera accord in the general appearance of the 
flowers, and sometimes, as in lUecebracese, in the highly developed stipules. 
The alliance touches closely upon the Gynobaseous group by Silenacese, which 
agree with Geraniacese in their tumid nodi, &c. Illecebracese and Alsinacese 
may be considered part of the connection between Polypetalous and Incomplete 
orders, agreeing in some respects with Chenopodiaceae among the latter. Ta- 
maricaceae difier from the essential character in having the embryo straight, 
and without albumen, instead of being rolled round mealy albumen. Yet the 
mass of its affinities seems to fix that order where it at present stands. 

Order XCIII. PORTULACACE^. The Purslane Tribe. * 

PoRTULACEiE, Juss. Gcu. 313. (1789) in part ; A. St. HU. Mem. Plac. Cent. 42. (1815) ; 
DC. Prodr. 3. 351. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 62. (1829) ; DC. Mem. dela Soc. d’Hist. 
Nat. de Paris, (Aug. 1827). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 2, seldom 3 or 5, cohering by the base. Petals gene- 
rally 5, occasionally 3, 4, or 6, either distinct or cohering in a short tube, sometimes want- 
ing. Stamens inserted along with the petals irregularly into the base of the calyx or 
hypogynous, variable in number, all fertile, sometimes opposite the petals ; filaments dis- 
tinct; an?/im versatile, with 2 cells, opening lengthwise. Omry superior, 1 -celled ; 
single, or none; stigmas several, much divided. Capsule 1 -celled, dehiscing either trans- 
versely or by 3 valves, occasionally 1 -seeded and indehiscent. Seeds numerous, if the 


fruit is dehiscent; attached to a central placenta; albumen farinaceous; embryo curved 
round the circumference of the albumen, with a long radicle. — Succulent shrubs or herbs. 
Leaves alternate, seldom opposite, entire, without stipules, or sometimes with membra- 
nous ones. Flowers axillary or terminal, usually ephemeral, expanding only in bright sun- 

Anomalies. Sepals 5 in Trianthema and Cypselea. Petals sometimes wanting. Ovary 
half-inferior in some Portulacas. 

Affinities. Related in every point of view to Alsinacese, from which 
they scarcely differ except in their perigynous stamens, which are opposite the 
petals when equal to them in number, and their two sepals ; the latter charac- 
ter is not, however, absolutely constant. The presence of scarious stipules in 
several Portulacese, although perhaps an anomaly in the order, indicates their 
affinity with Illecebracese, from which the monospermous genera of Portiila- 
cacese are distinguished by the want of symmetry in their flowers, and by the 
stamens being opposite the petals instead of the sepals. So close is the rela- 
tionship between these orders, that several of the genus Ginginsia in Portula- 
cacese have been referred to Pharnaceum in Illecebraceae. De Candolle re- 
marks, that his Ginginsia brevicaulis resembles certain species of Androsace, 
and that Portulacaceae have been more than once compared to Primulacese 
{Mem. p. 14.) ; and the same author states, in another place {Prodr. 3. 351.), 
that the genera with indefinite stamens and hairy axils approach Cactaceae, 
while the apetalous genera tend towards apetalous Ficoidese (Tetragoniacese). 

Geography. A fourth of the order inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, ra- 
ther more than another fourth is found in South America, 1 species only in 
Guinea, 2 in New Holland, 1 in Europe, and the remainder in various parts of 
the world. They are always found in dry parched places. 

Properties. Insipidity, want of smell, and dull green colour, are the 
usual qualities of this order, of which the only species of any known use are 
common Purslane and Claytonia perfoliata, which, resemble each other in pro- 
perty ; and Talinum patens which is used in Brazil for the same purposes as 
Purslane in Europe. FI. Bras. Merid. 2. 193. 


Portulaca, L. 
Meridiana, L. 
Lemia, Vand. 
Meridia, Neck. 
Anacampseros, Sims. 
Rulingia, Ehrh. 

Talinum, Adans. 

Phemeranthus, Rafin. 
Calaridrinia, H. B. K. 
Cosrnia, Bomb. 
Phacosperma, Haw. 

Portulacaria, Jacq. 

Hcenkea, Salisb. 
Ullucus, Lozan. 
Claytonia, L. 
Limnia, L. 

|.Montia, L. 
Leptrina, Rafin. 
Grahamia, Hooker. 

Order. XCIV. SILENACEHE. The Dianthus Tribe. 

Caryophylle^, § 5 et 6, Juss. Gen. 299. (1789). — Silenea!, DC. Prodr. 1. 351. (1824) ; 

Lindl. Synops.p. 43. (1829). — Silene^, Bartl. Ord. Nat. 305. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4-5, continuous with the peduncle ; cohering in a 
tube, persistent. Petals 4-5, hypogynous, unguiculate, inserted upon the pedicel of the 
ovary ; occasionally wanting. Stamens twice as many as the petals, inserted upon the 
pedicel of the ovary along with the petals ; filaments subulate, sometimes monadelphous ; 
anthers innate. Ovary stipitate on the apex of a pedicel (called the gynophore) ; stigmas 
2-5, sessile, filiform, papillose on the inner surface. Capsule 2-5-valved, either 1 -celled or 
2-5 -celled, in the latter case with aloculicidal dehiscence. Placenta central, in the 1 -celled 
capsules distinct, in the 2-5-celled capsules adhering to the edge of the dissepiments. Seeds 
indefinite in number, rarely definite ; albumen mealy ; embryo curved round the albumen. 

sometimes straight ; very rarely spiral, with hardly any albumen ; radicle pointing to the 
• hilum. — Herbaceous plants, occasionally becoming suffrutescent . Stems tumid at the arti- 
culations. Leaves always opposite and entire, often connate at the base. 

Affinities. On the one hand these plants are allied to Frankeniacese, 
with which they agree in their unguiculate petals, bearing processes at their 
orifice, and in some measure in habit ; and on the other to Linaceee, from 
which they are principally distinguished by their unilocular, or, if plurilocular, 
several- seeded capsules, albuminous seeds, and tubular calyx. GeraniacecC, 
Oxalidaceie, Violaceie, and Portulacacese, are all also allied in many particulars, 
but they are readily distinguished. Elatinacese differ in their exalbuminous 
seeds and capitate stigmas. Macrsea, a genus of mine, which Don states to 
be the same as Viviania, a neglected genus of Cavanilles (see Jameson s Journal, 
Jan. 1830, p. 70), if really belonging to the order, differs remarkably in the 
curved embryo lying, according to Hooker, in the midst of fleshy albumen, in 
its dry persistent petals, and in the vernation of both the calyx and petals ; 
but I inchne to think that this remarkable genus indicates the existence of an 
order allied to Frankeniaceae Geraniaceae or more closely than to Silenaceae. 

Geography. Natives principally of the temperate and frigid parts 
of the world, where they inhabit mountains, hedges, rocks, and waste 
places. Those which are found within the tropics are usually natives 
of high elevations and mountainous tracts, almost always reaching the 
limits of eternal snow, where many of them exclusively vegetate. Some Si- 
lenes are scattered in many different parts of the globe. According to the 
calculation of Humboldt, Silenacese and Alsinacese together constitute of 
the flowering plants of France, of Germany, Lapland, of North Ame- 

Properties. Remarkable for little except their uniform insipidity. A 
few, such as the Dianthuses and Lychnis, are handsome flowers ; but the 
greater part are mere weeds. Saponaria officinalis, Gypsophila Ostruthium, 
Lychnis dioica, and L. chalcedonica, have saponaceous properties : Saponaria 
has been used in sy]jhilis. A decoction of the root of Silene virginica is said 
to have been employed in North America as anthelmintic. DC. 


Drypis, L. Gypsophila, L. 

Velezia, L. Vaccaria, Dod. 

Acanthophyllum,Mey. Rokejeka, Forsk. 
Dianthus, L. Banffya, Baumg. 

Acosmia, Benth. 
Saponaria, L. 

Cucubalus, L. 
Scribcea, FI. Wett. 
Lychnanthus, Gmel. 
Silene, L. 

Lychnis, L. 

Agrostemma, L. 
Githago, Desf. 

Viviania, Cav. 
Macrcpa, Lindl. 
CcBsarea, Camb. 

Order XCV. ALSINACE.^. The Chickweed Tribe. 

Caryophylle.'e, § 1. 2, 3, Juss. Gen. 299. (1789). — Alsinete, DC. FI. Franc. Ed. 3.4. 
766. (1805); Bartl. Ord. Nat. 204. (1830); Fenzl Versuch. (1833). — Caryophye- 
LE^, § 2. DC. Prodr. 1. 388. (1824) .— Queriace^, DC. Prodr. 3. 379. (1828).— 
MINU ARTIE.®, Id. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4-5, slightly imbricated in aestivation. Petals a like 
number, sessile, often two-lobed, deciduous, occasionally 0 ; inserted on the outside of 
a sort of fleshy ring, which is more or less and sometimes very manifestly perigynous. 
Stamens double the petals, seldom a like number, or fewer, inserted into the edge of the 
fleshy ring ; anthers incumbent, 2-celled, opening longitudinally, without a connective. 
Ovary 1 -celled, many-seeded. Stigmas 2-5, linear, long, distinct, sessile, or placed on a 


like number of styles. Capmle 1- celled, with as many valves as stigmas. Seeds indefinite, 
rarely definite and solitary, reniform or angular, attached to a free central placenta, or to 
funiculi arising from the base of the cavity. Embryo curved round mealy, or somewhat 
fleshy, albumen ; radicle next the hilum ; cotyledons leafy in germination. — Herbaceous 
plants, occasionally rather shrubby with tumid joints to the stem. Leaves opposite, undi- 
vided, often connate at the base. Stipules 0. 

Affinities. Principally known from Silenacese by the 5-leaved calyx, 
and sessile petals ; known from lUecebracese by nothing but the want of sti- 
pules ; all the stipulate plants formerly placed here must consequently be trans- 
ferred to lUecebracese. 

Geography. Found in the cool and temperate parts of the world, espe • 
ciaUy in mountainous tracts. 

Properties. None. 


Hymenella, DC. 
Triplateia, Bartl. 
Buffonia, L. 

Sagina, L. 
Colobanthus, Bartl. 
Cherleria, Haller. 
Siebera, Rchb. 

Somerauera, Hopp. 
Alsine, Wahl. 

b. Minuartia, Loefl. 

c. Queria, id. 

Alsinella, Benth. 
Dolophragma, Fenzl. 
Honkenya, Ehr. 
Halianthus, Fries. 
Adenarium, Raf. 
Merckia, Fisch. 
Arenaria, L. 
Sabularia, Rchb. 
Mbhringia, L. 
Heterochroa, Bunge. 
GoufFeia, Rob. et Cast. 

Eremogone, Fenzl. 
Strephodon, Ser. 
Cerastium, L, 
Esmarckia, Rchb. • 
b. Moenchia, Ehr. 
Holosteum, L. 
Odontostemma, Bent. 
Brachystemma, Don. 
Stellaria, L. 
b. Leucostemma, 

c. Schizotechium, 

Larbrea, A. St. H. 
Malachium, Fries. 
Spergella, Rchb. 
Spergulastrum, Mx. 

Micropetalon, Pers. 
Schiedea, Cham. 
Dichoglottis, F. et M. 
Adenonema, Bge. 

Order XCVI. TAMARICACEi^l. The Tamarisk Tribe. 

Tamariscine^, Desvaux, in a Dissertation read before the French Institute {in 1815), 
according to the Ann. Sc. Nat. 4. 344. (1825) ; A. St. HU. Mem. Mus. 2. 205. 
(1816) ; Ehrenb. inAnnales des Sciences, 12. 68. (1827) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 95. (1828) ; 
Lindl. Synops. 61. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4- or 5-parted, persistent, with an imbricated aestiva- 
tion. Petals inserted into the base of the calyx, withering, with an imbricated aestivation. 
Stamens hypogynous, either equal to the petals in number, or twice as many, distinct or 
monadelphous. Omry superior ; style very short ; stigmas 3. Capsule 3 -vqN&A, 1-celled, 
many-seeded ; placenta 3, either at the base of the cavity, or along the middle of the valves. 
Seeds erect or ascending, comose ; albumen none ; embryo straight, with an inferior radicle. 
— Shrubs or herbs, with rod-like branches. Leaves alternate, resembling scales, entire. 
Flowers in close spikes or racemes. 

Affinities. According to De CandoUe {Prodr. 3. 95.), who places the 
order among those with perigynous stamens, it is related to Portulacaceae (or 
lUecebraceae), on account of the resemblance between its flowers and those of 
Telephium ; but it differs in the parietal exalbuminous comose seeds. Also 
aUied to Lythracese and Onagraceae, but different from the former in the im- 
bricated aestivation, the petals arising from the bottom of the calyx, and pa- 
rietal seeds ; and from the latter in the superior ovary, and the imbricated 
aestivation of the calyx. Ehrenberg asserts the order to have hypogynous 
stamens {Ann. des Sc. 12. 77.), and this agrees with my own observations. The 
same botanist, in separating the Tamarix songarica of WUldenow from Tama- 
ricaceae, and referring it to the vicinity of Reaumuria, establishes the affinity 
of Tamaricaceae to Reaumuriaceae. In many respects it is very like Frankenia- 
ceae. In the midst of all these conflicting affinities and analogies, it seems 


most advisable to keep the order near Illecebracesc with which it accords in its 
syncarpous unilocular, often 3-valved fruit, and scale-like leaves. 

Geography. Exclusively confined to the northern hemisphere, and even 
to its eastern half, that is, to the old world, on which the species extend as far as 
the Cape de Verds. They usually grow by the sea-side, but occasionally by the 
edges of rivers and torrents. The maximum of species and of individuals also 
is found in the basin of the Mediterranean. The order appears bounded on 
the south by the 8® or 9° parallel of N. lat., and on the north by that of 50° 
and 55° in Siberia, Germany, and England. Ehrenb. 

Properties. The bark is slightly bitter, astringent, and probably tonic. 
T. gallica and africana are remarkable for the quantity of sulphate of soda 
which their ashes contain, DC. Ehrenberg found that the Manna of Mount 
Sinai is produced by a variety of Tamarix gallica. This substance, being ana- 
■ lysed by Mitscherlich, was found to contain no crystallisable Mannite, but to 
consist wholly of pure mucilaginous sugar. Ann. des Sc. 1. c. The galls of 
T. indica, dioica, Furas and orientalis are- highly astringent, and are used both 
in medicine and in dyeing. Royle. 


Tamarix, L. Bronnia, H. B. K. 

Myricaria, Desv. Trichaurus, Arn. 

Order XCVII. ILLECEBRACEtE. The Knot-Grass Tribe. 

Herniari^e, Cat. Hort. Par. (1777). — Illecebre^e, R. Brown Prodromus, 413. (1810) ; 
Lindl. Synops. 60. (1829). — Paronychie.e, Jug. St. HU. M^m. Plac. lib. p. 56. 
(1815) ; Juss. Mtm. Mas. 1. 387. (1815) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 365. (1828) ; Memoirs sur 
les Paronych. (1829) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. p. 301. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, seldom 3 or 4, sometimes distinct, sometimes 
cohering more or less. Petals minute, inserted upon the calyx between the lobes, occa- 
sionally wanting. Stamens perigynous exactly opposite the sepals, if equal to them in 
number, sometimes fewer by abortion, sometimes more numerous ; filaments distinct ; an- 
thers 2 celled. Ovary 1 -celled, rarely 3-celled, with 1 or more ovules, superior ; styles 2-5, 
either distinct or partially combined. Fruit small, dry, 1 -celled, rarely 3-celled, either 
indehiscent, or opening with 3 valves. Seeds either numerous, upon a free central pla- 
centa, or solitary and pendulous from a funiculus originating in the base of the cavity of 
the fruit ; albumen farinaceous ; embryo lying on one side of the albumen, curved more or 
less, with the radicle always pointing to the hilum ; cotyledons small. — Herbaceous or half- 
shrubby branching plants, with opposite or alternate, often fascicled, sessile, entire leaves, 
and scarious stipules. Flowers minute, with scarious bracts. 

Affinities. Very near Portulacacese, Amarantacese, and Alsinacese, from 
which they are distinguished with difficulty. By excluding Scleranthaceae, 
which I consider, with Brown, a distinct order, their scarious stipules will dis- 
tinguish them from the Silenacese and Alsinacese ; and there is scarcely any 
other character that wiU ; for there are Alsinacese that have perigynous sta- 
mens, as Larbrea and Honkenya, and Illecebracese which have hypogynous 
ones, as Polycarpsea, Stipulicida, and Ortegia. From Portulacacese they are 
scarcely to be known with absolute certainty, except by the position of the 
stamens before the sepals instead of the petals, and the number of the sepals. 
With Crassulacese, particularly Tillsea, they agree very much in habit, but 
their concrete carpels will always distinguish them. De Candolle comprehends 
in the order various plants which have not stipules ; but as the latter organs 
seem to be an essential part of the character, I should exclude his Queriacese, 
and Minuartiese, which will be reduced to Alsinacese. According to Cambes- 


socles, in the Flora Brasilice Merid. (2. 175), the genus Spergularia, in which 
the petals and stamens are very often perig^mous, the styles sometimes conso- 
lidated at their base, and the stamens 5 in number, establishes a passage be- 
tAveen Alsinacese and Illecebracese, and tends to confirm the opinion of Bai tling, 
who considers these two orders as belonging to the same alliance. 

Geography. Tlie south of Europe and the north of Africa are the great 
stations of the order, where the species grow in the most barren places^ co- 
vering with a thick vegetation soil which is incapable of bearing any thing 
else. A few are found at the Cape of Good Hope ; and North America, in- 
cluding Mexico, com.prehends several. 

Properties. A trace of astringency pervades the order, and is the only 
sensible property that it is known to possess. 


§ 1. Illecebreje, Bart. 
Herniaria, L. 
Gymnocarpum, Forsk 
Anychia, Michx. 
Polpoda, Presl. 
Steudelia, Presl. 
Dicarpaea, Presl. 
Hapalosia, Wall. 
Illecebrum, L. 
Paronychia, Juss. 
Plottzia, Arnott. (16) 
Pentacaena, Bartl. 

Acanthonychia, DC. 
Balardia, Camb. 

Arversia, Camb. 
Cardionema, DC. 

. Pollichia, Sol. 
Neckeria, Gmel. 
Meerhurgia, Moench , 
§ 2. Spergule^, Bartl 
Cerdia, FI. Mex. 
Lceflingia, L. 

Ortegia, Loefl. 
Cypselea, Turp. 

Rndiana, Rafin. 
Polycarpon, Lcefl. 
Stipulicida, Michx. 

Polycarpaaa, Lam. 

Hago'ci, Vent. 
Mollia, Wind. 
Lahaya, R. et S. 

, ? Folia, Lour. 

, Spergula, L. 

Stipularia, Haw. 
Lepigonum, Fries. 
Drymaria, Willd. 
Spergularia, Pers. 

§ 3. Mollugine/e, 

Ginginsia, DC. 

Pharnacenm, L. 
Mollugo, L. 
Adenogramm.a, Rchb. 
Physa, Pet. Thou. 
Aylmeria, Mart. 

§ 4. Telephie^, DC. 
Corrigiola, L. 
Telephium, L. 
Limeum, 1.. 

Cometes, Burm. 

Saltia, R. Br. olim. 
Pteranthus, Forsk. 

Group VI. 

Essential Character. — Carpels seldom or ever exceeding 5, always in a single whorl 
diverging at the base and separated by the interposition of a conical gynobase which throws 
them into an oblique position. Stamem in most cases distinct from the calyx. Flowers 
rarely unisexual. 

In most cases this gymobasic structure is exceedingly obvious, especially 
after the ovary is a little advanced towards maturity ; for then the obliquity of 
the cells or carpels becomes more apparent. Very often the gynobase is 
excessively enlarged or lengthened, as in Ochna and Geraniales ; sometimes it 
remains as a column, from which the carpels separate, as in Rutacese ; some- 
times it is merely a short cone, round which the carpels are placed, as in 
Coriales. Nevertheless, instances occur in which plants not belonging to this 
group may, by the inexperienced botanist, be confounded with it ; these mostly 
occur in Malvacese, Rosacese and Euphorbiaceie. The instances of an approach 
to a gynobasic structure in Malvacese and Rosacese are chiefly those where a 
considerable number of carpels are placed round a fleshy axis ; the number 
Avill in such cases prevent any error being committed, for no Gynobaseous order 
has more than 5 carpels, except accidentally. Euphorbiacese, which are much 
more like gynobasic plants, and which, in fact, constitute an approach to 
Rutales, are known by their completely unisexual flowers, and by their carpels 
being in no degree obliquely fitted to the central column. 

Alliance I. RUTALES. 

Essential Character. — Style single ; or if it is ever divided into several pieces, then 
the leaves are marked with pellucid dots. 

In general, the dotted leaves sufficiently mark the genera of this alliance ; 
but for the sake of Ochnaceae, Zygophyllaceae, &c. it is necessary to add the 
character of the style being quite single up to the point. The Floerkeal alliance, 
which agrees in this last circumstance, has its fruit divided into deep lobes, as 
in Labiatae and Boraginaceae. Moreover, the general character of Rutales is 
to have a woody stem ; Floerkeales are soft herbs, and their gynobase is never 
fleshy, by which they are known from Ochnaceae, where it is remarkably suc- 
culent and enlarged. Rutales connect the Syncarpous alliance and this by 
means of Phebalium, which has quite the appearance of a Croton in Euphor- 


OcHNACE^, DC. Ann. Mus. 17. 398. (1811) ; Prodr. 1. 735. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, imbricated in aestivation. Petals hypo- 
gynous, definite, sometimes twice as many as the sepals, deciduous, spreading, imbricated 
in aestivation. Stamens 5, opposite the sepals, or 10, or indefinite in number, arising from 
a hypogynous disk ; filaments persistent ; anthers 2-celled, innate, opening by pores. Car- 
pels equal in number to the petals, lying upon an enlarged, tumid, fieshy disk (the gynobase); 
their styles combined in one ; ovule erect. Fruit composed of as many pieces as there were 
carpels, indehiscent, somewhat drupaceous, 1 -seeded, articulated with the gynobase, which 
grows with their growth. Seeds without albumen ; embryo straight ; radicle short ; coty- 
ledons thick. — Very smooth Trees or more generally under-shrubs, sometimes downy, hav- 
ing a watery juice. Leaves alternate, simple, entire, or toothed, with 2 stipules at the base. 
Flowers usually in racemes, with an articulation in the middle of the pedicels. 

Affinities. Very near Rutacese, from which they are distinguished by 
their erect ovules, the dehiscence of their anthers, and many more characters. 
They are to Polypetalous plants what Labiatae and Boraginaceae are to 

Geography. Found in tropical India, Africa and America. 

Properties. Walkera serrata has a bitter root and leaves, and is em- 
ployed in Malabar, in decoction in milk or water, as a tonic, stomachic, and 
anti-emetic. The bark of Ochna hexasperma is used in Brazil as a cure of the 
sores produced in cattle by the punctures of insects. It probably acts as an 
astringent. PI. Usuelles, 38. 


§ 1. OcHNEiE, DC. Gomphia, Schreb. Walkera, Schreb. 

Ochna, L. Curatea, Aubl. Meesia, Gsertn. 

Diporidium, Bartl, Correia, Velloz. ? Euthemis, Jack. 

§ 2. CASTELEiE, DC. 
Castelea, Turp. 
Elvasia, DC. 

Order XCIX. SIMARUBACE^. The Quassia Tribe. 

Rich. Fr. 2\. (1808). — SimarubejE, DC. Diss. Ochn. Ann. Mus. 
17. 323. (1811) ; Prodr. 1. 733. (1824) ; Adrien de Juss. Rutacees, 129. (1825). 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermaphrodite, or occasionally unisexual. Calyx in 
4 or 5 divisions. Petals the same number, longer, either spreading or combined in a tube ; 
(P.stivation twisted. Stamens twice as many as the petals, each arising from the back of a 



hypogynous scale. Ovary 4- or 5-lobed, placed upon a stalk from the base of which the 
stamens arise, 4- or 5-celled, each cell -with 1 suspended ovule ; style simple ; stigma 4- or 
5-lobed. Fruit consisting of 4 or 5 drupes arranged around a common receptacle, inde- 
hiscent. Seeds pendulous, with a membranous integument; embryo without albumen; 
radicle superior, short, drawn back within the thick cotyledons. Trees or shrubs. Leaves 
without stipules, alternate, occasionally simple, most usually compound without dots. 
Peduncles axillary or terminal. Flowers whitish, green, or purple. The different parts 

Affinities. Akin to Zygophyllacese in their stamens inserted upon 
hypogynous scales, and to Ochnacese in their deeply-lobed ovary, or nearly 
separate ovaries ; from these latter they are distinguished by their want of a 
succulent disk, their suspended not erect ovules, and their anthers bursting by 
longitudinal slits, not by terminal pores. A. de Jussieu says, “ They are 
known from all Rutaceous plants by the co-existence of these characters ; 
namely, ovaries with but one ovule, indehiscent drupes, exalbuminous seeds, a 
membranous integument of the embryo, and by the radicle being retracted 
within thick cotyledons.” 

Geography. All natives of tropical America, India, or Africa, with the 
exception of 1 Nipal plant. 

Properties. All intensely bitter. Tlie wood of Quassia is weU known. 
A plant called Paraiba in Brazil, the Simaruba versicolor of St. Hilaire, pos- 
sesses such excessive bitterness that no insects will attack it. Specimens of it 
placed among dried plants which were entirely devoured by the larvae of a 
species of Ptinus, remained untouched. The Brazilians use an infusion in 
brandy as a specific against the bite of serpents, and also employ it with very 
great success to cure the lousy diseases to which people are subject in those 
countries. PI. Usuelles, no 5. 

Quassia, L. 
Simaruba, Aubl. 
Simaba, Aubl. 
Aruba, Aubl. 


Z wing era, Schreb. 
Phyllostemma, Neck. 
Samadera, Gaertn. 
Samandura, L. 

Locandi, Adans. 
Vittmannia, Vahl. 
Niota, Lam. 
Biporeia, Pet. Thou 

Mauduyta, Comm. 
Nima, Hamilt.^ 
Harrisonia, R. Br. 

Order C. RUTACE^E. The Rue Tribe. 

Rut^, Juss. Gen. 296. (1789) in parL— Rutace^, DC. Prodr. 1. 709. (1824).— Rute^, 
Adrien de Juss. Rutacees, 78. (1825) ; Aug. de St. Hilaire FI. Bras. Mer. 1.93. (1825). 
Diosme^, R. Brown in Flinders, (1814) ; Ad. de Jussieu Rutacees, 1. 83. (1825). — 
Fraxinelle^e, Nees and Martius Nov. Act. Bonn. 11. 149. (1823). — Cusparie^, 
DC. Mem. Mus. 9. 141. (1822) ; Prodr. 1. 729. (1824), a § o/Rutaceae. 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermaphrodite, regular or irregular. Calyx in 4 or 
5 divisions. Petals either as many as the divisions of the calyx, distinct, or combined into 
a kind of spurious monopetalous corolla, or occasionally wanting ; aestivation for the most 
part twisted-convolute, very rarely somewhat valvular. Stamens equal in number to the 
petals, or twice or thrice as many, or even fewer in consequence of abortion, hypogynous, 
very rarely perigynous, placed on the outside of a disk or cup surrounding the ovary, and 
either free or combined with the base of the calyx, or sometimes obsolete. Ovary sessile 
or stalked, its lobes equal to the number of petals, or fewer ; ovules twin and collateral, or 
one above the other, rarely 4, seldom more ; style single, occasionally divided towards the 
base into as many parts as there are lobes of the ovary ; stigma simple or dilated. Fruit 
consisting of several capsules, either cohering firmly or more or less distinct. Seeds twin 
or solitary, with a testaceous integument ; embryo with a superior radicle, which is either 
straight or oblique, and cotyledons of variable form ; albumen present or absent. — Trees or 
shrubs, very rarely herbaceous plants. Leaves without stipules, opposite or alternate, sim- 


pie or pinnate, covered with pellucid resinous dots. Flaicers axillary or terminal. All the 
parts aromatic. 

Anomalies. Some of the genera are monopetalous, others have the carpels in great 
part distinct. Empleurum has no petals. Dictamnus and some others have irregular 
flowers and more ovules than 2. According to Brown, there is a New Holland genus, with 
perigynous stamens, 10 segments of the calyx, 10 petals, and indefinite stamens. 

Affinities. There are two principal divisions in this order ; the one 
Ruteae proper, which have seeds containing albumen, and a fruit the sarco- 
carp of which is said not to separate from the endocarp ; the other Diosmeae, 
whose seeds have no albumen, and whose sarcocarp and endocarp divide into 
distinct bodies when the fruit is ripe. But Aug. de St. Hilaire (FI. Bras. 1. 
74.) suspects that those two parts are equally separable in Ruteae, and that the 
specimens in herbaria which have been found otherwise were gathered before 
their fruit was quite ripe. At all events the difference is too slight for the 
character of an order ; and the absence or presence of a small quantity of al- 
bumen can no longer be insisted upon now that so many cases of its absence 
or presence in the same order are known ; indeed, Hortia, a Diosmeous genus, 
has albumen, according to Aug. de St. Hilaire. Ruteae are allied to Zygophyl'- 
laceae through Peganum, which A. de Jussieu actually stations here, although 
its stipulate leaves, destitute of pellucid dots, seem to determine its greatest 
affinity to be with Zygophyllaceae. A. de Jussieu, from whose excellent me- 
moir upon Rutaceae I have borrowed the greater part of my remarks upon 
Rutaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Xanthoxylaceae, and Simarubaceae, speaks thus of 
Diosmeae. (Mem. p. 19.) : — 

“ Diosmeae are a group to which Mr. Brown gives that name, with the 
exception, however, of some of the genera wffiich he refers to it ; and they are 
that by the characters of which botanists have generally defined Rutaceae. 
It is not necessary to describe the floral envelopes, the stamens, the disk, or 
the structure of the seed, because these parts vary according to the sections, 
which are in part characterised by their differences, and they will be better 
examined in their respective places. But it is important to understand the 
ovaries, and especially the pericarp, the structure of which is very characteristic. 
The ovaries, whether combined by their central axis, or more or less distinct, 
always contain 2 ovules ; if 4, or sometimes but 1 are found, this occurs only in 
genera stationed at the extreme limits of the group. They are collateral, or 
more frequently placed one above the other, and then one is usually ascending, 
and the other suspended. This position, which at first sight appears singular, 
is very natural ; for the ovary is usually pierced by the vessels of the style 
only in the middle, and it is at that point that the two ovules are inserted, 
both at nearly the same height. If, therefore, they are placed one above the 
other, it is indispensable that one should ascend, and the other descend. These 
ovules may be considered peritropal, rather than either ascending or suspended, 
or, in other terms, attached by their middle rather than by either extremity.” 
— “ If the ovary of a Diosmea is divided across, its coat will be found to 
consist of two layers, the outer rather the most fleshy, and the inner thin or 
almost absent on the side next the axis, the side which is traversed from bot- 
tom to top by the vessels of the peduncle. These vessels, at a certain height, 
meet those of the style, either at the point of its insertion or below it ; united 
to these, they penetrate the cavity of the cell, the shell of which they pierce, 
and there form funiculi, to which the ovules are attached. Thus far the struc- 
ture of Diosmeae is little different from that of other Rutaceous plants. But 
this becomes modified as the ovary advances towards the state of fruit. The 
endocarp hardens by degi*ees, and at the same time separates from the sarco- 
carp. Its form resembles that of a bivalve shell, and may be more especially 
compared to that of a mussel ; it presents two extremities, one superior, the 



■other inferior, two lateral faces which are more or less convex, and two edges 
more or less acute, which unite them, the one external, the other internal. 

The two valves are woody and touch at the edges, except perhaps at a part of 
their inside where they are separated ; this space is filled by a membrane 
which passes from one to the other : it is either slightly fleshy, or, wdiich is 
more common, extremely thin, thickened in the middle by the passage of the 
vessels of the seed which penetrate it ; and as, after having pierced it, they ' 
are almost immediately inserted into the seed, the latter appears to be actually 
home by the membrane itself. When the fruit is perfectly ripe, the sarcocarp 
of each cell opens from above inwards, following a longitudinal furrow, which 
had become visible some time previously. Its inner surface is seen to be co- 
vered by projecting hgnified vessels, which are directed obliquely from the in- 
ner edge tow’^ards the outer, and are indicated externally by some transverse 
projections. The endocarp is loose in the inside of the shell, unless at its 
membrane, by means of which it continues to preserve some degree of adhe- 
sion with the other parts ; but it soon opens, the two valves separate in difle- 
rent directions, and force out the seeds. WTien this separation takes place, 
the membrane is torn all round, and either falls away or sticks to the seed. In i 

the latter case it is found attached to the hilum, if one seed only has ripened ; i 

but then in removing it, the remains of the abortive o\nile may be found on 
one side. If both seeds have arrived at maturity, they are usually seen one rest- 
ing on the other by their contiguous flattened extremities, and the membrane 
extends along their inner edge, being enlarged at their point of contact, where j 
two transverse prolongations are perceptible.” 

The same author then proceeds to point out the inaccuracy of calhng, with i; 

some, this endocarp an aril — a name which, as Auguste de St. Hilaire some- I 

where remarks, has been applied to as many different things as the Linnean ! 

term nectarium ; or, applying wfith others the same name to the persistent ^ 


Diosmese differ from Rutese not only in the remarkable structure of their 
fmit, but also in having two o\niles in each cell, and exalbuminous seeds ; with | 

Humiriacese they have an analogy through the tribe called Cuspariese, some of , 

which have monadelphous stamens ; with Aurantiacese they agree in their dotted ! 

loaves, definite stamens, occasional production of double embryos, fleshy disk, j 

and sometimes in habit in the tribe of Cuspariese. Xanthoxylaceae and Sima- 
rubacese accord with them in a multitude of points. See fui'ther Aug. de ' 

St. Hilaire FI. Bras. Merid. 1. 94., especially for what concerns the ge- ’ 

nera. , 

Geography. Rutese are found in the south of Europe, whence they ex- i 
tend in our hemisphere as far as the limits of the Old World, following the * 
southern part of the temperate zone, and very rarely advancing within the tro- 
pics. Ad. de J. Of Diosmese, one genus, Dictamnus, is found in the south of 
Europe. The Cape of Good Hope is covered with difierent species of Diosma 
and nearly allied genera ; New Holland abounds in Boronias, Phebahums, 
CoiTeas, Eriostemons, and the like ; great numbers inhabit the equinoctial re- > 
gions of America. 

Properties. Rutese are characterised by their powerful odour and their bit- 
terness ; they act principally on the nerves. Common Rue, and another species, 
are said to be emmenagogue, anthelmintic, and sudorific. The Diosmas, or , 
Bucku plants, of the Cape, are well known for their poweiTul and usually offen- 
sive odour ; they are recommended as antispasmodics. The American species 
possess, in many cases, febrifugal properties. There is an excellent bark of 
this nature, used by the Catalan Capuchin friars of the missions on the river 
Carony in South America, called the Quina de la Guayna, or de la Angos- 
tura, or Angostura bark : this, which has been successively ascribed to Bmcea 

ferrug-inea and two species of Magnolia, is now known to be the produce of Cus- 
paria febrifuga (Bonplandia trifoliata IF.), a plant of this family. Humb. 
Cinch, For. p. 38. Eng. ed. Evodia febrifuga, one of the Quinas of Brazil, 
has a bark so powerfully febrifugal as to compete with that of Cinchona. A 
bark much spoken of by the miners of Brazil, under the name of Casca de la- 
rangeira da terra, and in which Cinchonine was detected by Dr. Gomez, pro- 
bably belongs to this tree. PI. Usuelles, no. 4. One of the Quinas of Brazil 
is the Ticorea febrifuga : its bark is a powerful medicine in intermittent fevers. 
Ibid. 16. Hortia Braziliana possesses similar properties, but in a less degree. 
Ibid. 17. An infusion of the leaves of Ticorea jasminiflora is drank in Brazil as 
a remedy for the disease called by the Brazilian Portuguese Bobas, and by the 
French Frambeesia. A. St. HU. Hist. 141. Dictamnus abounds in volatile 
oil to such a degree, that the atmosphere surrounding it actually becomes in- 
flammable in hot weather. Its root was formerly esteemed as a sudorific 
and vermifuge. 


§ 1. RuTEiE, A. de J. 
Ruta, L. 

Aplophyllum, A. de J. 

Cyminosma, Gaertn. 
Jambolifera, L. 

Gela, Lour. 
Acronychia, Bl. 

§ 2. Diosme^, a. deJ. 

A. Genuinae. 
Euchaetis, Bartl. 
Diosma, L. 

Hankea, Schmidt. 
Coleonema, Bartl. 
Acmadenia, Bartl. 
Adenandra, Willd. 
Glandulifolia,'W end. 
Okenia, Dietr. 

Barosma, Willd. 
Baryosma, R. et S. 
Parapetalifera,'W en. 
Hartogia, Berg. 
Macrostylis, Bartl. 
Calodendron, Thunb. 

Pallasia, Houtt. 
Empleurum, Soland. 

B. Boronieae, A.deJ. 
Correa, Sm. 

Antomarchia, Colla. 
Mazeutoxeron, La B. 
Diplolaena, R. Br. 
Phebalium, Vent. 
Philotheca, Rudg-. 
Crowea, Sm. 
Eriostemon, Sm. 
Boronia, Sm. 

Zieria, Sm. 

C. Pilocarpeae,A. deJ. 
Melicope, Forst. 

Entoganum, Banks. 

Evodia, Forst. 
Esenbeckia, H. B. K. 

Polembryum, Ad. J. 
Geijera, Schott. 
Colythrum, Schott. 
Metrodorea, A. St. H. 
Pilocarpus, Vahl. 
Hortia, Vand. 

Choysia, H. B. K. 

D. Cusparieae, A.deJ. 
Spiranthera, A. St. H. 
• Terpnanthus, Nees. 
Almeidea, A. St. H. 

Aruba, Nees. 
Galipea, Aubl. 
Cusparia, Humb. 
Bonplandia, W. 
Angostura, R. et S. 
Conchocarpus, Mik. 
Ravia, Nees. 
Lasiostenion, Nees. 

Obentonia, Velloz. 
Raputia, Aubl. 
Sciuris, Schreb. 
Pholidandra, Neck. 
Diglottis, Nees. 
Erythrochiton, Nees. 
Ticorea, Aubl. 
Ozophyllum, Schreb. 
Sciuris, Nees. 
Monniera, Aubl. 

Auhletia, Rich. 

? Monudynamus,Pohl. 

E. Dictamnese, A. de J. 
Dictamnus, L. 
Fraxinella, Tourn. 

Picrasma, Bl. 
Guindilia, Gill. 
Philagonia, Bl. 
Juliania, Lex. et LI. 

Order CL ZYGOPHYLLACE^. The Bean Caper Tribe. 

Zygophylle^e, R. Brown in Flinders, (1814) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 703. (1824) ; Adrien de .Tuss. 

RutacSes, 67. (1825). 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermaphrodite, regular. Calyx divided into 4 or 5 
pieces, with convolute aestivation. Petals unguiculate, alternate with the segments of the 
calyx and a little longer, in aestivation, which is usually convolute, at first very short and 
scale-like. Stamens double the number of the petals, dilated at the base, sometimes naked, 
sometimes placed on the back of a small scale, hypogynous. Ovary simple, surrounded 
at the base with glands or a short sinuous disk, more or less deeply 4- or 5-furrowed, with 
4 or 5 cells ; ovules in each cell 2 or more, attached to the inner angle, pendulous, or occa- 
sionally erect ; style simple, usually with 4 or 5 furrows ; stigma simple, or with 4 or 5 
lobes. Fruit capsular, rarely somewhat fleshy, with 4 or 5 angles or wings, bursting by 4 
or 5 valves beaiing the dissepiments in the middle, or into as many close cells ; the sarco- 
carp not separable from the endocarp. Seeds usually fewer than the ovules, either com- 
pressed and scabrous when dry, or ovate and smooth, with a thin herbaceous integument. 
Embryo green ; radicle superior ; cotyledons foliaceous ; albumen whitish, between horny 
and cartilaginous, in Tribulus wanting. Ad.J. — Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or trees, with a 


very hardwood, the branches often articulated at the joints. Leaves opposite, with stipules, 
very seldom simple, usually unequally pinnate, not dotted. Flowers solitary, or in pairs or 
threes, white, blue, or red, often yellow. 

Anomalies. Ovules occasionally erect. Tribulus has the fruit separating into spiny 
nuts, with transverse phragmata, and no albumen. Melianthus has very irregular flowers. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Oxalidacese, from which, however, they 
are distinguished by a multitude of characters. With Simarubacese they ac- 
cord in the stamens springing from the hack of a hypogynous scale ; a structure 
well worth more attentive consideration than it has yet received. Something 
analogous to it will be found in Silenacese. Adrien de Jussieu also observes 
that the petals are remarkable for their being, in an early state, minute and 
hidden by the calyx, which they only exceed about the time of flowering, 
while in other Rutaceous orders the petals are always larger than the calyx. 
The distinguishing characters in the vegetation or habit of this order are, the 
leaves being constantly opposite, with lateral or intermediate stipules, being 
generally compound, and always destitute of the pellucid glands which univer- 
sally exist in true Rutaceae, Brown in Denham, 26. It is also a very 
common character of the order to have the radicle at that extremity of 
the seed which is most remote from the hilum ; but this, which is of great 
importance in many natural . families, - is of . less value in ZygophyUaceae. 
(See many good remarks upon this subject in Brown’s Appendix to Denham, 

P- - . . 

Geography. Guaiacum, Porlieria, and Larrea, are peculiar to America. 
Fagonia is distributed over the south of Europe, the Levant, Persia, and India. 
Zygophyllum inhabits the same regions, and also the south of Africa, and is 
represented in New Holland by Ropera. Tribulus is found in all the Old 
World within the tropics, or in countries bordering upon them. Ad. deJ. Me- 
lianthus, a most anomalous genus, is remarkable for being found both at the 
Cape of Good Hope and in Nipal, without any intermediate station. 

Properties. Zygophyllum Fabago is sometimes employed as an anthel- 
mintic. The ligneous plants of the order are remarkable for the extreme hard- 
ness of their wood. All the Guaiacums are well known for their exciting 
properties ; the bark and wood of Guaiacum sanctum and officinale have a 
somewhat bitter and acrid flavour, and are principally employed as sudorifics, 
diaphoretics, or alteratives ; they contain a particular matter often designated 
as resin or gum-resin, but which is now considered a distinct substance, called 
Guaiacine. DC. Porlieria hygrometrica has similar properties. The wood 
of Guaiacum officinale, or Lignum vitse, is remarkable for the direction of its 
fibres, each layer nf which crosses the preceding diagonally ; a circumstance 
first pointed out to me by Professor Voigt. 


§ 1. Trieule^e, A.deJ.§ 2. Zygophylle^, 

Tribulus, L. 

Figaraea, Viv. 
Ehrenbergia, Mart. 
Kallstraemia, Scop. 
Biebersteinia, Steph. 

A. de J. 
Peganum, L. 
Fagonia, L. 
Seezenia, R. Br. 
Roepera, A. de J. 

Zygophyllum, L. 

Fabago, Tourn. 
Larrea, Cav. 
Porliera, R. et P. 
Guajacum, L. 

Trichanthera, Ehr. 
Anatropa, Ehr. 
Plectrocarpa, Hook. 

Melianthus, L. 



Terebintace^, Juss. Gen. 368. (1789) in part. — Xanthoxyleal, Nees and Martins in 
Nov. Act. Bonn. 11. (1823); Adrien de Jussieu RutacSes, p. 114. (1825). — 
Pteleace.«, Kunth. Ann. des Sc. 2. 345. (1824). — Terebintace^, trib. 6. DC. 
Prodr. 2. 82. (1825). 

Essentiai, Character. — Flowers unisexual, regular. Calyx in 3, or more commonly 
in 4 or 5 divisions. Petals the same number, very rarely none, usually longer than the 
calyx ; cestivation generally twisted, convolute. Stamens equal to the petals in number, or 
twice as many, arising from around the base of the stalk of the abortive carpels ; in the 
female flowers wanting or imperfect. Ovar'y made up of the same number of carpels as 
there are petals, or of a smaller number, either altogether combined, or more or less dis- 
tinct; ovules in each cell 2, collateral, or one above the other, very seldom 4; styles more 
or less combined, according to the degree of cohesion of the carpels. Fruit either berried 
or membranous, sometimes of from 2 to 5 cells, sometimes consisting of several drupes or 
2-valved capsules, of which the sarcocarp is fleshy and partly separable from the endocarp. 
Seeds solitary or twin, pendulous, usually smooth and shining, with a testaceous integu- 
ment ; em6ryo lying within fleshy albumen ; radicle superior ; cotyledons ovate, flat. — Trees 
or shrubs. Leaves without stipules, alternate or opposite, either siinple, or more commonly 
abruptly or unequally pinnate, with pellucid dots. Flowers axillary or terminal, gray, green, 
or pink. The various parts bitter or aromatic. 

Affinities. This is one of the families which comprehend genera with 
both distinct and concrete carpels; the latter are often entirely distinct, even 
in the ovary; but most frequently there is' a union, or at least a cohesion, of 
the styles, by which their tendency to concretion may be recognised. In a few 
instances the cai-pels are absolutely solitary. “ The place originally assigned, 
and for a long time preserved, for most of the genera of Xanthoxylaceae, proves 
sufficiently how near the affinity is between them and (what used to be called) 
Terebintaceae. .If, with Brown and Kunth, the latter are divided into several 
orders, Xanthoxylaceae will be most immediately allied to Burseraceae and Con- 
naraceae, agreeing with the former in the genera with a simple fruit, and With 
the latter in those with a compound one. Notwithstanding the distance which 
usually intervenes in classifications between Aurantiaceae and Terebintaceae, 
there are nevertheless many points of resemblance between them ; Correa de 
Serra has pointed out a passage from one to the other through Cookia ; Kunth, 
in new-modelling the genus Amyris, and in considering it the type of a dis- 
tinct order, suspects its near affinity with Aurantiaceae ; we cannot, therefore, 
be surprised at the existence also of relations between the latter and Xan- 
thoxylaceae. A mixture of bitter and aromatic principles, the presence of re- 
ceptacles of oil that are scattered over every part, which give a pellucid dotted 
appearance to the leaves, and which cover the rind of the fruit with opaque 
spaces, — all these characters give the two families a considerable degree of ana- 
logy. This has already been indicated by Jussieu in speaking of Toddalia, and 
in his remarks upon the families of Aurantiaceae and Terebintaceae ;. and it is 
confirmed by the continual mixture, in all large herbaria, of unexamined plants 
of Terebintaceae, Xanthoxylaceae, and Aurantiaceae. The fruit of the latter is, 
however, extremely different ; their seeds resembling, as they do, Terebinta- 
ceae, are on that very account at variance with Xanthoxylaceae, but at the 
same time establish a further point of affinity between them and some Ruta- 
ceous plants which are destitute of albumen. Unisexual flowers, fruit sepa- 
rating into distinct cocci, seeds solitary or twin in these cocci, enclosing a 
usually smooth and blackish integument, which is even sometimes hollowed 
out on its inner edge ; a fleshy albumen surrounding an embryo the radicle of 
which is superior, are all points of analogy between Xanthoxylaceae and Eu- 
phorbiaceae, particularly between those which have in their male flowers from 
4 to 8 stamens inserted round the rudiment of a pistil, and in the female 
flowers cells with 2 suspended, usually collateral, ovules. Finally, several 


Xanthoxylaceous plants have in their habit, and especially in their foliage, a 
marked resemblance to the Ash. The dioecious flowers of Fraxinus, its ovaiy, 
the two cells of which are compressed, ha^'ing a single style, 2 o^mles in the 
inside, and scales on the outside, and which finally changes into a samara 
which is 1 -celled and 1 -seeded by abortion, all establish certain points of con- 
tact between Ptelea and Fraxinus.” Ad. de Juss. 

Geography. ISIost of the species belong to America, especially to the 
tropical parts ; some are found in temperate regions ; they are rare in Africa ; 
some exist in the Isles of France and Madagascar, many are natives of India 
and China, and I is found in New Holland. 

Properties. Nearly all aromatic and pungent. The Fagaras are popu- 
larly called Peppers in the countries where they are found. Xanthoxylum 
Clava and fraxineum are powerful sudorifics and diaphoretics ; they are re- 
markable, according to Barton, for their extraordinaiy’' power in exciting 
salivation, whether applied immediately to the gums or taken internally : these 
t^vo plants are reputed to have been used successfully in paralysis of the mus- 
cles of the mouth and in rheumatic afi'ections. Xanthox}*lum caribseum is held 
to be a febrifuge. DC. A plant called Coentrilho in Brazil (Xanthoxj'lum 
hiemale) is employed as a remedy for pain in the ear, for which purpose the 
powder of its bark is made use of. Its wood is very hard, and valuable for 
building. PI. Usuelles, 37. The fruit of Ptelea has a strong, bitter, aromatic 
taste, and is said to have been used with some success as a substitute for hops. 
DC. The bai'k of a species of Brucea is stated by Horsfield to be of a bitter 
nature, and to possess properties similar to those of Quassia Simarouba. 
AinsUe, 2. 105. The green parts of Br. sumati*ana are intensely bitter. 
Roxb. The Brucea antidysenterica contains a poisonous principle called 
Bmcia, which is similar in its efiects to Stiyxhnia, but 12 or 16 times less 
energetic than that alkali. Turner, 652. In Japan the capsules of X. pi- 
peritum are employed as a substitute for pepper ; in India various species have 
a like use. The capsules and seeds of X. hostile, called tej-hul by the natives, 
ai*e employed in northern India for intoxicating fish ; they are ^so given as 
the Faghurehoi Axicemid^. X. piperitum and A%dcenn8e are used in China and 
Japan as an antidote against all poisons ; they would, undoubtedly, in many 
cases be of considerable use as a stimulant remedy. The bark of the root of 
Toddalia aculeata is said to be employed as a cure for the remittent fevers 
caught in the jungles of the Indian Hills. Rogle’s Illustr. 157. 


Dictyoloma, A. de J. 
Pitavia, Molin. 

Galvezia, R. et P. 
Bnicea, Mill. 

Gonus, Lour. ? 
Bruneliia, R. et P. 

XanthoxA'lum, L. Blackburnia, Forst. 
Fagara, L. Labordia, Gaudich. 

Pterota, Adans. Boymia, A. de J. 
Ochroxylum, Schreb. Lacuris, Wall. 
Kampmannia, Rafin. Toddalia, Juss. 
Langsdorfia, Leand. Crantzia, Schreb. 
Pohlana, Nees. Scopolia, Sm. 

Aubertia, Bory. 

Vepris, Commers. 
Asteropus, Spr. 
Ptelea, L. 

Belinda, Adans. 
Ailanthus, Desf. 
Eurycoma, Jack. 


Essential Character. — Styles distinct, at least near the point. Carpels combined 
in the ovary. Leaves never dotted. Stamens very often monadelphous. Flowers never 

In the opinion of Auguste de St. Hilaire aU the orders fonning this alii- 


ance, ought to be considered as one {FL Bras. Mer. 1. 95.), and he would 
I even add Linacese ; but that assemblage of plants has not a gynobasic structure. 

' It, however, seems to connect the Gynobaseous with the Syncarpous group, 
and to point out the relation between Silenacese, Geraniacese, and Malvaceae. 

I To the latter order, indeed, Geraniaceae approach very nearly even in the sti- 

! pulation of the leaves and the general appearance of the species. The analogy 

i of this same natural order and Violales points out the passage to the Parietous 
group. For many valuable observations upon the mutual connection between 
the orders of this alliance see Roper de jioribus et affinitatibus Balsaminearum. 
Basileae, 1830, 8vo. 

Order CIII. GERANIACE^. The Geranium Tribe. 

Gerania, Juss. Gen. 268. (1789). — GERANiACEiE, DC. FI. Fr. 4. 828. (1805) ; Prodr. 

1. 637. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 56. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, persistent, ribbed, more or less unequal, with an 
imbricated aestivation ; 1 sometimes saccate or spurred at the base. Petals 5, seldom 4 in 
consequence of 1 being abortive, unguiculate, equal or unequal, either hypogynous or peri- 
gynous. Stamens usually monadelphous, hypogynous, twice or thrice as many as the 
petals ; some occasionally abortive. Ovary composed of 5 pieces placed round an elevated 
axis, each 1-celled, 1-seeded ; styles 5, cohering round the elongated axis. Fruit formed of 
5 pieces, cohering round a lengthened indurated axis ; each piece consisting of 1 cell, con- 
taining 1 seed, having a membranous pericarp, and terminated by an indurated style, which 
finally curls back from the base upwards carrying the pericarp along with it. Seeds solitary, 
pendulous, or ascending, without albumen. Embryo curved ; radicle pointing to the base 
of the cell ; cotyledons foliaceous, convolute, and plaited. — Herbaceous plants or shrubs. 
Stems tumid, and separable at the joints. Leaves either opposite or alternate; in the latter 
case opposite the peduncles ; often stipulate. 

Anomalies. * Petals none in Rhynchotheca, which also has albumen. 

Affinities. In many points nearly related to Oxalidaceae, Balsaminaceae, 
and Tropseolese, with which they are by some botanists associated. They 
are, however, distinguished by the pecidiar dehiscence of the fruit, their stems 
with tumid joints, their convolute plaited cotyledons, and habit. Their analogy 
with Vitacese is pointed out in speaking of that order. In many respects they 
border close upon Malvaceae, agreeing with that order in their lobed stipulate 
leaves, monadelphous stamens, and convolute embryo. The genus Rhyncho- 
theca, which is remarkable for having a flat embryo in the axis of albumen is 
regarded by Aug. de St. Hilaire as a proof of the identity of this order and 
Oxalidaceae. The beaked fruit, however, of Geraniaceae, and the very general 
presence of stipules, sufficiently divide that order from the remainder of its alli- 
ance. The suspended position of the seed has been given as a general character 
of Geraniaceae ; but the position of the ovules varies according to species in the 
genera Erodium and Geranium; and in consequence of the inequality of growth 
the seed is always ascending in the capsule. Aug. de St. H., FI. Bras. 1. 

Geography. Very unequally distributed over various parts of the world. 
A great proportion is found in the Cape of Good Hope, chiefly of the genus 
Pelargonium ; Erodium and Geranium are principally natives of Europe, North 
America, and Northern Asia, and Rhynchotheca of South America. It is re- 
markable that Pelargonium is found in New Holland. 

Properties. An astringent principle and an aromatic or resinous flavour 
are the characteristics of this order. The stem of Geranium spinosum bums 
like a torch, and gives out an agreeable odour. The root of Geranium macu- 
latum is considered a valuable astringent in North America, where it is some- 



times called Alum root. Barton, 1. 155. In North Wales Geranium Rober- 
tianum has acquired celebrity as a remedy for nephritic complaints. Ibid. 
Some of the Pelargoniums are acidulous, but this genus is chiefly known as an 
object of garden c^ture, for which its great beauty, and the facility with which 
the species or supposed species intermix, render it weU adapted. 


Sarcocaulon, DC.Eckl. 
Monsonia, Linn. 
Geranium, L. 
Erodium, L’Herit. 
Scolopacium, Eckl. 
Hoarea, Sweet. 
Pelargonium, L’Herit. 

Polyactium, DC .Eck. 
Dimacria, Sweet. 
Ligularia, Sweet. 
Otidia, Sweet. 

DC. Eckl. 

Peristera, DC. Eckl. 
Phymatanthus, Swt, 
Campy lia, Sweet. 
Dibrachia, Sweet. 
Jenkinsonia, Sweet. 
Chorisma, Sweet. 
Ciconium, Sweet. 

Cortusina, DC. Eckl. 
Isopetalum, Eckl. 
Eumorpha, Eckl. 
Calliopsis, Sweet. 
Halgania, Gaud. 

? Euryanthe, Schlecht. 
Rhynchotheca, R.etP. 

Order CIV. BALSAMINACE^E. The Balsam Tribe. 

Bal6Amine^, Ach. Rich. Diet. Class. 2. 173. (1822) ; DC. Prodr. 1. G85. (1824) ; Lindl. 
Synops. 59. (1829) ; Roper de Florihus et Affinitatibus Balsam inear um. (1830) ; 
Wight and Arnott, Prodr. FI. Ind. Penins. 1. 134. (1834). — HYDRocEREiE, Blume 
Bijdr. 241. (1825) ; Ed. Prior, No. 125. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, or by abortion 3, irregular, deciduous, with an 
imbricated aestivation ; the two exterior opposite, lateral, somewhat unsymmetrical, with a 
valvate aestivation, but giving way for the projection of the spur of the odd sepal ; the odd 
sepal spurred, symmetrical, with an equitant aestivation in the bud, looking tow’ards the axis 
of the axillary racemose or umbellate inflorescence, containing honey ; the two inner sepals 
very small, sometimes scale-shaped, sometimes unsymmetrical, larger, orbicular, always 
coloured, appearing at the side of the flower, which is opposite to the spurred sepal, and at 
the base of the odd petal ; (usually altogether abortive in Balsamina) . Petals either distinct 
or a little adhering, 5, combined into 3, irregular, deciduous, alternate with the sepals ; 
the odd petal regular, placed between the inner scalelike sepals, in front of the bract, 
wrapping up a great part of the remainder of the flower in aestivation ; the four remaining 
petals unsymmetrical, united more or less on each side of the flower in pairs ; their two 
larger lobes next the spur, their two smaller next the odd petal; aestivation convolute. 
Stamens 5, symmetrical, alternate with the petals; those alternate with the odd petal longer 
than the others. Carpels 5, alternate with the stamens consolidated into a 5 -celled ovary. 
{Roper abridged) . Stigma sessile, more or less divided in 5 ; cells 5, t\\" 0 -, or many-seeded. 
Emit capsular, wdth 5 elastic valves, and 5 cells formed by membranous projections of the 
placenta, which occupies the axis of the fruit, and is connected with the apex by 5 slender 
threads ; sometimes succulent and indehiscent. Seeds solitary, or numerous, suspended ; 
albumen none ; embryo straight, with a superior radicle and plano-convex cotyledons . — 
Succulent herbaceous plants. Leaves simple, opposite or alternate, without stipules. Pe- 
duncles axillary. 

Affinities. So nearly related to Geraniacese, that this order is, in the 
opinion of some botanists, a mere section of it. It is, however, distinguishable 
by its gynobase not being lengthened into a beak, by its straight embryo, and 
exstipulate leaves, and also by the absence of that aromatic resinous secretion 
which is so highly developed in some Geraniacese. Tropseoleae and Hydrocerese, 
formerly separated from Balsaminacese, appear to be in reahty mere forms of 
that order ; the first, however, ha\'ing flowers with a regular t}q)e of structure 
may still deserve a place as a sub -order. 

The anomalous structure of the genera Impatiens and Balsamina has given 
rise to some ingenious speculation, of which a full detail will be found in 
Roper’s work above quoted ; the idea of this ingenious botanist is adopted in 
the present edition. Kunth takes a different view of the subject ; the follow- 
ing is the substance of his remarks. 


Linnaeus attributed to the Impatiens Balsamina a calyx of 2 leaves, 5 un- 
equal petals, a nectaiy, a single ovary, a sessile stigma, and a unilocular poly- 
spermous capsule, opening in 5 valves. M. de Jussieu describes it nearly in 
the same way, with the exception of considering the capsule as having 5 cells, 
and the corolla as consisting of 4 petals, the lower of which is spurred. These 
erroneous characters have been reproduced by most authors. Dr. Hooker alone 
refers the part which has the spur to the calyx, which he consequently makes 
to consist of 3 pieces. M. Achille Richard has come nearest the truth in the 
Dictionnaire Classique, where he describes the calyx as consisting of 4 pieces, 
and the 4 petals united in pairs. The fact is, that the structure is usually this : 
the centre of the flower is occupied by an ovariuni, surmounted by a stigma 
divided into 5 acute lobes. Around this stand 5 hypogynous stamens, placed 
in a single row and at equal distances from each other. Hence the normal 
number of the parts of the flower should be 5 . The corolla, however, consists 
of 2 bifid petals placed right and left, with a wider space between their upper 
than their lower edges. Upon comparing the position of these with the 
stamens, it appears that each occupies the place of 3 stamens, whence it is 
impossible to doubt that they each consist of 2 soldered together. On the 
other hand, the space between them, which answers to 2 stamens, is an equal 
proof of the abortion of a fifth petal. And this view of the structure is con- 
firmed by the sepals. Thus on the outside of each pair of petals, at their base, 
is found a leaflet, the situation of which is opposite a stamen ; and opposite the 
space left by the abortion of the fifth petal is a large broad leaflet, made up by 
the union of 2 sepals. The position of the fifth sepal, which is that which is 
spurred, is between 2 petals and opposite a stamen. 

Geography. Natives of damp places among bushes in the East Indies ; 
1 is found in Madagascar, 1 in Europe, 2 in North America, and 1 in Russia 
in Asia. 

Properties. Chiefly remarkable for the elastic force with which the 
valves of the fruit separate at maturity, expelling the seeds. For a supposed 
explanation of this phenomenon, see Dutrochet, Nouvelles Recherches sur 
V Exosmose et Endosmose. According to De Candolle, the species are diuretic. 


Balsamina, Riv. Hydrocera, Bl. 

Impatiens, L. Tytonia, G. Don. 

Sub-Order. TROP^OLE^. The Nasturtium Tribe. 

Trop^ole^, Juss. Mem. Mus. 3. 447. (1817) ; DC. Prodr. 1. 683. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, the upper one with a long distinct spur; (Estivation 
quincuncial. Petals 5, unequal, irregular, the 2 upper sessile and remote, arising from the 
throat of the calyx, the 3 lower stalked and smaller, sometimes abortive. Stamens 8, peri- 
gynous distinct; anthers innate, erect, 2-celled. Ovary 1, 3-cornered, made up of 3 car- 
pels ; style 1 ; stigmas 3, acute ; ovules solitary, pendulous. Fruit indehiscent, separable 
into 3 pieces from a common axis. Seeds large, without albumen, filling the cavity in 
which they lie ; embryo large ; cotyledons 2, straight, thick, consolidated together into a 
single body ; radicle lying within projections of the cotyledons. — Smooth herbaceous plants, 
of tender texture and with an acrid taste, trailing or twining. Leaves alternate, without 
stipules, petiolate, with radiating ribs. Peduncles axillary, 1-fiowered. 

Anomalies. Magallana has winged fruit, 1 -celled and 1 -seeded by abortion. In Chy- 
mocarpus the calyx is valvular, and the petals only 2. 

Affinities. Very near Geraniaceae, with which they agree even in their 
spur (which in Pelargonium is often present, but adnate to the pedicel). From 


true Balsaminacese they are known by their more regular flowers, and by their 
fruit not having a bony lining to the cells when it is succulent. Don thinks 
the order allied to Capparidacese ! 

Geography. All natives of South America, mostly upon high land. 

Properties. The fleshy fruit of Tropaeolum majus is acrid, and possesses 
the properties of Cress ; and De Candolle remarks, that the catei*pillar of the 
Cabbage butterfly feeds exclusively upon Cruciferse and Tropaeolum, The 
root of Tr. tuberosum is eaten in Peru. Chymocarpus is used in Brazil as an 
antiscorbutic, under the Portuguese name of Chagas da Miuda. PI. Usuelles, 41 . 


Tropseolum, L. 

Magallana, Cav. 

Chymocarpus, Don. 

Order CV. OXALIDACE^. The Woodsorrel Tribe. 

OxALiDE^, DC. Prodr. 1. 689. (1824) ; Lindl. Synops. 59. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 5, sometimes slightly cohering at the base, persistent, 
equal. Petals 5, hypogynous, equal, unguiculate, with a spirally-twisted aestivation. Sta- 
mens 10, usually more or less monadelphous, those opposite the petals forming an inner 
series, and longer than the others ; anthers 2- celled, innate. Ovary with 5 angles and 5 
cells ; styles 5, filiform ; stigmas capitate or somewhat bifid. Fruit capsular, membranous, 
with 5 cells, and from 5 to 10 valves. Seeds few, fixed to the axis, enclosed within a fieshy 
integument, which curls back at the maturity of the fruit, and expels the seeds with elasti- 
city. Albumen between cartilaginous and fieshy. Embryo the length of the albumen, with 
a long radicle pointing to the hilum, and foliaceous cotyledons. — Herbaceous plants, under- 
shrubs, or trees. Leaves alternate, compound, sometimes simple by abortion, very seldom 
opposite or somewhat whorled. 

Affinities. Formerly included in Geraniacese, from which, in the judg- 
ment of many, the order is not sufficiently distinct. According to De Candolle 
it is rather allied to Zygophyllacese ; an opinion which their compound leaves 
appear to confirm. Averrhoa differs from the rest in its arborescent habit. 
The species are generally described with an aril ; but, according to Auguste de 
St. Hilaire, the part so called is nothing but the outer integument of the seed. 
PI. Us. 43. 

Geography. Natives of all the hotter and temperate parts of the world, 
most abundantly known in America and the Cape of Good Hope, and most 
rarely in the East Indies and equinoctial Africa. 

Properties. Averrhoa Bilimbi and the pinnated Oxalis called Biophytum 
have sensitive leaves. Their foliage is generally acid, so that they are fit to 
supply the place of sorrel. Some of the species are astringent, and have been 
employed in spitting of blood. Oxalis acetoseUa contains pure oxalic acid. 
Turner, 623. Several species of Oxalis are used in Brazil against malignant 
fevers. PI. Usuelles, 43. The fruit of Averrhoa is intensely acid. A species 
of Oxalis (crenata) found in Columbia bears tubers like a potato, and is one of 
the plants called Arracacha : the tubers are insipid, and not worth cultivation ; 
for which, however, they have been recommended of late years ; the stalks of 
this species are intensely acid, and make an excellent preserve. 


Averrhoa, L. Ledocarpum, Desf. 

Biophytum, DC. Balbisia, Cav. 

Oxalis, L. Cruckshanksia,\io6k. 


Alliance III. CORIALES. 

Essential Character. — Styles and stigmas perfectly distinct, with a somewhat lateral 
origin : Carpels quite distinct. 

These may be regarded as Rutales with the separation of the carpels, which 
in that alliance is only imperfectly effected, completed, 


CoRiARiEiE, DC. Prodr. 1. 739. (1824.) 

Essential Character. — Flowers either hermaphrodite, or monoecious, or dioecious. 
Calyx campanulate, .5-parted, ovate. Petals .5, alternate with the lobes of the calyx, and 
smaller than they are, fleshy, with an elevated keel in the inside. Stamens 10, arising 
from the torus, 5 between the lobes of the calyx and the angles of the ovary, 5 between the 
petals and the furrows erf the ovary ; filaments filiform ; anthers oblong, 2-celled. Orary 
seated on a thickish gynobase, 5-celled, 5-angled ; style 0 ; stigmas 5, long, subulate ; ovules 
solitary, pendulous, or ascending. Carpels 5, when ripe close together but separate, inde- 
hiscent, 1 -seeded, sometimes surrounded with glandular lobes. Seed pendulous or ascend- 
ing ; albumen none ; embryo straight ; cotyledons 2, fleshy. — Shrubs, with opposite branches, 
often 3 on each side, 2 of them being secondary to an intermediate principal one. Leaves 
opposite or alternate, simple, entire. Buds scaly. Racemes terminal, and axillary. 

Affinities. Placed by De Candolle immediately after Ochnacese, with 
which the order no doubt agrees in having its ovaries distinct, and suiTound- 
ing a fleshy axis ; but the stigmas in Coriariacese are long, linear, and distinct, 
with no style, while Ochnacese have a single style connecting the carpels and 
minute stigmas ; the former, therefore, are apocarpous, the latter syncarpous. 
Coriariaceae are also certainly allied to Rutaceae, but they differ from them as 
they do from Ochnaceae ; and besides, the carpels are in Rutaceae connate. 
With Connaraceae they agree in several points, while they are different in 
others. Upon the whole, their exact affinity may be considered unsettled. If 
Ercilla belongs here, the position of the leaves and the ovules will be of no im- 
portance, for in both those respects the t\\^o genera differ. 

De Candolle understands Coriaria as apetalous, but I do not see upon what 
principle, either of structure or analogy. In his Essai sur les Proprietes 
Medicales he referred it to the vicinity of Rhamnaceae, p. 350. Jussieu referred 
it to Malpighiaceae. 

Geography. Chile and Peru, the south of Europe, north of Africa, New 
Zealand, and Mexico. 

Properties. Coriaria myrtifolia is used by dyers for staining black. Its 
fruit is poisonous. It is said that several soldiers of the French army in 
Catalonia were affected by eating it; 15 became stupified, and 3 died. DC. 
Its leaves have been used to adulterate Senna, and have produced fatal con- 
sequences. Fee. The fruit of Coriaria napalensis is frequently eaten in the 
north of India without inconvenience. Royle. 


Coriaria, L. 

Ercilla, Ad. de J. 

Bridgesia, Hooker. 


Essential Character. — Calyx 5-parted, slightly imbricated. Petals the like num- 
ber, equal, shortly clawed. Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, placed in a single row ; fila- 
ments subulate ; anthers roundish, incumbent, bursting internally by 2 longitudinal fissures. 
Carpels 5, distinct, attached to a very short gynobase, 1 -celled with 2 ascending collateral 
ovules ; styles rising from near the base of the carpels ; stigmas simple. Pericarp woody. 
Seed solitary, erect, compressed. Embryo annular, without albumen, terete, with the coty- 
ledons about the same length as the radicle which is turned to the hilum. — Woody plants. 
Leaves alternate, without stipules. Hairs capitate, jointed. Flowers racemose. 

Affinities. I have intentionally constructed the foregoing character upon 
Suriana alone. If H eterodendron and Cneorum really belong to the same 
order, as De Candolle {Prodr. 2. 91) suggests, the number of parts in the 
flower will vary from 3 to 5, the ovules will be sometimes pendulous (as in 
Cneorum) and petals will occasionally be absent (as in Heterodendron). 
Suriana itself appears, meanwhile, to be very near Coriariacese, and also 
Geraniacese, as Kunth has remarked. Its relation either to Rosacese, or any 
Terebintacese, is not obvious. 

Geography. Found in all the warmer parts of the world ; South America, 
India, New HoUand, New Caledonia, the South of Europe, and the Canaries. 

Properties. Unknown. 



V Heterodendron, Desf. 
? Cneorum, L. 


Essential Character. — Herbs. A simple style. Fruit divided into deep lobes. 
Gynobase never fleshy. Stamens perigynous. 


LiMNANTHEiE, R. Bv. in Lond. and Edinb. Philosoph. Mag. July 1833 ; Bindley Bot. Reg. 
t. 1673. (1834); Nixus Plantarum,p. 11. (1833); Martius Conspectus, No. 212. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 3-5- parted, persistent, valvate in gestivation. Petals 
3-5, regular, convolute in gestivation. Stamens twice the number of the petals, either equal 
in length, or those opposite the petals shortest, perigynous ; the filaments opposite the 
sepals at least having a projection on the outside at their base. A thin perigynous dish. 
Ovary consisting of as many distinct carpels as sepals, opposite to which they are placed ; 
carpels firmly combined by a single solid style, with 3-5 simple stigmas. Nuts 3-5, berried, 
one-seeded. Seed erect ; embryo large amygdaloid, without albumen, the radicle next the 
hilum. — Soft herbaceous plants. Leaves divided, hairless, without stipules. Flowers 

Affinities. The gynobasic structure, the deeply-lobed ovary, the solid 
style, the regular flowers, bring this little order near Rutacese, from which it 
differs in its soft texture, its dotless leaves, its indehiscent, somewhat berried, 
fruit, &c. It also approaches Geraniacese in its one-seeded carpels and regular 
flowers, but the valvate aestivation of its calyx, &c. remove it from them. It 
is probably with Tropaeoleae that the affinity is greatest ; with that sub-order 




Limnanthacese agree in tlie number of the parts of the flower, the deeply-lobed | 

ovary, the single style, the number of the lobes of the fruit, and the texture of j 

the pericarp ; and Limnanthes has, moreover, exactly the taste of Tropaeolum 
majus. Under these circumstances I am almost doubtful whether the order 
ought not to enter the Geranial alliance ; but then its stamens placed at the I 

edge of a thin perigynous disk, and the little projection at the base of the fila- I 

ments, seem to point to a different type of structure. The disk led me ) 

formerly to consider one of the two genera (Florkea), of which the order con- ' 

sists, allied to Sanguisorbeae ; and I have no doubt, in fact, that it is one of the i 

transitions from the Gynobaseous to the Apocarpous group. i 

Geography. Natives of the temperate parts of North America. j; 

Properties. Limnanthes is pungent. I 


Limnanthes, R. Br. 

Florkea, W. 

Group VIL ^pocarpo^ae* 

Essential Character. — Carpels distinct either wholly, or at least by their upper ends 
and styles. Ovary without parietal placentae, or a gynobase. Calyx not in a broken whorl. 
No epigynous disk. 

No difficulty need occur in recognizing the orders of this group if the fore- 
going character be attentively considered. It joins the last group by Florkeales, 
Magnoliacese, in the albuminous group, by Calycanthacese, and Ranunculacese 
by Rosacese, and Burseraceae and Spondiacese, in Syncarposae, by Balsamales. 
Its principal anomalies consist in apetalous genera and species. 

Alliance I. ROSALES. ’I 

Essential Character. — Albumen wholly absent. ; 

Perhaps there is no positive character which can divide this from the other 
alliances, for even the want of albumen is liable to exception, as in Leguminosse. 

The alliance is, however, known practically as follows : — it never has two 
diverging carpels, as Saxales ; nor a succulent texture, as Crassales ; nor 
balsamic juice, as Balsamales. So that its characters are negative rather than ; 

positive. Sanguisorbese are a degenerate form of Rosaceae, connecting them 
with Incompletse. 


Order CIX. ROSACE^^^. The Rose Tribe. I 

I { 

Rosacea, Juss. Gen. 334. in part (1789) ; DC. Prodr. 2. 525. in part (1825) ; DC. and '< 

Duty Botan.Gall. in part (1828) ; Lindl. Synops.p. 88. (1829). |1 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4- or 5-lobed, with a disk either lining the tube or 
surrounding the orifice; the fifth lobe next the axis. Petals 5, perigynous, equal. Stamens j 

indefinite, arising from the calyx, just within the petals, in aestivation curved inwards; j! 

anthers innate, 2- celled, bursting longitudinally. Ovaries superior, either solitary or several, ,!• 

1 -celled, sometimes cohering into a plurilocular pistil ; ovules 2, or more, suspended, very 


rarely erect ; styles lateral ; stigmas usually simple, and emarginate on one side. Fruit 
either 1 -seeded nuts, or acini, or follicles containing several seeds. Seeds suspended, 
rarely ascending. Embryo straight, with a taper short radicle pointing to the hilum, and 
flat cotyledons. usually almost obliterated when the seeds are ripe ; if present, 

fleshy. — Herbaceous or shrubs. simple or compound, alternate, usually with 

2 stipules at their base. 

Anomalies. Stipules absent in Lowea. Albumen present in Neillia, according to 

Affinities. The genera of this order naturally divide into four principal 
groups, distinguished from each other by their structure, and in some measure 
by their sensible properties. Rosacese proper have distinct carpels, which do 
not adhere to the calyx, and are simply astringents ; Pomeae differ in having 
the carpels adherent to a succulent calyx : they are astringents and tonics ; 
Amygdaleae have solitary carpels becoming drupes, gum in their bark, and 
hydrocyanic acid in their leaves ; Sanguisorbeae are apetalous, with a much 
reduced calyx, whose tube is hardened. Neuradeae are undoubtedly plants im- 
properly referred here. 

Rosaceae proper are distinguished from Pomeae by their superior fruit and 
usually suspended seeds ; from Leguminosae by their regular petals and 
stamens, and especially by the odd segment of the 5-lobed c^yx of that order 
being anterior, not posterior ; from Chrysobalanaceae by their styles proceed- 
ing from the side of the ovary near the apex, and not from the base, by their 
regular petals and stamens, and by their fruit not being a drupe. Related in 
many points to Saxifragaceae, which have albumen and two diverging carpels. 

Geography. Natives chiefly of the temperate or cold chmates of the 
northern hemisphere ; a very few are found on high land within the tropics, 
and an inconsiderable number in the southern hemisphere. Only one species 
is found in the West Indies, viz. Rubus jamaicensis ; thirteen are natives of 
high land in the East Indies, within the tropics, viz. PotentiUa Leschenaultiana, 
and twelve species of Rubus ; the South American species chiefly consist of a 
few kinds of Rubus ; at the Cape of Good Hope the order is unknoAvn. 

Properties. No Rosaceous plants are unwholesome ; they are chiefly 
remarkable for the presence of an astringent principle, which has caused some 
of them to be reckoned febrifuges, llie root of TormentiUa is used for 
tanning in the Feroe Isles. DC. PotentiUa anserina has been used by 
tanners ; P. reptans as a febrifuge. Ibid. Geum urbanum and rivale have 
been compared, for efficacy, to Cinchona. Ibid. The fruits of many species 
of Fragaria (Strawberry) and Rubus (Raspberry and Blackberry) are valuable 
articles of the dessert. The leaves of Rubus arcticus and Rosa rubiginosa 
have been employed as substitutes for Tea. Ibid. The roots of GiUenia 
trifoliata and stipiilacea are emetic, and perhaps tonic. Barton, 1. 69. They 
are used in the United States as Ipecacuanha. DC. The root of Spiraea 
ulmaria has been used as a tonic. A. R. Agrimonia eupatoria yields a decoc- 
tion useful as a gargle. Ibid. The root of Rubus viUosus is a popular 
astringent medicine in North America. Two or three tea-spoonsful of the 
decoction, administered three or four times a- day, has been found useful in 
cholera infantum. Barton, 2. 157. One of the most powerful anthelmintics 
in the world belongs to this family. It is an Abyssinian plant, known to 
botanists by the name of Brayera anthelmintica. Upon the authority of 
Brayer, after whom it is named, two or three doses of the infusion are sufficient 
to cure the most obstinate case of tsenia. See Brayer s Notice upon the subject. 
The various species of Rosa form some of the greatest beauties of the garden. 
The fruit of R. canina and other allied species is astringent, and employed in 
medicine against chronic diarrhoea and other maladies. The petals of R. 
damascena yield a higlily fragrant essential oil, called Attar of Roses ; those of 


R. g^allica are astringent when dried with rapidity, and are sometimes found 
useful in cases of debility, such as leucorrhoea, diarrhoea, &c. A. R. 


§ 1. Rose^, DC. 

Rosa, L. 

Rhodophora, Neck. 
Lowea, Lindl. 

§ 2. Potentille^jDC. 
Dryadeoi, Vent. 
Fragariacece, Rich. 
Rubus, L. 

Cylactis, Rafin. 
Dalibarda, L. 

Fragaria, L. 

Duchesnea, Sm. 
Comarum, L. 
Horkelia, Schlecht. 
Potentilla, L. 

Bootia, Big. 

Tormentilla, L. 
Trichothalamus, Leh. 
Chamaerhodos, Bge. 
Sibbaldia, L. 

Dryas, L. 

Cowania, Don. 

Geum, L. 

Sieversia, Willd. 
Adamsia, Fisch. 
Laxmannia, Fisch. 
Waldsteinia, Willd. 
Comaropsis, Rich. 
Agrimonia, L. 
Aremonia, Neck. 
Amonia, Nestl. 
Spallanzania, Poll. 

Bray era, Kunth. 

§ 3. SPIRiE^, Juss. 
Ulmarice, Vent. 
NeilliecB, Arnott. 
Purshia, DC. 

Tigarea, Pursh. 
Kunzia, Spreng. 
Kerria, DC. 
Adenostoma, H. et A 
Spiraea, L. 
Physocarpus, Camb. 
Ulmaria, Moench. 
Gillenia, McEnch. 
Icotorus, Raf. 

Schizonotus, Lindl. 

Lutkea, Bong. 

Eriogynia, Hook. 
Lindleya, H. B. K. 
Rhinanthera, Bl. 
Neillia, Don. 

§ 4. QuiLLAiiE, Don. 

, Quillaija, Juss. 

R. et P. 

Smegmaria, W. 
Kageneckia, R. et P. 

Lydcea, Molin. 
Vauquelinia, Corr. 

? § 6. NEURADEiE, DC. Prodr. 2. 548. (1825) ; Martins Conspectus, No. 314. (1835).— 

Griele.®, Sweet. 

Calyx 5-cleft, with a short tube adhering to the ovary, the lobes somewhat incumbent 
or valvate in aestivation. Petals 5. Stamens 10. Carpels 10, combined in a 10-celled 
compressed capsule. Seeds solitary, obliquely pendulous . — Herbaceous plants, native of 
sandy plains, suflFrutescent at the base, and usually decumbent. Leaves with 2 stipules, 
downy, sinuate-pinnatifid, or bipinnatifid. Seeds germinating in the capsule. DC. 

Neurada, Juss. Grielum, Linn. 

Sub-Order. POME.^. The Apple Tribe. 

Rosace®, § Pomaceae, Gen. 334. (1789); DC. Prodr. 2. 626. (1825).— Pomace®, 
Lindl. in Linn. Trans. 13. 93. (1821) ; Synops. 103. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5-toothed; the odd segment posterior. 
Petals 5, unguiculate, inserted in the throat of the calyx ; the odd one anterior. Stamens 
indefinite, inserted in a ring in the throat of the calyx. Disk thin, clothing the sides of 
the tube of the calyx. Ovaries from 1 to 5, adhering more or less to the sides of the calyx 
and each other ; ovules usually 2, collateral, ascending, very rarely solitary ; styles from 1 
to 5; stigmas simple. Fruit a pome, 1- to 5 -celled, seldom spuriously 10-celled; the 
endocarp either cartilaginous, spongy, or bony. Seeds ascending, solitary. Albumen 
none ; embryo erect, with flat cotyledons, or convolute ones in Chamaemeles, and a short 
conical radicle. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, stipulate, simple, or compound. Flowers 
in terminal cymes, white or pink. 

Anomalies. In Amelanchier the simple ovaries are spuriously 2-celled. In Crataegus 
the ovaries are very rarely solitary. 

Affinities. Closely allied to Rosaceae proper, from which they differ in 
the adhesion of the ovaries with the sides of the calyx, and more or less with 
each other. The fruit is always a pome ; that is, it is made up of a fleshy 
calyx adhering to fleshy or bony ovaries, containing a definite number of seeds. 
Pomeae are peculiarly distinguished by their ovules being in pairs, and side 
by side ; while Rosacese, when they have 2 or more ascending ovules, always 
have them placed one above the other. Cultivated plants of this sub- order are 
very apt to produce monstrous flowers, which depart sometimes in a most 
remarkable degree from their normal state. No order can be more instruc- 
tively studied with a view to morphological inquiries ; particularly the common 
Pear when in blossom. A remarkable permanent monster of this kind, with 




14 styles, 14 ovaries, and a calyx with 10 divisions in two rows, is described 
in the Revue EncyclopMique, (43. 762.); it exhibits a tendency, on the part of 
Pomeae, to assume the indefinite ovaries and double calyx of Rosaceae. I have 
seen a Prunus in a similar state. Amygdaleae are known by their superior 
sohtary ovary and drupaceous fruit, and by the presence of hydrocyanic acid, 
which, however, exists in Cotoneaster microphyUa, a plant of this sub-order. 

Geography. Found plentifully in Europe, Northern Asia, the mountains 
of India, and North America ; rare in Mexico, unknown in Africa, except on 
its northern shore, and in Madeira, and entirely absent from the southern hemis- 
phere ; a solitary species is found in the Sandwich Islands. 

Properties. The fruit as an article of food, and the flowers for their 
beauty, are the chief peculiarities of this order, which consists exclusively of 
trees and bushes, without any herbaceous plant. The Apple, the Pear, the 
Medlar, the Quince, the Service, the Rowan Tree or Mountain Ash, are all 
weU known, either for their beauty or their use. The wood of the Pear is 
almost as hard as Box, for which it is even substituted by wood engravers ; 
the timber of the Beam Tree (Pyrus Aria) is invaluable for axletrees. The 
bark of Photinia dubia is used in Nipal for dyeing scarlet. DC. Prodr. 238. 
Malic acid is contained, in considerable quantity, in apples ; it is also almost 
the sole acidifying principle of the berries of the Mountain Ash (Pyrus 
aucuparia). Turner, 634. 

Crataegus, L. 
Raphiolepis, Lindl. 
Chamaemeles, Lindl. 
Photinia, Lindl. 
Eriobotrj'a, Lindl. 


Cotoneaster, Medic. 
Amelanchier, Med. 
Mespilus, L. 

Mespilophora, Neck. 
Osteomeles, Lindl. 

Pyrus, L. 

S or bus, L. 

Aronia, Pers. 
Cydonia, Tourn. 
Chcenomeles, Lindl. 

Sub-Order. AMYGDALEAE. The Almond Tribe. 

AMYGDALEiE, Juss. Gcu. 340. a % of Rosaceae (1789). — Drupace^, DC. FI. Franpaise, 
4. 479. (1805) ; Prodr. 2. 529. (1825) a § o/ Rosaceae; Lindl. Synops. 89. (1829) 
a ^ of Rosaceae. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-toothed, deciduous, lined with a disk ; the fifth 
lobe next the axis. Petals 5, perigynous. Stamens 20, or thereabouts, arising from the 
throat of the calyx, in aestivation curved inwards ; anthers innate, 2-celled, bursting longi- 
tudinally. Ovary superior, solitary, simple, 1-celled; ovules 2, suspended; terminal, 

with a furrow on one side, terminating in a reniform stigma. Fruit a drupe, with the puta- 
men sometimes separating spontaneously from the sarcocarp. Seeds mostly solitary, sus- 
pended, in consequence of the cohesion of a funiculus umbilicalis, arising from the base or 
the cavity of the ovap^, with its side. Embryo straight, with the radicle pointing to the 
hilum ; cotyledons thick ; albumen none. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, usually 
glandular towards the base ; stipules simple, mostly glandular. Flowers white or pink. 
Hydrocyanic acid present in the leaves and kernel. 

Affinities. Distinguished from Rosaceae and Pomeae by their fruit being 
a drupe, their bark yielding gum, and by the presence of hydrocyanic acid ; 
from Leguminosae by the latter character, and also by their regular petals and 
stamens, and especially by the odd segment of the 5-lobed calyx of that order 
being inferior, not superior; from Chrysobalanaceae, by their hydrocyanic 
acid, terminal styles, and regular petals and stamens. I have seen a monstrous 
Plum with an indefinite number of ovaries arising irregularly from the tube of 
the calyx, and therefore exhibiting a tendency, on the part of this sub-order, 
to assume one of the distinguishing characters of Rosacese. It is not a little 


remarkable that here, where we have a close approach to the structure of 
Mimosese in Leguminosae, v/e have also the only instance among Rosacese of 
an approach to the property possessed by that sub- order of yielding gum in the 
bark ; the pecidiar astringency of some species is also analogous to that of 
Acacia Catechu and the hke. 

Geography. Natives exclusively of the northern hemisphere, where they 
are found in cold or temperate climates. One species, Cerasus occidentalis, is 
a native of the West Indies; a kind of Almond, Amygdalus microphylla, 
inhabits hoj; arid plains in Mexico ; and another, A. cochinchinensis, is reputed 
to grow" in the w"oods of Cochinchina. 

Properties. The astringent febrifugal properties of Rosaceee, w"ith which 
order these are usually combined, are also found in Amygdalese ; as in the bark 
of Cerasus virginiana, which is prescribed in the United States, and of the 
C. capollim of Mexico. They are, however, better known for yielding an 
abundance of prussic, or hydrocyanic, acid, a deadly principle residing in the 
leaves and kernel ; in consequence of which some of the species are poisonous 
to cattle which feed upon them : as, for example, the Cerasus capricida, w"hich 
kills the goats of Nipal; and the C. virginiana, which is known in North 
America to be dangerous. They aU of them, also, yield a gum, analogous to 
gum tragacanth. Notwithstandmg, however, the poisonous principle that is 
present in them, their fruit is, in many cases, a favourite food ; that of the 
Amygdalus (peach and nectarine), Prunus (plum), and Cerasus (cherry), 
are among the most delicious with which we are acquainted; the seed of 
Amygdalus is familiar to us under the name of almonds, and its oil under 
the name of oil of almonds. The bark of the root of Cerasus capoUim is used 
in Mexico against dysentery. DC. The leaves of Prunus spinosa (sloe), and 
Cerasus avium (wild cherry), have been employed as a substitute for tea. Ibid. 
The former are well known to afford one of the means used in Europe for 
adulterating the black tea of China. Prunus domestica, or the common plum, 
yields those fruits sold in the shops under the name of prunes, which are 
chiefly prepared in France, from the varieties called the St. Catherine and the 
green -gage ; and in Portugal from a sort w-hich derives its name from the vil- 
lage of Guimaraens, where they are principally dried. They contain so lai'ge 
a quantity of sugar, that brandy is distilled from them w'hen fermented ; and 
it has even been proposed to manufacture sugar from them. A. R. The 
kernel of Prunus brigantiaca yields a fixed oil, called Huile des Marmottes, 
which is used instead of ohve or almond oil. Ibid. The bark of Prunus 
spinosa is one of the substances that has been reported to resemble Jesuits’ 
bark in its effects. Ibid. Prunus cocomilia yields a bark, the febrifugal pro- 
perties of which are spoken of very highly. According to Tenore, it is a specific 
for the cure of the dangerous intermittent fevers of Calabria, where it grows. 
A variety of Cerasus avium is used, in the Vosges and the Black Forest, for 
the preparation of the liqueur known under the name of Kirschenwasser. The 
flowers of Amygdalus persica (peach) are gently laxative, and are used advan- 
tageously for children. The kernel of Cerasus occidentalis is used for flavour- 
ing the liqueur Noyau. 


Prunus, L. 

Cerasus, Juss. 
Cerasophora, Neck. 

Armeniaca, Tourn. 
Amygdalus, L. 
Persica, Tourn. 



Trichocarpus, Neck, 

? Pygeum, Colebr. 
Polydontia, Bl. 


Sub-Order. SANGUISORBEi?^. The Burnet Tribe. 

Rosace/e, § Sanguisorbese, Juss. Gen. 336. (1789) ; DC. Prodr. 2. 588. (1828) ; Lindl. 
Synojjs. 102. (1829); Martins Conspectus, iVo. 215. (1835). — Cliffortiace/E, Id, 
No. 216. 

Essential Character. — Flowers often unisexual. Calyx -with a thickened tube and 
a 3- 4- or 5-lobed limb, its tube lined with a disk. Petals none. Stamens definite, some- 
times fewer than the segments of the calyx, with which they are then alternate, arising from 
the orifice of the calyx; anthers 2-celled, innate, bursting longitudinally, occasionally 1- 
celled, bursting transversely. Ovary solitary, simple, with a style proceeding from the 
apex or the base ; ovule solitary, always attached to that part of the ovary which is next the 
base of the style ; stigma compound or simple. Nut solitary, enclosed in the often indu- 
rated tube of the calyx. Seed solitary, suspended or ascending ; embryo without albumen ; 
radicle superior or inferior ; cotyledons large, plano-convex.-^Hcrftcfceous plants or under- 
shrubs, occasionally spiny. Leaves simple and lobed, or compound, alternate, with stipules. 
Flowers small, often capitate. 

Anomalies. The stipules of ClifFortia cohere with the leaves. Alchemilla arvensis has 
simple 1 -celled anthers bursting transversely, and ascending ovules. 

Affinities. Tliis sub-order, usually combined with Rosacese, appears as 
if it demanded a distinct station, on account of its constantly apetalous flowers, 
its indurated calyx, and the reduction of carpels to one only ; it is, however, 
not, as far as I know, distinguishable by any other characters. The presence 
of petals, a character assigned to Acaena, I have shown, in the Botanical 
Register, to have no existence. Usually the ovule is suspended, the style 
arising from below the apex of the carpel ; but when the style proceeds from 
the base of the carpel, the ovule is ascending, in aU cases adhering to the 
ovary immediately over against the origin of the style. Various kinds of 
adhesion between the leaves and the stipules take place in the genus ClifFortia, 
and have given rise to a number of errors ; for an explanation of which, see 
De Candolle’s remarks in the AnnaJes des Sciences Naturelles, 1. 447. Von 
Martins has, I perceive, an order Cliflbrtiacese ; but I am unacquainted with 
the grounds upon which it is cut off from Sanguisorbese. 

Geography. Natives of heaths, hedges, and exposed places in Europe, 
North and South America beyond the tropics, and the Cape of Good Hope ; 
in which latter country they represent the Rosacese of Europe. 

Properties. Their general character is astringency. A decoction of 
Alchemilla vuilgaris is slightly tonic. This is asserted, by Frederick Hoffmann, 
and others, to have the efiect of restoring the faded beauty of ladies to its 
earliest freshness. Sanguisorba officinalis, or common Bumet, is a useful 
fodder. A. R. 


Alchemilla, L. Polylepis, R. et P. Sanguisorba, L. Cliffortia, L. 

Aphanes, L. Acasna, Vahl. Poterium, L. Morilandia, Neck. 

Margyricarpus, R.etP. Ancistru'n'i,Yoxst. Pimpinella, Addins. N enax, Gd^rtn. 

Cercocarpus, H. B. K. 


Order CX. LEGUMINOS^, ] 

or \ The Bean Tribe. 


Leguminos.®, /mss. Gen. 345. (1789); Bronn. Diss. (1822); DC. Prodr. 2. 93. (1825); 
Lindl. Synops. 75. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-parted, toothed, or cleft, inferior, with the odd seg- 


ment anterior ; the segments often unequal, and variously combined. Petals 5, or by 
abortion 4, 3, 2, 1, or none, inserted into the base of the calyx, either papilionaceous or 
regularly spreading ; the odd petal posterior. Stamens definite or indefinite, perigynous, 
or hypogynous, either distinct or monadelphous, or diadelphous ; very seldom triadel- 
phous; anthers versaXile. Ovary simple, superior, 1 -celled, 1- or many-seeded; style sim- 
ple, proceeding from the upper margin ; stigma simple. Fpuit either a legume or a drupe. 
Seeds attached to the upper suture, solitary or several, occasionally with an aril ; embryo 
destitute of albumen, either straight or with the radicle bent upon the cotyledons ; cotyle- 
dons either remaining under ground in germination, or elevated above the ground, and 
becoming green like leaves. — Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or vast trees, extremely variable in 
appearance. Leaves alternate, most commonly compound; petiole txxrmdi at the base. Sti- 
priles 2 at the base of the petiole, and 2 at the base of each leaflet. Pedicels usually articu- 
lated, with 2 bractlets under the flower. 

Anomalies. The Detariums are apetalous and drupaceous. Ceratonia, and five or 
six other genera, are also apetalous. Some Mimoseie are monopetalous ; the latter section 
and Swartzieae have usually also hypogynous stamens. Diphaca and a species of Caesalpinia 
have regularly 2 ovaries. Ormosia has 2 stigmas. DC. Sophora, and some others, have 
no stipules. Some have opposite leaves. Albumen present in Fillsea, Guill. Also in 
Cathartocarpus Fistula. 

Affinities. The most common feature is, to have what are called papi- 
lionaceous flowers ; and when these exist, no difficulty is experienced in re- 
cognising this order, for papilionaceous flowers are found no where else. 
Another and a more invariable character is to have a leguminous fruit ; and, 
by one of these two characters all the plants of the family are known. It is 
remarkable, however, for the complete obliteration of one or other of these 
distinctions in many cases. Swartziese have the iiTegularity in the corolla 
carried so far that not more than 1 or 2 petals remain ; Csesalpiniese have a 
less irregular flower, with spreading petals and stamens adhering to the calyx ; 
while Mimoseae have perfectly regular flowers and indefinite hypogynous sta- 
mens. Detarium, instead of a legume, bears a fruit not distinguishable 
from a drupe. This last circumstance is easily to be understood, if we bear in 
mind that a legume and a diaipe differ more in name than reality, the latter 
being formed upon precisely the same plan as the former, but with this modi- 
fication, that its pericarp is thickened, more or less fleshy on the outside and 
stony on the inside, 1 -seeded, and indehiscent. Hence some of the regular- 
flowered genera with distinct stamens may be said to be Rosaceous in flower, 
and Leguminous in fruit. Simple, therefore, as the diagnosis of the order 
usually is. Brown is perfectly correct in asserting that, until he indicated the 
difference of the position of the odd lobe of the calyx in Leguminosee and Ro- 
saceae (Amygdaleae), no positive character had been discovered to distinguish 
the one order from the other. The presence of stipules at the base of the 
leaflets of the compound leaves of Leguminosae is a character in the vegetation 
by which they may be known from Rosaceae. Very few double flowers are 
known in this order ; those of Spartium junceum and Ulex europceus are the 
most remarkable ; the nature of the latter I have described in detail in the 
Trans, of the Hort. Soc. vol. 7. p. 237. Two ovaries are common in Wis- 
teria sinensis ; and the same phenomenon is to be seen, according to De Can- 
dolle, in Gleditschia : it appears also to be normal in Diphaca and Caesalpinia 
digyna. Aug. de St. Hilaire is said (DC. Mem. 52.) to have found a Mimosa 
in Brazil with 5 carpels : on account of these, and other circumstances, De 
Candolle assumes the carpel of Leguminosae to be solitary by abortion, and 
that a whorl of 5 is that which is necessary to complete the symmetry of the 
flowers. Of the accuracy of this view I am satisfied ; but I think it might 
have been proved as satisfactorily from analogy, without the aid of such in- 
stances. In consequence of the highly irritable nature of the leaves of many 
of the plants of this order, and of the tendency to irritability discoverable in 
them all, some botanists have placed them at the extremity of their system, in 


contact with the limits of the animal kingdom. See Agardh Classes, p. 4. and 
Martins, H. R. M. p.l76. For observations upon the nature of this irritabi- 
lity, see Dutrochet sur la Motilite, Paris, 1824, in which the author endea- 
vours to shew that the motion is the effect of galvanic agency ; and the same 
writer’s Nouvelles Recherches sur V Exosmose, in which he alters the ex- 

planation of the manner in which galvanism produces the motion, adhering, 
however, to his opinion of that subtle principle being the real agent. This 
ingenious naturalist might have been satisfied with attributing the phenome- 
non to an inherent vital action, without puzzling himself wfith a vain search 
after first causes, which always leaves the most successful inquirer exactly 
where he set out. For remarks upon the order in general, see De Candolle’s 
valuable Memoire, pubhshed at Paris in 1825-6, in one thick volume 4to. 
The relation that is borne by this order to Chrysobalanaceae will be explained 
under that order. To the tribes formerly included under the name of Tere- 
bintacese, Leguminosse are nearly allied in many important circumstances, but 
are distinguished by their stipules, which nevertheless exist in Canarium 
among Burseracese, and which do not exist in Sophora, a Leguminous genus. 
With Xanthoxylaceae they are allied through Ailanthus. The monadelphous 
stamens, iiTegular flowers, occasional simple ovary, style, and stigma of Poly- 
galacese, are all so many points of affinity with Leguminosae. 

In many respects this order is one of the most important which the bota- 
nist can study, but especially as it serves to show how fittle real importance 
ought to be attached to dehiscence of fruit in determining the hmits of natural 
orders. What may be called the normal fruit of Leguminosae is a legume, 
that is to say, a dry simple ovary, with a suture running along both its mar- 
gins, so that at maturity it separates through the middle of each suture into 
two valves ; but every conceivable degree of de\dation from this type occurs : 
the Ai'achis and many more are indehiscent ; Detarium is drupaceous ; in Car- 
michaelia the valves separate from the suture, which remains entire, hke the 
replum of Cruciferae ; in all lomentaceous genera, such as Omithopus, the 
valves are indehiscent in the line of the suture, but separate transversely ; in 
Entada a combination of the peculiarities of Cannichselia and lomentacese oc- 
cm's ; and, finally, in Hsematoxylon the valves adhere by the suture and split 
along the axis. The divisions which have been proposed in this extensive 
order are of unequal value ; it is possible that two of them, namely, Mimo- 
seee and Caesalpiniese may deserve, as Brown seems to think, the rank of 
sub-orders ; for they really appear to be of the same importance with refe- 
rence to Papilionacese, as Amyridaceae, Connaraceae, Anacardiaceae, and Bur- 
seraceae, with respect to each other. I give them, however, as I find them in 
De CandoUe. 

His first and most important division depends upon the form of the 
embryo, out of which arise the divisions called Curvembriae and Rectem- 
briae ; viz. — 


Radicle bent back upon the cotyledons. 

Tliese are distinguished into two tribes by the structure of their flowers, 
viz. — 

Tribe 1. Papilionace^. R. Br. 

Calyx with distinct kbes. Stamens perigynous. CoroUa papifiona- 

Tlie germination of this tribe varies thus : — some of the species push them 
cotyledons above ground, which become green, resembling leaves ; and of these 
none bear seeds which are eaten by man or animals : others germinate with 
their cotyledons under ground, and it is among these only that all the kinds 
which bear what we call pulse are found : the former De Candolle calls Pliyl- 


lolobea, and they are divided by him into sections, viz. 1 . § Sophorese, 2 § Lo-- 
teae, 3. § Hedysareae ; the latter he designates as SarcolobetB, which compre- 
hend, 4. § Vicieae, 5. § Phaseoleae, 6. § Dalbergieae. 

Tribe 2. Swartzie^. DC. 

Calyx bladdery, with indistinct lobes. Stamens hypogynous. Corolla 
none, or petals only 1 or 2. 


Radicle of the embryo straight. 

The tribes are known by the position of their stamens and the aestivation 
of their petals. 

Tribe 3. C^salpinie^. R. Br. 

Petals imbricated in aestivation, and stamens perigynous. 

Of the genera comprehended in this tribe, those which have petals, and 
their stamens variously combined, are called § Geoffrieae ; such as have petals, 
the stamens being distinct, are § Cassieae ; and a couple of genera, with dru- 
paceous fruit and no petals, constitute § Detarieae. 

Tribe 4. Mimose^. R. Br. 

Sepals and petals valvate in aestivation. Stamens hypogynous. 

The reader is referred to the 2d volume of De Candolle’s Prodromus for 
further information upon these divisions. 

Geography. The geographical distribution of this order has been con- 
sidered with great care by De CandoUe, from whom I take the substance of 
what follows. 

One of the first things that strikes the observer is, that if a number of ge- 
nera of Leguminosae have as extensive a range as those of other orders, there 
is a very considerable number of which the geographical limits are clearly de- 
fined. Thus the genera of New Holland are in most cases unknown beyond 
that vast island ; the same may be said of North and South America, and the 
Cape of Good Hope ; and there are between 14 and 15 genera unknown be- 
yond the limits of Europe and the neighbouring borders of Asia and Africa. 
About 92 genera out of 280 are what are called sporadic, or dispersed over 
difierent and widely separated regions, such as Tephrosia, Acacia, Glycine, 
and Sophora. The species are found more or less in every part of the known 
world, with the exception, perhaps, of the island of Tristan d’Acugna and St. 
Helena,* neither of which do they inhabit ; but they are distributed in extremely 
unequal proportions ; in general they diminish sensibly in approaching the 
pole, especially the Rectembriae, which are unknown in northern regions. This 
will be apparent from the following table : — 

Europe, with the exception of the Mediterranean 


. 184 . 


. 0 


United States .... 

. 167 . 

. 16 

China, Japan, and Cochinchina . 

. 64 . 

. 13 

Levant ..... 

Basin of the Mediterranean 

. 466 . 

. 2 


Arabia and Egypt 

. 78 . 

. 9 

Mexico ..... 

. 90 . 

. 62 

West Indies .... 

East Indies .... 

. 330 . 

. 122 

Equinoctial America . 

. 246 . 

. 359 

Equinoctial Africa 

. 49 

New Holland .... 

. 154 . 

. 75 

Isles of Southern Africa 

. 29 . 

. 13 

South America beyond the tropics 

. 18 . 

. 11 

Cape of Good Hope . 

. 334 . 

. 19 

South Sea Islands 

This distribution, if condensed, will give the following results : — 

Equinoctial zone 910 . . 692 

Beyond the tropics to the north . . . .1277 . . 35 

south . . . .417,. .107 

Properties. This order is not only among the most extensive that are 
known, but also one of the most important to man, with reference to the ob- 
jects either of ornament, of utility, or of nutriment, which it comprehends. 
When we reflect that the Cercis, which renders the gardens of Turkey re- 
splendent with its m}Tiads of purple flowers ; the Acacia, not less valued for 
its airy foliage and elegant blossoms than for its hard and durable wood ; the 
Braziletto, Logwood, and Rosewoods of commerce ; the Laburnum ; the clas- 
sical Cytisus ; the Furze and the Broom, both the pride of the otherwise 
dreary heaths of Europe ; the Bean, the Pea, the Vetch, the Clover, the Trefoil, 
the Lucerne, all staple articles of culture by the farmer, are so many species of 
Leguminosae ; and that the Gums Arabic and Senegal, Kino, and various pre- 
cious medicinal drugs, not to mention Indigo, the most useful of all dyes, are 
products of other species, — it will be perceived that it would be difficult to 
point out an order with greater claims upon the attention. It would be in 
vain to attempt to enumerate all its useful plants or products, in lieu of which 
I shall speak of the most remarkable, and of those which are least known, and 
in so doing I shall classify the products according to the tribes already defined. 

Tribe 1. Papilionace^. 

The general character of this Tribe is, its nutritious, or at least wholesome, 
characters ; thus the § Trifolieie, comprehending Clover, Medick, Lucerne, 
Trefoil, &c. are valuable fodder plants, as are also Saintfoin, Ornithopus or 
Serradilla, various Astragali, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium difl’usum, Indigofera 

enneaphylla, &c. As pulse, we have Peas, Beans, Lentils, Pigeon peas 

(Cajanus), the seeds of various species of Dolichos, Pliaseolus, &c. Of the 

nutritious or saccharine qualities of other parts we have several useful instances. 
The roots of the liquorice (GlycyiThiza glabra) contain an abundance of a sweet 
subacrid mucilaginous juice, which is much esteemed as a pectoral ; similar 
qualities are ascribed to Trifolium alpinum roots. The roots of Abrus preca- 
torius possess exactly the properties of the liquorice root of the shops. 
Ainslie, 2. 79. In Java they are found demulcent. Those of Dolichos 
tuberosus and bulbosus, Apios, Pueraria, and Lathyrus tuberosus, are whole- 
some food. According to Don {Prodr. no. 247.), Manna is produced by 
several species related to Alhagi Maurorum. It is remarkable that this secre- 
tion is not formed in India, Arabia, or Egypt, the chmate of Persia and 

Bokhara seeming alone suited for its production. Boyle. The purgative 

properties of Leguminosse are principally confined to the tribe Csesalpiniese. 
They, however, occur in Colutea arborescens and Coronilla Emerus in the 
present tribe; as well as certain species of Genista, Cytisus, Robinia, and 

Clitoria. Boyle. Many are tonics and astringents. The bark of Sesbania 

grandiflora is powerfully bitter and tonic. The root of Hedysarum sennoides 
is accounted in India tonic and stimulant. Ainslie, 2. 53. African Kino is 
the produce of Pterocarpus erinacea, B. Br., Gum Dragon and Saunders wood 
of Pterocarpus Draco and Santalinus, Gum Lac of Erythrina monosperma. 
The Dalbergia monetaria of Linnaeus yields a resin very similar to Dragon’s 
Blood. Ainslie, 1. 115. A similar juice is yielded by Butea frondosa and 
superba. DC. The seed of Psoralea corylifolia is considered by the native 
practitioners of India stomachic and deobstruent. Ainslie, 2. 141. A strong 
infusion of the root of Mucuna pruriens, sweetened with honey, is used by the 
native practitioners of India in cases of cholera morbus. Ainslie, 1. 93. The 
irritating effects of the hairs, or Cowhage, that clothe the pods of this plant 


are well known. A decoction of the bitter root of Galega purpurea (Tephrosia) 
is prescribed by the Indian doctors in cases of dyspepsia, lientery, and 
tympanitis. Ainslie, 2. 49. The powdered leaf of Indigofera Anil is used in 
hepatitis. Ibid. 1. 179. The leaves of the Phaseolus trilobus (called Sem, or 
Simhi) are considered by Indian practitioners cooling, sedative, antibilious, and 
tonic, and useful as an application to weak eyes. Trans. M. and P. Soc. Calc. 
2. 406. The roots and herbage of Baptisia tinctoria have been found to pos- 
sess antiseptic and sub-astringent properties. They have also a cathartic and 
emetic effect. Barton, 2. 57. This emetic quality is also possessed by others. 
The root of Clitoria Ternatea is emetic. Ainslie, 2. 140; and similar pro- 
perties wiU be found to exist among the tribe Mimosese. Others are 

diuretics, as the roots of Beans, Genistas, Ononis, Anthyllis cretica, &c. DC. 

A few produce gum; Tragacanth is yielded by Astragalus verus and 

similar spiny species ; this is, however, very different from the gum of 

Mimoseae. Among dyes are Indigo, produced from various species of 

Indigofera, especially tinctoria, and Tephrosia Apollinea. Tlie flowers of Butea 
frondosa and superba yield a beautM dye, and the roots form strong rope. 

Royle. Several afford timber of excellent quality, especially the Robinia 

Pseudacacia, or Locust tree, vrhich is light, bright yellow, hard, and extremely 
durable, but brittle ; the wood of Laburnum is a light olive green, beautifully 
grained, and suitable for cabinet-makers’ purposes. Pterocai-pus dalbergioides, 
and several species of Dalbergia, are remarkable in India for the excellence 
of their wood. Sissoo, the timber of the Dalbergia of that name, is one of 

the most valuable of forest-trees. Occasionally narcotic properties have been 

recognized. The seeds of Lathyrus Aphaca are said to produce intense ’ 
headach if eaten abundantly : the seeds of the Laburnum are poisonous ; they 
contain a principle called Cytisine. Those of Abrus precatorius, Anagyris 
foetida, and others, have a similar property. See an analysis of Cytisus, 
Anagyris, and Coronilla seeds, in Me'm. Soc. Phys. Genev. v. 75. Tlie leaves 
and branches of Tephrosia are used for intoxicating fish ; the leaves of 
Ornithopus scorpioides are capable of being employed as vesicatories. Tlie 
juice of Coronilla varia is poisonous. The roots of Phaseolus radiatus are nar- 
cotic. Royle. Finally, besides these purposes, certain species have been 

found to be useful in other ways. The volatile oil of Dipterix (or Couinarouma) 
odorata, or Tonka Bean, has been ascertained to be a peculiar principle called 
Coumarin. It was mistaken by Vogel for Benzoic acid. Turner, 660. It 
may be found in a crystallised state between the skin and the kernel, and 
exists abundantly in the flowers of Mehlotus officinalis. Ed. P. J. 3. 407. 
It has been found that a peculiar acid, called Carbazotic, is formed by the 
action of nitric acid upon Indigo. Turner, 641. Sulphur exists in combina- 
tion with diflerent bases in peas and beans. Ed. P. J. 14. 172. The leaves 
of Coronilla picta are highly esteemed among the Hindoos, on account of the 
virtues they are said to possess in hastening suppm'ation when applied in the 
form of a poultice, that is, simply made warm, and moistened with a little 
castor oil. Ainslie, 2. 64. 

Tribe 2. Swartzie.e. 

Nothing is known of their properties, except that Baphia yields the King- 
wood of the cabinet-makers. 

Tribe 3. C^SALPiNiEiE. 

Purgative properties are their great character ; otherwise they much resem- 
ble Papilionacese. Senna is their most remarkable product. The Senna of 
the shops consists, according to Delile, of Cassia acutifolia. Cassia Senna, and 
Cynanchum Argel. He says the Cassia lanceolata of Arabia does not yield 
the Senna of commerce. The active principle of Senna is called Cathartine. 
It was discovered by Lassaigne and Fenuelle. Ed. P. J. 7. 389. Purgative 


properties are also found in the pulp within the fruit of Cathartocarpus fistula 
and Ceratonia siliqua, and also of the Tamarind, the preserved pulp of which 
is so well known as a delicious confection. Mahc acid exists in the Tamarind, 
mixed with tartaric and citric acids. Turner, 634. Cassia marilandica is 
found in North America a useful substitute for the Alexandrian Senna. 

Barton, 1. 143. As an instance of pulse, in this tribe Ceratonia sihqua may 

be adduced, which, under the name of the Carob Tree, or Algaroba bean, is 

consumed in the south of Spain by horses. Some are reported to produce 

powerfully hitter and tonic effects. "Various species of Geoffrsea, the bark of 
Caesalpinia BonducceUa are of this class. The kernels of Guilandina Bonduc- 
ceUa are very bitter, and are supposed by the native doctors of India to possess 
powerful tonic virtues. When pounded small and mixed with castor oil, they 
form a valuable external application in incipient hydrocele. Ainslie, 2. 136. 
The leaves are a valuable discutient, fried with a little castor oil, in cases of 
hernia humoralis. Ihid. The native practitioners in India prescribe the dried 
buds and young flowers of Bauhinia tomentosa in certain dysenteric afifections. 
Ihid. 2. 48. The bark of Bauhinia variegata, and also of Cassia auriculata, 
are, according to Roxburgh, used by the natives in tanning and dyeing leather, 

as well as in medicine. Royle. The roots of Guilandina Nuga and 

Moringa are diuretic. DC. Among dyes are Logwood, the wood of Hsema- 

toxylon campeachianum, and the red dye yielded by several Caesalpinias. The 
colouring matter of Logwood is a peculiar principle, called Hsematin. The 
hukkum or sappan wood of India belongs to Caesalpinia sappan. A deep red is 
yielded by the chips of Adenanthera pavonina, it is called rukta-chundun, or 
red sandal wood. Royle. Several afford timber. The Brazil wood of com- 

merce is obtained from Caesalpinia Brasiliensis. Some of the Indian species 
yield good timber ; others, as Bauhinia racemosa and parviflora, have bark 
employed in making rope. An oil is expressed from the seeds of some, as 
Caesalpinia oleosperma ; others exude a mild gum, like the Mimoseae, and some 
other plants, which have at the same time an astringent bark. A brownish 
coloured gum is said, by Roxburgh, to be aflbrded by his Bauhinia retusa ; it 
is also collected from B. emarginata, in the Deyra Boon, and called sem-ke-gond. 
Royle. The resin animi is procured from Hymenaea Courbaril ; the Copal of 
Mexico is supposed to be the produce of some plant allied to this. A fragrant 
resinous principle is exuded by Aloexylum AgaUochum. Id. p. 185. 

Tribe 4. Mimoseae. 

Astringency in the bark, and the production of a sort of gum in the same 

part, is the great characteristic of this tribe. Of gums. Acacia verek 

yields gum Senegal on the western coast of Africa ; A. nilotica and seyal, gum 
arahic in Nubia; something similar is produced in New Holland by A. de- 
currens, and in India by A. arabica, famesiana, and speciosa. Royle. For an 

account of the Gum forests, see FI. Seneg. 1. 246. As an instance oi pulse ; 

the seeds of Parkia africana are roasted as we roast cofibe, then bruised, and 
allowed to ferment in water. WThen they begin to become putrid, they are 
well washed and pounded ; the powder is made into cakes, somewhat in the 
fashion of our chocolate ; they form an excellent sauce for all kinds of meat. 
The farinaceous matter surrounding the seeds forms a pleasant drink, and they 

also make it into a sweetmeat. Brown in Denham, 29. Tonic and astringent 

qualities are also present here. The bark of Acacia Arabica is considered in 
India a powerful tonic ; it is also extensively used in tanning leather. Royle. 
A decoction of its pods is used as a substitute for that of the seeds of Mimosa 
saponaria for washing. Ihid. 2. 142. Its tonic powers are connected with 
the astringent and tanning properties of several others. Some of the Algarobas 
or Prosopises of the western part of South America bear fruit, the pericarp of 
which consists almost wholly of tannin. The bark of some of the species of 


Acacia abound to such a degree in tanning principles as to have become objects 
of commercial importance. In 1824 some tons of the extracts of Acacia bark 
were imported from New South Wales for the use of tanners. Ed. P. J. 
11. 266. The pods of Cassia Sabak and Acacia nilotica are used in Nubia for 
tanning. Delile Cent. 10. The valuable astringent substance, called Catechu, 
or Terra Japonica, is procured by boiling and evaporating the brown heart- 
wood of Acacia Catechu, or Khair Tree : it is obtained by simply boiling the 
chips in water until the inspissated juice has acquired a proper consistency ; 
the liquor is then strained, and soon coagulates into a mass. Brewster, 5. 349. 

See also Royle’s Illustr. p. 182. Others are emetics. According to Hors- 

field, the Acacia scandens of Java is emetic. Ainslie, 2. 108. A few are 

purgatives. Properties of this kind exist in the pulp within the fruit of Mimosa 
fagifolia. The same m,ay be said of Inga fseculifera, or the Pois doux, of 
St. Domingo, that bears pods filled with a sweet pulp, which the natives use. 
Hamilt. Prodr. 62. Several afford timber. The fine Jacaranda, or Rose- 

wood of commerce, so called because when fresh it has a faint but agreeable 
smell of roses, is produced by a species of Mimosa in the forests of Brazil. 
Pr. Max. Trav. 69. The timber of Acacia arabica and farnesiana is used in 
India for wheels and tent-pegs ; that of other species attains a large size, as of 
A. Kalkera and A. speciosa; the latter is dark- coloured, and close-enough 
grained for making furniture. A. elata, xylocarpa, sundra, odoratissima, sti- 

pulacea, and cinerea, all yield it of good quality. Royle. Saponaceous 

qualities reside in some species. The saponaceous legumes of Acacia concinna 
form a considerable article of commerce in India, and the seeds of Entada 
Purssetha, called gela, are used by the natives for washing their hair. Royle. 

Finally, a small number are poisonous. The root of Mimosa, called 

Spongia, is accounted a poison in Brazil. Ed. P. J. 14. 267. It is reported 
that the leaves and branches of Acacia iuliflora are poisonous to cattle. The 
bark of some species, as of A. ferruginea and leucophsea, added to jagghery 
water, is distilled in India as an intoxicating liquor. Royle. 


Tribe 1. Papilionace^e, DC. 

§ 1. SOPHOREiE, DC. 
Sophora, L. 
Ammodendron, Fisch. 
Styphnolobium, Schot, 
Edwardsia, Salisb. 
Ormosia, Jacks. 
Virgilia, Lam. 

Layia, H. et A. 
Macrotropis, DC. 

Anagyris, Lour. 
Anagyris, L. 

Piptanthus, Sweet. 
Thermopsis, R. Br. 

Thermia, Nutt. 
Baptisia, Vent. 
Cyclopia, Vent. 

Ibbetsonia, Sims. 
Podalyria, Lam. 

Aphora, Neck. 
Chorozemia, La Bill. 
Podolobium, R. Br. 
Oxylobium, Andr. 

Callistachya, Sm. 
Brachysema, R. Br. 
Gompholobium, Sm. 

Burtonia, R. Br. 
Jacksonia, R. Br. 
Viminaria, Sm. 
Sphaerolobium, Sm. 
Aotus, Sm. 
Xeropetalum, R.Br. 
Dillwynia, Sm. 
Eutaxia, R. Br. 
Sclerothamnus, R.Br. 
Gastrolobium, R. Br. 
Euchilus, R. Br. 
Pultenaea, Sm. 
Daviesia, Sm. 
Mirbelia, Sm. 

§ 2. Lote^, DC. 
if 1. Genistese, DC. 
Hovea, R. Br. 
Poiretia, Sm. 
Physicarpus, Poir. 
Plagiolobium, Sweet. 
Lalage, Lindl. 
Platylobium, Sm. 

Cheilococca, Salisb. 
Platychilum, Delaun. 
Bossiaea, Vent. 
Westonia, Spreng. 

Goodia, Salisb. 
Scottia, R. Br. 

Scott ea, DC. 
Templetonia, R. Br. 
Rafnia, Thunb. 

Mdmannia, Thunb. 
Vascoa, DC. 
Borbonia, L. 
Acbyronia, Wendl. 
Liparia, L. 

Priestleya, DC. 

Hallia, Thunb. 
Heylandia, DC. 
Crotalaria, L. 

Chrysocalyx, G. et P 
LupinuSjL. (18) 
Pycnospora, R. Br. 
Xerocarpus, G. et P. 
Clavulium, Desv. 
Hypocalyptus, Thunb 
Wiborgia, Thunb. 

Viborgia, Spreng. 
Loddigesia, Sims. 
Dichilus, DC. 
Lebeckia, Thunb. 
Sarcophyllum, Thunb 

Aspalathus, L. 

Eriocalyx, Neck. 
Ulex, L., 

Stauracanthus, Link. 
Spartium, L. 

Spartianthus, L. 
Genista, Lam. 
Salzwedelia, Fl.Wet. 
Voglera, Fl.Wett. 
Cytisus, L. 

Caly cotome. Link. 
Viborgia, Moench. 
Adenocarpus, DC. 
Ononis, L. 

. Anonis, Tourn. 
Natrix, Mcench. 
Requienia, DC. 
Anthyllis, L. 

^ 2. Trifolieae, DC. 

. Medicago, L. 

Hymenocarpus, Savi. 
Diploprion, Viv. 
Trigonella, L. 

Buceras, Mcench. 
Falcatula, Brot. 
Pocockia, Ser. 


Melilotus, TournJuss. Bmsonia, Neck. Ortnocarpum, P. Br. Amphodus, Lindl. 
Trifolium, L. . Erebinthus, Mitch. Amicia, H. B. K. Rhynchosia, Lour. 

Paramems, Presl. Reineria, Moench. Poiretia, Vent. Acryphyllum, Lour. 

Amarenus, Presl. Amorpha, L. Turpinia, Pers. Glycine, Nutt. 

Amoria, Presl. Bonajidia, Neck. Myriadenus, Desv. Eriosema, DC. 

Micrantheum, Presl. Eysenhardtia, H.B.K. Geissaspis, W. et A. Fagelia, Neck. 
Galearia, Presl. Nissolia, Jacq. Zornia, Gmel. Wisteria, Nutt. 

Calycomorphum, Machatrium, Pers. Stylosanthes Sw. Thyrsanthus, Ell. 

Presl. Miillera, L. fil. Adesmia, DC. Kraunhia, Rafin. 

Mystullus, Presl. Lonchocarpus, H.B.K. Patagonium, Schrk. Apios, Moench. 
Dactyphyllum , Raf. Xiphocarpus, Presl. Heteroloma, Desv. Bradlea, Adans. 

Lupinaster, Moench. Robinia, L. 
Pentaphyllon, Pers. Pseudacacia, Tourn. 

Doiycnium, Tourn. 
Leobordea, Del. 
Bonjeania, Rchb. 
Lotus, L. 

Krokeria, Moench. 
Lotea, Medic. 
Tetragonolobus, Scop. 

Scandalida, Neck. 
Cyamopsis, DC. 
Hemispadon, Endl. 
Hosackia, Benth, 
Podolotus, Benth. 

^ 3. Clitorieae, DC. 
Psoralea, L. 
Dorycnium, Mnch. 
Ruteria, Mnch. 
Indigofera, L. 

Clitoria, L. 

Ternatea, Kunth. 
Vexillaria, Hffg. 
Neurocarpum, Desv. 
Martia, Leand. 

Martiusia, Schult. 
Cologania, H. B. K. 
Galactia, P. Browne. 
Shuteria, W. et A. 
Johnia, W. et A. 
Pitcheria, Nutt. 
Odonia, Bert. 
Vilmorinia, DC. 
Barbiera, DC. 

Grona, Lour. 

Collaea, DC. 

Atylosia, W. et A. 
Dunbaria, W. et A. 
Otoptera, DC. 

Pueraria, DC. 

Dumasia, DC. 

Glycine, L. 

Pseudarthria, W. et A. 
Polytropia, Presl. 
Chaetocalyx, DC. 

Poitaea, DC. 

Poitea, Vent. 

Sabinea, DC. 

Coursetia, DC. 

Herminiera, G. et P. 

Sesbania, Pers. 

Sesbana, P. Br. 

Agati, Rheede. 

Glottidium, Desv. 

Piscidia, L. 

Piscipula, Loefl. 

Ichthyomethia, P.Br. Hedysarum, L. 
Daubentonia, DC. Echinolobium, Desv. 
Corynella, DC. Rathkea, Thonn. 

Corynitis, Spreng. Onobrychis, Tourn. 
Caragana, Lam. Eleiotis, DC. 

Halimodendron,Fisch. Lespedeza, Michx. 
Halodendron, DC. Ebenus, L. 

-^schynomene, L. 
Smithia, Ait. 

Petagnana, Gmel. 
Lourea, Neck. 

Christia, Moench. 
Uraria, Desv. 

Doodia, Roxb. 
Nicolsonia, DC. 

Perottetia, DC. 
Desmodium, Desv. 
Dicerma, DC. 

Phyllodium, Desv. 
Taverniera, DC. 

Diphysa, Jacq. 
Calophaca, Fisch. 
Colutea, L. 
Sphaerophysa, DC. 
Swainsonia, Salisb. 
Lessertia, DC. 

Sulitra, Med. 
Sutherlandia, R. Br. 

Colutia, Moench. 
Streblorhiza, Endl. 
Clianthus, Sol. 

Donia, Don. 
CarmichaHia, R.Br. 
^ 5. Astragaleae, DC. 
Phaca, L. 

Oxytropis, DC. 
Astragalus, L. 
Giildenstadtia, Fisch. 
Biserrula, L. 

^ 6. Hedysareae, DC. 
Scorpiurus, L. 

Scorpius, Lois. 
Bonaveria, Scop. 
Coronilla, L. 
Bonninghausenia,Spx. Emerus, Tourn. 

^ 4. Galegeae, DC. Arthrolobium, Desv. 
Petalostemum, Michx. Astrolobium, DC. 

Phaseolus, L. 
Strophosiyles, Ell. 
Phasellus, Moench. 
Nomismia, W. et A. 
W. et A. 

Plectrotropis, Thonn. 
Diesingia, Endl. 
Cyrtotropis, Wall. 
Soja, Moench. 
Dolichos, L. 

Vigna, Savi. 

Lablab, Adans. 
Lablavia, Don. 
Dolichos, Gaertn. 
Pachyrrhizus, Rich. 

Cacara, Pet. Thou. 
Parochetus, Hamilt. 
Dioclea, H. B, K. 
Hymenospron, Sprng. 
Flemingia, Roxb. Psophocarpus, Neck. 
Ostryodium, Desv. Botor, Adans. 

Lourea et Moghania, Pillera, Endl. 

Jaume St. H. Camptoserna, H. et A. 
Alhagi, Tourn. Desv. Canavalia, DC. 

Manna, Don. Canavali, Adans. 

Alysicarpus, Neck. Malochia, Savi. 

Hallia, Jaume St. H. Toeniocarpum, Desv. 

Fabricia, Scop. 
Bremontiera, DC. 

% 7. Vicieae, DC. 

Cicer, L. 

Faba, DC. 

Vicia, L. 

Wiggersia, Fl.Wett. 

Mucuna, Adans. 
Hornera, Neck. 
Stizolobium, Pers. 
Negretia, R. et P. 
Citta, Lour. 
Labradia, Swed. 
Carpopogon, Roxb. 

Kuhnistera, Lam. 

Cylipogon, Rafin. 
Dalea, L. 

Parosella, Cav. 
Glycyrrhiza, L. 

Liquiritia, Moench. 
Galega, L. 

Tephrosia, Pers. 
Needhamia Scop. 

Ornithopus, L. 

Hippocrepis, L. 
Securigera, DC. 
Bonaveria, Scop. 
Securilla, Pers. 
Diphaca, Lour. 
Pictetia, DC. 

Ervum, L. 

Ervilia, Link. 
Pisum, L. 

Lathyrus, L. 

Cicerella, Moench. 
Orobus, L. 
Platystylis, Sweet. 
h. Phaseolese, DC. 
Callicysthus, Endl. 
Abrus, L. 

Sweetia, DC. 
Macranthus, Lour. 
Rothia, Pers. 

Calopogonium, Desv. 
Cruminium, Desv. 
Cajanus, DC. 

Cajan, Adans. 
Cylista, Ait. 
Erythrina, L. 

Mouricon, Adans. 
Rudolphia, Willd. 
Butea, Roxb. 

Plaso, Adans. 

8. Dalbergieae, DC. 
Derris, Lour. 

Teramnus, P. Brown. Millettia, W. et A. 
Amphicarpaea, DC. Pongamia, Lam. 

Amphicarpa, Ell. 
Savia, Rafin. 
Falcata, Gmel. 
Kennedya, Vent. 
Caulinia, Moench. 

Galedupa, Lam. 
Semeionotis, Schott. 
Dalbergia, L. 

Solori, Adans. 
Pterocarpus, L. 

Sommerfeldtia, Thon. Ecastaphyllum, P. Br. 
Moutouchia, Aubl. Amerimnum, P. Br. 
Griselina, Neck. Brya, P. Br. 
Aniphymenium , Aldina, Adans. 

H. B. K. Deguelia, Aubl. 

Drepanocarpus, Mey. Cylizoma, Neck. 

Crafordia, Rafin. 
Phyllolobium, Fisch. 
Sarcodum, Lour. 
Viborguia, Ort. 
Varenea, DC. 

Amphinomia, DC. 
Lacara, Spreng. 
Harpalyce, FI. Mex. 
Stegahotropis, Lehm. 

Tribe 2. Swartzie^, DC. 

Swai'tzia, Willd. 
Possira, Aub. 

^ 1. GeofFroyese, DC. 
Arachis, L. 

Voandzeia, Pet. Thou. 

Cryptolobus, Spreng. 
Peraltea, H. B. K. 
Brongniartia, H. B. K. 
Andira, Lam. 

Vouacapoua, Aubl. 
GeofFroya, Jacq. 
Acouroa, Aubl. 
Drakensteinia, Neck. 
Brownea, Jacq. 
Dipterix, Schreb. 
Baryosma, Gaertn. 
Coumarouna, Aubl. 
Heinzia, Scop. 
Taralea, Aubl. 
Bolducia, Neck. 

^ 2. Caesalpinese 

legitimae, DC. 
Gleditschia, L. 
Gymnocladus, Lam. 
Anoma, Lour. 
Guilandina, L. 
Coulteria, H. B. K. 

Tara, Molin. 
Gourliea, H. et A. 
Caesalpinia, L. 
Campecia, Adans. 
Ticanto, Adans. 

Rittera, Schreb. 
Hcplzelia, Neck. 

Tounatea, Aubl. 

Baphia, AFzel. 
Zollernia, Mart. 

Tribe 3. C^salpinie^, DC. 

Poinciana, L. 

Poincia, Neck. 
Mezoneurum, Desf. 
Pterolobium, R. Br. 
Reichardia, Roth. 
Hoffmanseggia, Cav. 
Melanosticta, DC. 
Pomaria, Cav. 
Haematoxylon, L. 
Parkinsonia, L. 

Cadia, Forsk. 
Spcendoncea, Desf. 
Panciatica, Picciav. 
Zuccagnia, Cav. 
Ceratonia, L. 
Hardwickia, Roxb. 
Jonesia, Roxb. 

Saraca, L. 
Tachigalia, Aubl. 
Cubcpa, Schreb. 
Valentynia, Neck. 
Tachia, Pers. 
Baryxylum, Lour. 
Moldenhauera, Schr. 

Dolichonema, Neow. 
Colvillea, Bojer. 
Humboldtia, Vahl. 

Batschia, Vahl. 
Amherstia, Wall. 

Tamarindus, L. 

Cassia, L. 


Bactyrilobium, Wild. 
Senna, Tourn. 
Grinialdia, Schrank. 
Exostyles, Schott. 
Pdppigia, Presl. 
Apoplanesia, Presl. 
Labichea, Gaudich. 
Metrocynia, Pet. Thou. 
Afzelia, Sm. 

Pancovia, Willd. 
Schotia, Jacq. 
Cynometra, L. 

Intsia, Pet. Thou. 
Eperua, Aubl. 
Rotmannia, Neck. 
Panzera, Willd. 
Parivoa, Aub. 

Adleria, Neck. 
Dimorpha, Willd. 
Anthonota, Pal.Beauv. 
Outea, Aubl. 

Vouapa, Aubl. 
Macrolobium , Schrb. 
Kruegeria, Neck. 
Valcarcelia, Lga. 
Hymeneea, L. 

Schnella, Raddi. 
Bauhinia, L. 

Casparia, Kunth. 
Pauletia, Cav. 
Phanera, Lour. 
Cercis, L. 

Siliquastrum, Tourn. 
Palovea, Aubl. 

Ginannia, Scop. 
Aloexylon, Lour. 

Am aria, Mutis. 
Bowdichia, H. B. K. 
Crudia, Willd. 

Cyclas, Schreb. 
Apalatoa, Aubl. 
Touchiroa, Aubl. 
Vouarana, Aubl. 
Partvocp, sp. Aubl. 



Dialium, L. 

Aruna, Aubl. 
Cleyria, Neck. 
Codarium, Soland. 
Vatairea, Aubl. 

Tribe 4. Mimose^, DC. 

Entada, Adans. Amosa, Neck. 

Gigalobium, P. Br. Schrankia, Willd. 
Mimosa, L. Darlingtonia, DC. 

Gagnebina, Neck. Desmanthus, Willd. 

Parkia, R. Br. Neptunia, Lour. 

Erythrophleum, R.Br. Caillea, G. et P. 

Inga, Plum. Willd. Dichrostachys, W. et 


Fillaea, G. et P. Vachellia, W. et A. 

Adenanthera, L. 

PrOSOpis, L. § DETARIEiE, DC. 

Dimorphandra,Schott. Detarium, Juss. 
Lagonychium,M.Bieb. Cordyla, Lour. 
Acacia, Neck. Cordylia, Pers. 

Calycandra, Lepr. 


Terebintace.®, Juss. Gen. 368. (1789) in part. — Connarace^, R. Brown in Congo, 431. 
(1818); Kunth in Ann. Sc, Nat. 2. 359. (1824). — Terebintace^, trib. 1.DC. 
Prodr. 2. 84. (1825). 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual. Calyx 5-parted, 


regular, persistent ; (estivation either imbricate or valvular. Petals 5, inserted on the calyx, 
imbricated, rarely valvate in aestivation. Stamens twice the number of petals, hypogynous, 
those opposite the petals shorter than the others ; filaments usually monadelphous. Ovary 
solitary and simple, or several, each with a separate style and stigma ; ovules 2, collateral, 
ascending; styles terminal; stigmas usually dilated. Fruit dehiscent, single, or several 
together, splitting lengthwise internally. Seeds erect, in pairs or solitary, with or without 
albumen, often with an aril ; radicle superior, at the extremity opposite the hilum ; coty- 
ledons thick in the species without albumen, foliaceous in those with albumen. — Trees or 
shrubs. Leaves compound, not dotted, alternate, without stipules. Flowers terminal and 
axillary, in racemes or panicles, with bracts. 

Affinities. Connarus can only be distinguished from Leguminosse by 
the relation the parts of its embr}'o have to the umbilicus of the seed {Brown 
in Congo, 432.) ; that is to say, by the radicle being at the extremity most 
remote from the hilum. This observation must, however, be understood to 
refer only to some particular cases in Leguminosae, and also to the fructifica- 
tion ; the want of stipules and regular flowers being usually sufficient to dis- 
tinguish Connaracese. From Anacardiaceae and other similar orders this is at 
once known by the total want of resinous juice. Brown considers that Cnes- 
tis approaches Averrhoa in Oxalidaceae, and this genus, according to Adrien 
de Jussieu, is allied to Xanthoxylaceae through Brunellia. 

Geography. All found in the tropics of Asia, Africa, and America, 

Properties. Unknown. 


Connarus, L. Omphalobium, Gaertn. 

Rourea, Aubl. Cnestis, Juss. 

Rohergia, Schreb. ?Tetradium, Lour. 

Malbrancia, Neck. 


The Cocoa-Plum Tribe., R. Brown, in Tuckey's Voyage to the Congo, App. (1818) ; DC. Prodr. 

2. 525. a§ o/Rosaceae (1825) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. p. 405. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-lobed, sometimes bracteolate at the base. Petals 
more or less irregular, either 5 or none. Stamens either definite or indefinite, usually irre- 
gular either in size or position. Ovary superior, solitary, 1- or 2-celled, cohering more or 
less on one side with the calyx ; ovules twin, erect ; style single, arising from the base ; 
stigma simple. Fruit a drupe of 1 or 2 cells. Seed usually solitary, erect. Embryo with 
fleshy cotyledons, and no albumen. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, 
with no glands, and veins that run parallel with each other from the midrib to the margin. 
Flowers in racemes, or panicles, or corymbs. 

Anomalies. Hirtella has fleshy albumen and leafy cotyledons, according to Gaertner ; 
and one species of the same genus is described as apetalous. Prinsepia has a semipetaloid 
irregular calyx and no petals. 

Affinities. The obvious affinity of this order is with Amygdaleae, from 
which it differs in having irregular stamens and petals, and a style proceeding 
from the base of the ovary. With Rosacese proper, to which Chrysobalanacese 
have a strict relation, they agree in the same manner as Amygdaleee, except- 
ing the characters just pointed out. To Leguminosae with drupaceous fruit, 
they approach closely in the irregularity of their stamens and corolla, and es- 
pecially in the cohesion which takes place between the stalk of the ovary and 
the sides of the calyx ; a character found, as De Candolle well remarks, in 
Jonesia and Bauhinia, undoubted leguminous plants : Chrysobalanaceae are dis- 


tinguished from this latter order by the position of their style and ovules and 
by the relation which is borne to the axis of inflorescence by the odd lobe of 
the calyx being the same as found in Rosacese. Brown remarks {Congo, 434), 
that the greater part of the order has the flowers more or less irregular, and 
that the simple ovary of Parinarium has a dissepiment in some degree analo- 
gous to the movable dissepiment of Banksia and Dryandra ; but we now know, 
from the more recent observations of this learned botanist upon the ovule, 
that this dissepiment arises differently. The analogy of structure, as to the 
dissepiment of Parinarium, is to be sought in Amelanchier. 

Geography. Principally found in the tropical regions of Africa and 
America ; none are recorded as natives of Asia ; but there is reason to believe, 
from specimens of large trees seen in the forests of India, without flowers or 
fruit, by Wallich, that one or two species of Parinarium are indigenous in equi- 
noctial Asia ; and Royle’s genus Prinsepia, founded upon a spiny plant from 
Nipal, is apparently referable to this order. One species of Chrysobalanus is 
found as far to the north as the pine-barrens of Georgia in North America ; 
a climate, however, as in all the regions bounding the Gulf of Mexico on the 
north, much more heated than that of most other countries in the same parallel 
of latitude. 

Properties. No medicinal properties have been ascribed to Chrysobala- 
naceae. The fruit of Chrysobalanus Icaco is eaten in the West Indies, under the 
name of cocoa plum ; another is brought to market in Sierra Leone (C. luteus) ; 
and the Rough- skinned, or Gray plum of the same colony is the produce of 
Parinarium excelsum. The kernel of Parinarium campestre and montanum is 
said by Aublet to be sweet and good to eat. The seeds of Prinsepia utilis 
yield by expression a useful oil. Royle , , 

Chrysobalanus, L. 
Moquilea, Aubl. 
Couepia, Aubl. 
Acioa, Aubl. 

Ada, Willd. 
Dulada,. Neck. 


Parinarium, Juss. Licania, Aubl. Stylobasium, Desf. 

Parinari, Aubl. Hedycrea, Schreb. Prinsepia, Royle. 

Dugortia, Neck. Thelyra, Pet. Thou. Cycnia, Lindl. 
Petrocarya, Schreb. Hirtella, L. 

Grangeria, Commers. Causea, Scop. 

Cosmihuena, R. et P. 


The Carolina Allspice Tribe. 

Calyc ANTHER, Liudl. inBot. Reg.fol. 404. (1819) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 1. (1828). — 
Calycanthin^, Link.Enum. 2. 66. (1822). 

Essential Character. — Sepals and petals confounded, indefinite, imbricated, com- 
bined in a fleshy tube. Stamens indefinite, inserted in a fleshy rim at the mouth of the tube, 
the inner sterile. Anthers adnate, turned outwards. Ovaries several, simple, 1 -celled with 
one terminal style, adhering to the inside of the tube of the calyx ; ovules solitary, or 
sometimes 2, of which one is abortive, ascending. Nuts enclosed in the fleshy tube of the 
calyx, 1 -seeded, indehiscent. Seed ascending; albumen none; cotyledons convolute, with 
their face next the axis ; radicle inferior. — Shrubs, with square stems, having 4 woody 
imperfect axes, surrounding the central ordinary one. Leaves opposite, simple, scabrous, 
without stipules. Flowers axillary, solitary. 

Affinities. Jussieu originally placed this order at theendof Rosacese {Gen .) ; 
he subsequently referred it to Monimiaceae ; and I afterwards formed it into a 
particular family. With Monimiaceae it is less nearly related than it appears 
to be, the principal points of resemblance being the disposition of several nuts 


within a fleshy calyx in both orders ; for Calycanthacese can scarcely be con- 
sidered apetalous, as Monimiacese are, on account of the obvious petals of 
Chimonanthus. The imbricated sepals, in Calycanthus chocolate -coloured and 
becoming confounded with the petals, the fragrance of the flowers, and the 
plurality of ovaries, seem to indicate an afiinity with Wintercae, especially with 
Illicium ; but the decidedly perigynous stamens and fleshy calyx enclosing the 
ovaries in its tube, the highly developed embryo, and want of albumen, are 
great objections to such an approximation. Combretaceae agree in having an 
exalbuminous embryo with convolute cotyledons ; but with this their resem- 
blance ceases. Myrtaceae also agree in this same particular, in the case of 
Punica ; and their opposite leaves, without stipules, frequent fragrance, and 
perigynous stamens, strengthen the affinity indicated by the embryo. Rosa- 
ceae, to which Jussieu originally referred Calycanthus, agree in the perigynous 
insertion of their stamens, in the peculiar structure of their calyx, the tube of 
which in Rosa is entirely analogous to that of Calycanthaceae, in the superpo- 
sition of their ovules when two are present, and in the high developement 
of their exalbuminous embryo ; upon the whole, therefore, no order appears 
to have so much affinity with Calycanthaceae as Rosaceae ; and the sagacity 
of Jussieu, in originally referring Calycanthus to that order, is completely 
confirmed by the discovery recently made by Lowe, that the cotyledons of 
Chamaemeles, a genus of Rosaceae, ' are convolute. This, I think, fixes the 
station of Calycanthaceae in the neighbourhood of Rosaceae, from which the 
order is distinguished by its imbricated sepals, and its anthers, partly fertile 
and partly sterile, being turned outwards. This order is also characterised by 
the singular structure of the wood, a peculiarity originally remarked by Mirbel 
in one species, and which I have since ascertained to exist in all. In the 
stems of these plants there is the usual deposit of concentric circles of wood 
around the pith, and, in addition, four very imperfect centres of deposition on 
the outside next the bark ; a most singular structure, which may be called, 
without much inaccuracy, an instance of exogenous and endogenous growth 
combined in the same individual. A good figure of this interesting fact has 
been given by Mirbel in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles, vol. 14. p. 367. 
It must be also added that the woody tissue of this order exhibits disks ex- 
tremely like those of Coniferse. 

Geography. Natives of North America and Japan. 

Properties. The aromatic fragrance of the flowers is their only known 
quality. , 


Calycanthus, L. Chimonanthus, Lindl. 

' Buttneria, Duham. Meratia, Nees. 

Beureria, Ehret, 

Basteria, Adans. 

Alliance II. SAXALES. 

Essential Character. — Carpels two, united at the base, diverging at the apex; many 
seeded. Embryo in the midst of albumen. 

The divarication of the carpels is so singular as to form a positive mark of 
distinction between this alliance and the last, from which it is further distin- 
guished by the albuminous seeds. Unless attention is paid to these circum- 
stances, either separately or combined, it may be confounded with the last al- 



A section of Cunon\^.ce^e, R. Brown in Flinders, 548. (1814) ; DC. Prodr. 4, 13. a § of Saxi- 
fragaceae. (1830). — BAUERACEiE, Ed. Pr. No. 40. (1830) ; Martins Conspect. No. 
226. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 8, foliaceous, inferior. Petals the same number, 
alternate with them, arising from the base of the calyx. Stamens indefinite, obscurely peri- 
gynous ; anthers oblong, bursting by two pores at the apex. Carpels 2, a little inferior, 
coherent, each 1 -celled, with numerous ovules attached to a common central axis; style 
one, filiform, to each carpel. Fruit capsular, opening at the apex. Seeds indefinite, 
attached to a central placenta ; embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen, with a long taper 
radicle, pointing to the hilum. — Shrubs. Leaves toothed, ternate, opposite, without sti- 
pules. Flowers solitary, axillary. 

Affinities. I distinguish this small order both from Saxifragacese and 
Cunoniacese by its indefinite stamens, anthers dehiscing by pores, and by its 
peculiar habit. It has always been considered an anomaly, with whichsoever 
of those two orders it has been combined, and is now conveniently separated 
from them. The origin of the petals and stamens appears at first sight to be 
hypogynous. But if a flower be carefully cut through vertically, it will be 
found that the ovary coheres slightly with the calyx, and that the petals and 
stamens take their origin from above the point of cohesion. They are conse- 
quently perigynous, and not hypogynous. Don considers the lateral leaves of 
Bauera as modified stipules, analogous to the true stipules of Caldcluvia, a 
genus of Cunoniaceae. {Jamieson s Journal, June 1830.) 

Geography. Natives of New Holland. 

Properties. None that are known, except beauty. 


Bauera, Andr. 


Cunoniacea;, R. Br. in Flinders, 548. (1814) ; Ed. Prior. No. 39. (1830) ; Don in Edinb. 
New Phil. Journ. June 1830, in part -, Martins Conspectus, No. 223. (1835). — Saxi- 
FRAGACEiE, § Cunouiese, DC. Prodr. 4. 7. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4 or 5 cleft, half superior or nearly inferior. Petals 
4 or 5, occasionally wanting. Stamens perigynous, . definite, 8-10. Ovary 2-celled; the 
cells having 2 or many seeds ; styles 2, sometimes combined. Fruit 2-celled, capsular or 
indehiscent, with two bracts. Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen. — Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves opposite, compound or simple, usually with interpetiolar stipules. 

Anomalies. Petals sometimes wanting. Stamens indefinite in Belangera. 

Affinities. More readily distinguished from Saxifragacese by their 
widely different habit than by any very important characters in the fructifica- 
tion. Brown in Flinders, 548. The shrubby habit and remarkable interpe- 
tiolar stipules are their principal character. Don supposes them strictly allied 
to Philadelphacese. Baueracese are known by their indefinite stamens, porous 
anthers, and want of stipules. Geissois referred hither by Don, differs in many 
essential points. It is more like a polyspermous Acer. 

Geography. Natives of the Cape, South America, and the East In- 

Properties. A Weinmannia is used in Peru for tanning leather, and its 



astringent bark is employed to adulterate the Peruvian bark. The Indian 
Weinmannias appear to possess similar astringent qualities. DC. 


Callicoma, R. Br. 
Calycomis, R. Br. 
Ceratopetalum, Sm. 
Cunonia, L. 
Osterdykia, Burm. 

Weinmannia, L. 
Pterophylla, Don. 
Schizomeria, Don. 
Leiospermum, Don. 

Belangera, Camb. 

Polystemon, Don 
Caldcluvia, Don. 
Platylophus, Don. 

Dietericia, Ser. 
Arnoldia, Bl. 
Codia, Forst. 

? GiimiUsea, R. P. 

Order CXVI. SAXIFRAGACEiE. The Saxifrage Tribe. 

SAXIFRAG.E, Juss. Geu. 308. (1789) ; Vent. Tabl. 2. 277. (1799). — Saxifrages, DC. and 

Duby, 201. (1828); Lindl. Synops. 66. (1829).— Saxifragaces, DC. Prod. 4. 1. 


Essential Character. — Calyx either superior or inferior, of 4 or 5 sepals, which 
cohere more or less at their base. Petals 5, or none, inserted between the lobes of the 
calyx. Stamens 5-10, inserted either into the calyx (perigynous), or beneath the ovary 
(hypogynous) ; anthers 3-celled, bursting longitudinally. Disk either hypogynous or 
perigynous, sometimes nearly obsolete, sometimes annular and notched, rarely consisting 
of 5 scales. Ovary inferior, or nearly superior, usually consisting of 2 carpels, cohering 
more or less by their face, but distinct and diverging at the apex ; sometimes 2-celled with 
a central placenta; sometimes 1 -celled with parietal placentae. Styles none. Stigmas 
sessile on the tips of the lobes of the ovary. Fruit generally a membranous 1- or 2-celled 
capsule with the cells divaricating when ripe. Seeds numerous, very minute ; usually with 
long hexagonal reticulations on the side of a transparent testa. Embryo taper, in the axis 
of fleshy albumen, with the radicle next the hilum. — Herbaceous plants, often growing in 
patches. Leaves simple, either divided or entire, alternate, without stipules. Flower-stems 
simple, often naked. 

Anomalies. Parnassia has 4 parietal placentae opposite the lobes of the stigma. 
Petals sometimes absent. In Heuchera the flowers are irregular, and there are stipules. 

Affinities. Most nearly allied to Rosacese, with tbe herbaceous part of 
which this order agrees in habit, and from which it differs in the polyspermous, 
didymous, partially concrete carpels, albuminous seeds, and want of stipules. 
From Cunoniaceae it is divided rather by the habit, and by the want of stipules, 
than by any thing very positive in the fructification ; the principal characteristic 
featm'e of which consists in the more perfect concretion of the carpels. Baue- 
racese are known by their habit, indefinite stamens, and pecuhar dehiscence of 
the anthers. To Alsinacese their habit allies them ; but they differ in the in- 
sertion of the stamens, placentation, situation of the embryo, and otherwise. 
Portulacacese, which may be compared with this order, particularly on account 
of the situation of the stamens, want of stipules, and albuminous seeds, differ 
essentially in the structure of the embiyo, in the w'ant of symmetry in the 
parts of the flower, and in placentation. Grossulacese, however different they 
are in habit, agree very much in the general structure of the flower ; they dif- 
fer in the ovary being completely concrete and inferior, with two parietal pla- 
centae, in the seeds being attached to long umbilical cords, in the albumen 
being corneous, and the embiyo extremely minute. De Candolle further re- 
marks that the order approaches Crassulaceae, differing in having a smaller 
number of carpels vdiich are partially united both with each other and the 
calyx, and in being destitute of glands at the base of the carpels ; he also com- 
pares it with Viburneee, in consequence of the likeness of Hydrangea to that 
sub-order, &c. &c. See Prodr. 4. 2. Chrysosplenium is remarkable for the 
want of petals ; and Parnassia, which I think, upon the whole, is a genuine 


genus of this order, exhibits the singular anomaly of placentae being opposite 
the lobes of the stigma, an unilocular ovary, the shell of which consists of two 
distinct plates connected by an interv'ening loose substance, and a peculiar de- 
velopement of an hypogynous disk, which assumes the form of 5 fringed scales, 
alternate wdth the stamens, and of a highly curious structure. Drummondia 
has the stamens equal in number to the petals and opposite them, thus in- 
dicating some analogy with the monopetalous Primulacese. 

Geography. Little elegant herbaceous plants, usually w*ith white flowers, 
csespitose leaves, and glandular stems : some of the species have yellow 
flowers, others have red, but none blue. They are natives of mountainous 
tracts in Europe and the northern parts of the world, frequently forming the 
chief beauty of that rich turf which is found near the snow in high Alpine 
stations. Some grow on rocks and old walls, and in hedge-rows, or near ri- 
vulets, or in groves. 

Properties. According to De Candolle, the whole order is more or less 
astringent. The root of Heuchera americana is a powerful astringent, whence 
it is called in North America Alum root. Barton. 2. 162. Otherwise the 
species possess no known properties ; for the old idea of their being li- 
thontriptic appears to have been derived from their name rather than their 


§ 1. Hydrangea, DC. 
Hydrangea, L. 
Hortensia, Juss. 
Primula, Lour. 
Comidia, R. et P. 

Sar costyles, Presl. 
Cianitis, Reinw. 
Adamia, Wall. 
Broussaisia, Gaudch. 

§ 2. Saxifrages, DC. 
Saxifraga, L. 
Porphynon, Tausch. 
Antiphyllum, Haw. 
Calliphyllum, Gaud. 
Dactyloides, Tausch. 
Muscaria, Haw. 

Micranthes, Tausch. 
Dermasea, Haw. 
Arahidia, Tausch. 
Spatularia, Haw. 

Cotylea, Haw. 
Boykinia, Nutt. 
Leiogyne, Don. 
Aizoonia, Tausch. 
Chondrosea, Haw. 
Cotyledon, Gaud. 

Porophyllum, Gaud. 

Bergenia, Monch. 
Geryonia, Schr. 
Megasea, Haw. 
Eropheron, Tausch. 
Robertsonia, Haw. 
Hydatica, Tausch. 
Diptera, Borkhs. 
Aulaxis, Haw. 
Hirculus, Tausch. 

Kingstonia, Gray. 
Leptarrhena, R. Br. 
Chrysosplenium, L. 

H. et A. 
Mitella, Toum. 
Tellima, R. Br. 

Lithophragma, Nutt. 
Drummondia, DC. 
Tiarella, L. 

Astilbe, Hamilt. 
Heuchera, L. 

Donatia, Forst. 

Vahlia, Thunb. 

Bistella, Caill. 
Oresitrophe, Bge. 
Hoteia, Morr. 
Oreanthus, Raf. 
Zahlbruckneria, Rchb . 
Pamassia, L. 


Essential Character. — Carpels several, quite distinct, continuous with the styles, which 
are little more than the tapering ends of the ovaries. Seeds wery numerous with albumen. 

These characters and the succulent habit are so distinctive, that nothing 
further need be said concerning the aUiance. 

Order CXVII. CRASSULACE^E. The House-leek Tribe. 

Sempervivs, Juss. Gen. 207. (1789). — Succulents, Vent. Tabl. 3.271. (1799). — Cras- 
suLS, Juss. Diet, des Sc. Nat. 11. 369. (1818). — Crassulaces, DC. Bull. Philom. 
n. 49. p. 1. (1801) ; FI. Fr. ed. 3. v. 4. p. 271. (1805) ; Memoire (1828) ; Prodr. 
3. 381. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 63. (1829). — Sedes, Spreng. 

Essential Character — Sepals from 3 to 20, more or less united at the base. Petals 
inserted in the bottom of the calyx, either distinct or cohering in a monopetalous corolla. 


Stamens inserted with the petals, either equal to them in number and alternate with them, 
or twice as many, those opposite the petals being shortest, and arriving at perfection after 
the others ; filaments distinct, subulate ; anthers of 2 cells, bursting lengthwise. Hypogy- 
nous scales several, 1 at the base of each carpel, sometimes obsolete. Ovaries of the same 
number as the petals, opposite to which they are placed around an imaginary axis, 1 -celled, 
tapering into stigmas. Fruit consisting of several follicles, opening by the suture in their 
face. Seeds attached to the margins of the suture, variable in number ; embryo straight in 
the axis of the albumen, with the radicle pointing to the hilum. — Succulent herbs or shrubs. 
Leaves entire or pinnatifid ; stipules none. Flowers \isually in cymes, sessile, often arranged 
unilaterally along the divisions of the cymes. 

Anomalies. Penthorum is not succulent. This genus and Diamorpha have the ovaries 
concrete. Some are monopetalous, particularly the genus Cotyledon, Petals and stamens 
often almost hj’pogynous. Tillaea has definite ovules. 

Affinities. These are all remarkable for the succulent nature of their 
stems and leaves, in which they resemble Cactacese, Portulacacese, and certain 
genera of Euphorbiacese, Asclepiadacese, and Asphodelacese ; but this analogy 
goes no further. Their real affinity is probably with Saxifragaceae through 
Penthorum, and with lUecebraceae through Tillaea, as De Candolle has re- 
marked. In both those orders the h\^ogynous scales of Crassulaceae are want- 
ing. Are not these bodies analogous to the scales out of which the stamens 
of Zygophyllaceae spring ? If so, an unsuspected affinity exists betw^een these 
orders. De Candolle observes (Memoire, p. 5.) that there is no instance of 
a double flower in the order, although this might have been expected from 
their analogy in structure with Alsinaceae. Sempervhuim tectorum exhibits 
almost constantly the singular phenomenon of anthers bearing o\uiles instead 
of pollen. 

Geography. It appears, from De Candolle’s researches, that of the 272 
species of which the order consists, 133 are found at the Cape of Good Hope, 
2 in South America beyond the tropics, 2 in the same country vdthin the 
tropics, none in the West Indies or the Mauritian Islands, 8 in Mexico, 7 in 
the United States, 12 in Siberia, 18 in the Levant, 52 in Eiu'ope, 18 in the 
Canaries, 1 in southern Africa beyond the limits of the Cape, 9 in Barbary, 3 
in the East Indies, 4 in China and Japan, and 2 in New Holland. To these 
are to be added several species from the Himalayas. They are found in the 
driest situations, where not a blade of grass nor a particle of moss can grow, 
on naked rocks, old walls, sandy hot plains, alternately exposed to the hea- 
viest dews of night and the fiercest rays of the noon-day sun. Soil is to them 
a something to keep them stationary, rather than a source of nutriment, which 
in these plants is conveyed by myriads of mouths, invisible to the naked eye, 
but covering all their surface, to the juicy beds of cellular tissue which lie be- 
neath them. 

Properties. Refrigerant and abstergent properties, mixed sometimes 
with a good deal of acridity, distinguish them. The fishermen of Madeira 
rub their nets with the fresh leaves of the Ensido or Sempervivum glutinosum, 
by which the nets are rendered as durable as if tanned, provided they are steeped 
in some alkaline liquor. Malic acid exists in Sempervivum tectorum com- 
bined with lime. Turner, 634. Kalanchoe Brasihensis appears to form an 
exception to the general acrid and stimulating properties of the order. The 
BrazLhans use it as a refrigerant. Aug. de St. H. FI. Bras. 2. 197. 


Tillcea, L. Crassula, L. 

Rulliarda, DC. Gomara, Adans. 

Dasystemon, DC. Turgosea, Haw. 

Septas, L. Globulea, Haw. 

Rochea, DC. 
Larochea, Pers. 
Kalosanthes, Haw. 
Dietrichia, Tratt. 

Curtogyne, Haw. 
Grammanthes, DC. 
Vauanthes, Haw. 


Kalanchoe, Adans. Cotyledon, L. 

Calanchot, Pers. Pistorinia, DC. 

Vereia, Andr. Umbilicus, DC. 

Verea, Willd. Echeveria, DC. 

Bryophyllum, Salisb. 

Physocalycium, V est. 

Sedum, L. Diamorpha, Nutt. 

Rhodiola, L. Tetraplascium, Kze. 

AnacampseroSyAdzins. Penthorum, L. 
Sempervivum, L. Kolleria, Presl. 

Monanthes, Haw. 


Essential Character. — Carpels not two polyspermous and diverging at the apex ; 
nor numerous, with a scale at the base of each ; but solitary, or few in number. Leaves 
and bark abounding in balsamic juice. 

This comprehends the principal point of the Terebintacese of Jussieu. It 
joins Gynobaseosse by Rutales, and Syncarposse by Rhamnales. 


Terebintace.®, Juss. Gen. 368. (1789) in part. — Amyride^, R. Brown in Congo, 431. 

(1818) ; Kunth in Ann. Sc. Nat. 2. 353. (1824). — ^TerebintacejE, trib. 5. DC. 

Prodr. 2. 81. (1825). 

Essential Character. — Calyx small, regular, persistent, in 4-5 divisions. Petals 4-5, 
with imbricated aestivation, or none. Stamens double the number of the petals, hypogynous. 
Ovary superior, 1 -celled, seated on a thickened disk; stigma capitate; ovules 2-6, pendu- 
lous. Fruit indehiscent, sub- drupaceous, or samaroid, or leguminous, 1-2-seeded, glandu- 
lar. Seed without albumen ; cotyledons fleshy ; radicle superior, very short. — Trees or 
shrubs, abounding in resin. Leaves compound, with pellucid dots. Inflorescence axillary 
and terminal, panicled. Pericarp covered with granular glands, filled with an aromatic 

Affinities. The general structure of this order is that of Anacardiaceae, 
but in qualities it more nearly resembles Burseraceae. Kunth suggests its re- 
lation to Aurantiaceae, to which its dotted leaves, capitate stigmas, and peri- 
carps filled with reservoirs of oil, appear to approximate it. Myrospermum 
agrees with Samydaceae in the remarkable glandular marking of the leaves, in 
which the pellucid spaces are both round and linear, a very singular and un- 
common character, first pointed out by Brown. Congo, 444. 

Geography. Natives exclusively of the tropics of India and America, 
with the exception of one species found in Florida. 

Properties. Fragrant resinous shrubs. The Gum Elemi Tree of Nevis 
is, according to Dr. Hamilton, a plant related to the genus Amyris, which he 
calls A. ? hexandra. Prodr. FI. Ind. 35. The gum-resin, called Bdellium, is 
probably produced by a species of Amyris; the Niouttout of Adanson, accord- 
ing to Virey, Hist. Nat. des Med. 291 ; the Amyris Commiphora Roxb. 
according to Royle. Illustr. 176. The layers of the liber of a species of 
Amyris were found by Cailliaud to be used by the Nubian Mahometans as 
paper, on which they write their legends. Delile Cent.l^. Amyris toxifera 
is said to be poisonous. DC. Resin of Coumia is produced by A. ambrosiaca. 
Ibid. All the species of the genus Copaifera, and 16 are known, yield the 
Balsam of Copaiva ; but it is not in aU of them of equal quality. C. multijuga 
is said by Von Martius to afibrd the greatest abundance. Hayne in Linncea, 
1826. 418. The Balsam is known in Venezuela under the name of Tacama- 
haca. DC. Prodr. 2. 508. Myrospermum peruiferum, the Quinquino of 
Peru, produces a fragrant resin, in much use both for burning as a peiTume, 


and for medicinal purposes, called the Balsam of Tolu. Lambert's Illustra- 
tion, 95. Both it and the Balsam of Peru are also yielded, according to Ach. 
Richard, by M. toluiferum. Ann. des Sc. 2. 172. 


Amyris, L. Sabia, Colebr. Myrospermum, Jacq. Copaifera, L. 

Elemifera, 'Plum. ? Tapiria, Juss. ^ Toluifem, h. Copaiva, Jdicq. 

? Spathelia, L. Salaherria, Necker. Myroxylon, Mart. 

Joncquetia, Schreb. 

Order CXIX. ANACARDIACEiE. The Cashew Tribe. 

Terebintace^, Gen. 368. (1789) in part. — Cassuvie^ or Anacardie^, Brown in 
Congo, 431. (1818); Bartl. Ord. Nat. p. 395. (1830). — ace je, Kunth in 
Ann. des Sc. Nat. 2. 333. (1824). Trib. 1 and 2. DC. Prodr. 2. 62. (1825) ; 

Juss. Diet, des Sc. Nat. v. 53. (1828) ; Amott in Encycl. Britt, p. 106. (1832). 

Essential Character. — Flowers usually unisexual. Calyx usually small and per- 
sistent, with 5, or occasionally 3-4, or 7 divisions. Petals equal in number to the seg- 
ments of the calyx, perigynous, (occasionally wanting,) imbricated in aestivation. Stamens 
equal in number to the petals and alternate with them, or twice as many or even more, 
equal or alternately shorter, or partly sterile ; filaments distinct, or in the genera without 
a disk cohering at the base. Disk fleshy, annular or cup-shaped, hypogynous, occeisionally 
wanting. Ovary single, ver>" rarely 5 or 6, of which 4 or 5 are abortive, superior, (very 
rarely inferior), 1 -celled; styles 1 or 3, occasionally 4, sometimes none ; stigmas as many; 
ovule solitary, attached by a cord to the bottom of the cell. Fruit indehiscent, most com- 
monly drupaceous. Seed without albumen ; radicle either superior or inferior, but always 
directed towards the hilum, sometimes curved suddenly back ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, 
or leafy. — Trees or shrubs, with a resinous, gummy, caustic, or even milky juice. Leaves 
alternate, simple, or ternate or unequally pinnate, without pellucid dots. Flowers terminal 
or axillary, with bracts. 

Anomalies. Holigarna has an inferior ovary. The stamens of Melanorhsea are inde- 
finite and hypogjmous. 

Affinities. The order called Terebintacese by Jussieu and many other 
botanists has been broken up into several by Brown and Kunth, but preseiwed 
entire by De Candolle, who does not, however, appear to have devoted parti- 
cular attention to the subject, by Amott and others. I foUow the former bota- 
nists, abandoning altogether the name Terebintacese, which is about equally 
applicable to either Anacardiacese, Burseracese, Connai'acese, Spondiacese, or 
Amyridacese, the five orders which have been formed at its expense. All 
these are nearly related to each other, and whatever affinity is borne by one 
of them will be participated in by them aU in a greater or less degree. They are 
distinguished from Rhamnacese by their resinous juice, superior ovary, imbri- 
cated calyx, and stamens not opposite the petals ; from Celastracese by several 
of the same characters, and want of albumen ; from Rosacese and Legumi- 
nosse by their definite stamens, dotted leaves, very minute stipules if any, re- 
sinous juice, solitary ovules, or by some one or other of these characters. To 
Rutacese they approach, and ^so to Xanthoxylaceae, from which some of them 
differ in their perigynous stamens. • Melanorhaea is remarkable for its indefi- 
nite stamens, and especially for its hypogynous petals becoming enlarged, fo- 
liaceous, and deep red as the fruit advances to maturity. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of tropical America, Africa, and India ; a 
few are found beyond the tropics, both to the north and south. Pistacias and 
some species of Rhus inhabit the south of Europe ; many of the latter genus 
occupy stations in North America and Northern India, and also at the Cape 


of Good Hope ; Duvaua and Schinus inhabit exclusively Chile and the adja- 
cent districts. 

Properties. Large trees, with inconspicuous flowers, abounding in a re- 
sinous, sometimes acrid, highly poisonous juice, are the ordinary representa- 
tives of this order, to which belong the Cashew Nut, the Pistacia Nut, and 
the Mango fruit. Some trees are celebrated for yielding a clammy juice, 
which afterwards turns black, and is used for varnishing in India. One kind 
is from the common Cashew nut. The varnish of Sylhet is chiefly procured 
from Semecarpus anacardium, the marking nut-tree of commerce ; and the 
varnish of Martaban from the theet-see or Kheu, a plant called by Wallich 
Melanorhaea usitatissima. All these varnishes are extremely dangerous to 
some constitutions ; the skin, if rubbed with them, inflames and becomes co- 
vered with pimples that are difficult to heal ; the fumes have been known to 
produce a painful swelling and inflammation of the skin, which, in a case re- 
corded by Brewster, extended from the hands as far as the face and eyes, which 
became swelled to an alarming degree. I have known an instance of similar 
effects having been produced by roasting the nuts of Anacardium occidentale. 
But there are some constitutions that are not affected in any degree by such 
poisons. These varnishes are at first white, and afterwards become black. 
This has been ascertained by Brewster to arise from the recent varnish 
being an organised substance, consisting of an immense congeries of small parts, 
which disperse the sun’s rays in all directions, like a thin film of unmelted 
tallow ; while the varnish which has been exposed to the air loses its orga- 
nised structure, becomes homogeneous, and then transmits the sun’s rays of a 
rich, deep, uniform red colour. Brewster, 8. 100. The same is probably the 
substance mentioned by Ainslie (1. 190) as the Black Lac of the Burmah 
country, with which the natives lacker various kinds of ware. The valuable 
black hard varnish called Japan lacquer, is obtained from Stagmaria verniciflua 
in the Indian archipelago : this resin is extremely acrid, causing excoriations 
and blisters if applied to the skin. Ed. P. /. 6. 400. A black varnish well 
known in India is manufactured from the nuts of Semecarpus anacardium and 
the berries of Holigarna longifolia. Ibid. 4 450. Augia produces a varnish 
in China and Siam. Wallich. The leaves of some species of Schinus are so 
filled with a resinous fluid, that the least degree of unusual repletion of the tissue 
causes it to be discharged ; thus some of them fill the air with fragrance after 
rain ; and S. Molle, Duvaua latifolia, and some others expel their resin with 
such violence when immersed in water as to have the appearance of sponta- 
neous motion, in consequence of the recoil. See But. Reg. 1580. Schinus 
Arroeira is said by Auguste de St. Hilaire to cause swellings in those who 
sleep under its shade. Ibid. 14. 267. The fresh juicy bark of this shrub is 
used in Brazil for rubbing newly-made ropes with, which it covers with a very 
durable bright dark-brown coating. The juice of the same plant is applied by 
the Indians in diseases of the eye. Pr. Maxim. Trav. 270. This last plant, 
and also Rhus coriaria, possess acid qualities. The fruit of Cassuvium occi- 
dentale and Anacardium orientale is said to exercise a singular effect upon the 
brain. Virey Bull. Pharm. 1814. p. 271. Mastich is the produce of Pistacia 
atlantica and Lentiscus ; Scio turpentine is yielded by Pistacia Terebinthus ; a 
substance like mastich is exuded by Schinus Molle, and the Peruvians use it 
for strengthening their gums. The juice of many species of Rhus is milky, 
stains black, and is sometimes, as in Rhus toxicodendron and radicans, ex- 
tremely poisonous. Rhus coriaria, a powerful astringent, is used by tanners. 
The bark of Rhus glabrum is considered a febrifuge, and is also employed 
as a mordant for red colours. Several Comocladias stain the skin black. 
DC. Rhus Cotinus, Arbre cl perruque of the French, and Venetian Sumacli 
of the English, has wood called young fustick, which is astringent as well as 


the fruit. Rhus vernix, a Japanese tree, exudes a whitish resinous juice, which 
soon becomes black in the air. R. succedaneum and verniciferum have a si- 
milar property. Royle. 


§ 1. AnacardiejE,DC. 
Anacardium, Rottb. 
Cassuvium, Lam . 
Acajuba, Gaertn. 
Rhinocarpus, Berter. 
Semecarpus, L. 

Anacardium, Lam. 
Holigarna, Roxb. 
Mangifera, L. 
Buchanania, Roxb. 
Melanorrhaea, Wall. 
Augia, Lour. 
Stagmaria, Jack. 

Gluta, L. 

Syndesmis, Wall. 
Dupuisia, Guill. 
Cambessedea, Kunth. 
Pistacia, L. 

Terehinthus, Juss. 
Astronium, Jacq. 
Comocladia, P. Br. 
Cyrtocarpa, H, B, K. 
Picramnia, Sw. 

Pegia, Colebr. 
Solenocarpus, W. et A. 
Coniogeton, Bl. 

Rhus, L. 

Pocophorum, Neck. 
Schmalzia, Desv. 
Lobadium, Rafin. 
Phlebochiton, Wall. 
Odina, Roxb. 

Mauria, H. B. K. 
Duvaua, Kunth. 
Schinus, L. 

Lithrea, H. et A. 
Heudelotia, Guill. 

Dyctioloma, DC. 
Tricera, Lour. 
Trattinickia, W. 
Huertea, R. et P. 
Asaphes, DC. 

Boscia, Thunb. 
Rumphia, L. 
Thysanus, Lour. 
Barbylus, P. Browne. 

Barola, Adans. 
Lunanea, DC. 
Edwards^ia, Raf. 


Essential Character. — Corolla absent in all cases; Ca/i/a? sometimes complete, and 
consisting either of several distinct sepals or of several combined into a tube; very often 
incompletely formed ; also often altogether absent. 

If we look merely at the paper characters of this and the first sub-class, 
we shall consider them very clearly distinguished from each other ; if we turn 
to the detail of anomalies in the Polypetalous sub-class, we shall be surprized 
to find how many instances there are where plants belonging to polypetalous 
orders, having no petals, would be referable to the Incomplete sub-class. I 
know of no way of getting over this difficulty, except by practice, by 
remembering, in the first place, that Polypetalous orders have seldom 
an imperfect calyx, and by endeavouring to identify apetalous Polypetalae 
with some of the orders of Incompletse, and when it is found that this 
cannot be accomplished, turning to the Polypetalous division, and acting 
with the plant in question as if it had petals. No truly polypeta- 
lous order can possibly, if common care be applied to the investigation, 
be confounded with any apetalous order, even if the petals are not taken 
into account. For example, Euphorbiacese, which are so often apetalous, 
have nothing like a station in Incompletse ; let us try this. They cannot 
belong to Rectembryosse, because their calyx is always perfect if present; 
Euphorbia itself would technically belong to Achlamydosse, and its flowers 
being in an involucre it might seem to belong to Monimiales ; it could not, 
how^ever, be one of Atherospermacese, because its anthers do not burst by re- 
curved valves : is it, then, a genus of Monimiacese ? certainly not, for its ovary 
is 3-celled and not 1 -celled; as it cannot be possibly referred to any other 
part of the Incomplete sub-class, it must then of necessity be some apetalous 
form of Polypetalse, and this ascertained, its true station will be easily found. 
And so of other cases. The fact is, that in Polypetalous orders there is a 
manifest tendency (nixus) to produce petals ; in the Incomplete sub-class there 
is no such tendency, but on the contrary, the force of developement is often so 
weak as to be scarcely able to complete even the calyx itself. 

It may be asked then, would it not be better to combine Incompletae and 
Polypetalse ? Upon paper it looks as if it would ; in nature it is otherwise : a 


botanist will hardly doubt that the genera comprehended under the name of 
' Incompletae are in reality of a lower degree of organization than Polypetalae ; 

and the student need be under no alarai about the difficulty that may appear 
j to be connected wdth these anomalies and exceptions, for after a very little ex- 
perience he will be scarcely conscious of their existence. 

I Incompletae are connected with Polypetalse most immediately by way of 

' Lauraceae and Myristicaceae, or Empetraceae and Euphorbiaceae ; Chloranthaceae 
probably join them with Gnetaceous Gymnosperms ; and Menispermaceae 
certainly constitute a passage to Smilaceous Endogens, as Aristolochiaceae 
, possibly do to Araceae. 

The sub -class separates naturally into the five following groups. 

1 . EectembrgO0ae» Calyx very imperfect. Embryo straight. 

I 2. ac|)IamHtlO0ae* Calyx and corolla altogether absent. 

3. ^ubiferO0ae* Calyx tubular, often resembling a corolla (and with some 
of the characters of the other groups). 

4. ®olumno 0 ae 4 Stamens monadelphous, and ovary many- (six)- celled ; or, 

at all events, the latter character combined with an 
epigynous flower. 

5. CurhembrHO0ac* Embryo curved round mealy albumen; or having the 

form of a horse- shoe ; or spiral ; (calyx rarely tubular). 

The attention of botanists requires to be especially called to this part of the 
class of Exogens. In consequence of the species being little cultivated, and 
uninviting in appearance, they have been much neglected ; but there can be no 
doubt that a careful investigation of the large numbers of unarranged and un- 
determined Incomplete or Apetalous plants which now encumber every her- 
barium of much extent would place the limits of the following orders in a 
much clearer light, and richly rew^ard the industry of the botanist who should 
have energy enough to undertake, and skill enough to execute, the very diffi- 
cult task of putting them in order. 

Group I. I^ectembrpojpse. 

Essential Character. — Calyx exceedingly imperfect, very often only rudimentary, 
ragged, and more a shapeless membrane than a calyx ; sometimes more regular. Embryo 
straight, either with or without albumen. 

If it were not for the Datiscal alliance, which is the least developed form 
of this group, Rectembryosse would be nearly the same as the old Amentace^, 
except that a part is stationed in the Salical alliance of Achlamydosae. The 
genera consist chiefly of trees with inconspicuous flowers, many of which are 
arranged in catkins. The group can only be confounded with Curvembryosse, 
and they are usually herbaceous plants, their flowers are never in catkins, and 
their calyx is far more completely developed than in this group ; to say 
nothing of the distinction in their curved embryo. 

Alliance I. AMENTALES, 

Essential Character. — Flowers in catkins. Carpels always 2 or more, combined 
into a solid pistil. All Trees or arborescent shrubs. 

Tlie syncarpous nature of their ovaries divides these from every other 


alliance in the same group, except the Ulmal, in which the flow’ers do not 
grow in catkins, and the Datiscal, which consists of polyspermous herbaceous 
plants. It is true that some Urtical orders have several carpels ; but when 
that happens, either the flowers are not in catkins, or the fruit not enclosed in 
a cupule. Amentales pass distinctly into Urticales by Garryaceie. 



CuPULiFER^, Rich. Anal, du Fr. (1808) ; Lindl. Synops. 239. (1829) ; Blume Flora Java*, 

(1829). — CoRYLACE^, Mirb. Elem. 906. (1815). — QuERCiNEi®, Juss. in Diet. Sc. 

Nat. Yo\. 2. Suppl. 12. (1816). 

Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual; males amentaceous, females aggregate 
or amentaceous. Males : Stamens 5 to 20, inserted into the base of the scales or of a mem- 
branous calyx, generally distinct. Females: Ovaries crowned by the rudiments of a supe- 
rior calyx, seated within a coriaceous involucre {cupule^ of various figure, and with 
several cells and several ovules, the greater part of which are abortive ; ovules twin or soli- 
tary, pendulous; stigmas several, sub-sessile, distinct. Fruit a bony or coriaceous 1 -celled 
nut, more or less enclosed in the involucre. Seeds solitary, 1, 2, or 3, pendulous ; embryo 
large, with plano-convex fieshy cotyledons, and a minute superior radicle. — Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves with stipules, alternate, simple, often with veins proceeding straight from the midrib 
to the margin. 

Affinities. Plants of this order are known among European trees by 
their amentaceous flowers and peculiarly veined leaves ; from all other plants 
they are distinguished by their apetalous superior mdimentary calyx, fruit en- 
closed in a peculiar husk or cup, and nuts containing but 1 cell and 1 or 2 
seeds, in consequence of the abortion of the remainder. They are akin to 
Salicaceae and Betulacese, from which the presence of a calyx and, in the 
former case, very often the veining of their leaves, distinguish them. To Urti- 
caceae they are nearly allied, but difibr in their many-ceUed ovary, pendulous 
ovules, and superior calyx. 

Geography. Inhabitants of the forests of aU the temperate parts of the 
continent both of the Old and New World ; extremely common in Europe, 
Asia, and North America; more rare in Barbary and Chile, and the southern 
parts of South America ; and unknown at the Cape. The species which are 
found wdthin the tropics of either hemisphere are chiefly Oaks and Chestnuts, 
which abound in the high lands, but are unknown in the valleys of equatorial 
regions. For an admirable account of the species of Java, see Blume s Flora. 

Properties. An order which comprehends the Oak, the Hazel Nut, the 
Beech, and the Spanish Chestnut, can scarcely require much to be said to a 
European reader of its properties, which are of too common a use to be 
unknown even to the most ignorant. Whatever excellence may be found in 
the timber of the European species is not at all inferior in that of hotter 
countries. Blume tells us that that of his Lithocarpus javensis is called Passan- 
Batu, or Stone- oak, because of its hardness. Gallic acid exists abundantly in 
the Oak. The leaves of Quercus falcata are employed, on account of their 
astringency, externally in cases of gangrene ; and the same astringent prin- 
ciple, which pervades all the order, has caused them to be employed even as 
febrifuges, tonics, and stomachics. Cork is the bark of Quercus suber ; it 
contains a peculiar principle called Suberin {Turner, 700), and an acid called 
the Suberic {Ibid. 641). The galls that writing ink is prepared from are the 
produce of the Oak, from which they derive their astringency. The acorns of 


a species known in the Levant under the name of Velonia (Quercus cCgilops) 
are imported for the use of dyers. 


Carpinus, L. Corylus, L. Castanea, Gsertn. Lithocarpus, Bl. 

Ostrya, Scop. Fagus, L. Quercus, L. Synaedrys (19). 

Order CXXI. BETULACE^. The Birch Tribe. 

Amentace/E, Juss. Gen. 407. (1789) in part ; Lindl. Synops. § 228. (1829). — Betuline.e, 
L. C. Richard MSS. A. Richard, Eltm. de la Bot. ed. 4. 562. (1828) . 

Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual, monoecious, amentaceous ; the males 
sometimes having a membranous lobed calyx. Stamens distinct, scarcely ever monadel- 
phous ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary superior, 2-celled ; ovules definite, pendulous ; style sin- 
gle, or none; stigmas 2. Fruit membranous, indehiscent, by abortion 1 -celled. Seeds 
pendulous, naked ; albumen none ; embryo straight ; radicle superior. — Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves alternate, simple, with the primary veins often running straight from the midrib to 
the margin ; stipules deciduous. 

Affinities. This order approaches more near to Urticaceae and Cupu- 
liferse than either Platanacese or Salicaceae, which may be considered dismem- 
berments of it. In the male flowers of several species there is a distinct 
membranous caly:x, very like that of Ulmus ; the seeds are definite and pendu- 
lous, and the leaves have the same venation as Cupuliferse. It is well 
distinguished by the 2 distinct cells of the fruit, and by the want of a cupule 
to the female flowers. 

Geography. Inhabitants of the woods of Europe, Northern Asia, and 
North America, and even making their appearance on the mountains of Peru 
and Columbia. 

Properties. Fine timber-trees, usually with deciduous leaves ; their bark 
astringent, and sometimes employed as a febrifuge ; but chiefly valued for 
their importance as ornaments of a landscape. Their wood is often light, and 
of inferior quality, but that of the Black Birch of North America is one of the 
hardest and most valuable we know. 


Betula, L. 

Alnus, W. 


Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual (dioecious). Males in catkins. Calyx 
4-5-leaved, imbricated, very minute and membranous. Stamens 2-5 ; filaments short, 
straight, not elastic ; anthers 2-celled, opening by longitudinal parallel sutures ; connective 
inconspicuous. Females in short axillary racemes. Calyx of six sepals in two whorls 
(always?), inferior, the inner ones in one species at least 3-lobed. Ovary with two cells, in 
each of which there are two ovules ; style 0 ; stigma with two short emarginate lobes, or 
with 4 equal fringed ones ; ovules collateral, pendulous, with a broad scale projecting from 
the placenta and covering over the foramen, their ends often buried in hears projecting from 
the base of the cell. [In LepidostachysRoxburghi the Capsule round, two-celled, 4-valved ; the 
endocarp thin, tough, and separable from the friable sarcocarp. Seeds single or two, enveloped 
in a succulent aril ; embryo green in the axis of albumen, with obovate cotyledons and a 


radicle next the hilum. Roxb.'] — Trees. Leaves coriaceous, alternate, with membranous 
stipules which form the scales of the buds. 

Affinities. Here are evidently distinct traces of a new type of organiza- 
tion, which, however imperfectly they may be yet shadowed out, are neverthe- 
less too remarkable to be passed over unnoticed. The foregoing character 
has been drawn up from what materials I happen to possess, and will probably 
require great correction hereafter, when more species and genera shall have 
been discovered. In the meanwhile, it is obvious that there is no pubhshed 
natural order that wdll include amentaceous plants with arillate albuminous 
seeds and a dehiscent 2-celled pericaiqi. Scepacese have in their male state 
much the aspect of Cupuliferse or Betulaceae, and one of them has actually 
been considered an Alnus by Roxburgh ; but the females have more the appear- 
ance of Antiaris, or some such Urticaceous genus. The fruit, which is very 
remarkable, I only know from Roxburgh’s account, the substance of which is 
quoted from the Flora Indica. The manner in which the plates of the placenta 
overlap the foramen (I believe not tiU after impregnation) is exceedingly curious ; 
these are no doubt what ultimately become the aril. In the genus Scepa the 
ends of the o\Tdes are buried in a thick mass of hairs proceeding from the pla- 
centary sutm'e near the base of the ceU. 

Geography. Natives of the tropical forests of India. 

Properties. The wood of the Kokra, Lepidostachys Roxhurghi, is very 
hard, and is used for various oeconomical purposes. Roxb. 


Scepa. (20) 

Lepidostachys, Wall. (21) 

? Hymenocardia, Wall. (22) 

Alliance II. URTICALES. 

Essential Character. — Carpels solitary, or more than one combined in a syncarpous 
pistil. Stems continuous, without sheaths. Flowers, if in catkins, never producing fruit 
with a cupule. 

Tlie remarks made under Amentales shew how that alliance is to be distin- 
guished from this, concerning the most usual characters of which it may be 
said, that it is upon the whole a less complicated form of structure, and that 
it exhibits the mass of the group in a state where solitary carpels and unisexual 
floAvers are the prevailing characteristics ; for although there are three orders 
in which the fruit consists of two or more carpels, yet in very much the 
greater portion of species the carpels are uniformly solitary. It is clearly con- 
nected with Amentales through Garryaceae, which would be Cupuliferous if 
they had a cupule, more than one cell, and alternate leaves. Urticaceae them- 
seRes form the type of the alliance, and are pretty accurately known by their 
unisexual, usually clustered, flowers, elastic stamens, membranous calyx, and 
seed-like fruit ; to which may be added, their rough leaves : the other orders 
are more or less closely allied to each other and to Urticaceae, but are 
apparently quite distinct ; they all, however, but especially Stilaginaceae, 
require much revision, and must be so greatly extended, that whatever charac- 
ters m.ay noAV be assigned must be considered merely provisional. 



GARRYACEiE, Liudl. iuBot. Regist. 20. t. 1686. (July 1834). 

Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual (dioecious). Males: Calyx 4-leaved. 
Stamens 4, not elastic. Females : Calyx superior, two-toothed. Ovary one-celled ; styles 
2, setaceous ; ovules 2, pendulous, with funiculi as long as themselves. Pericarp berried, 
indehiscent, two seeded. Embryo very minute, in the base of fleshy albumen. — A shrub. 
Leaves opposite, without stipules. Flowers arranged in pendulous amentaceous racemes, 
within connate bracts. Wood without distinct concentric zones, or vasiform tissue (dotted 
ducts) . 

Affinities. Of this curious type of structure only one genus and one 
species have been discovered, concerning which the following observations will 
be found in the Botanical Register, in the place above referred to. 

“ In its amentaceous inflorescence, imperfect flowers, superior calyx, and 
mode of germination, Garrya is very similar to Cupuliferee, from which it diflers 
most essentially in its wood without concentric circles, or vasiform tissue 
(dotted vessels), its opposite exstipulate leaves, simple fruit, and minute 
embryo lying in a great mass of albumen. The latter characters bring it near 
Piperaceee and their allies, especially Chloranthacece, with which its zoneless 
wood (for Chloranthus has no annual zones), simple fruit, and opposite leaves, 
also agree ; but the stipules of Chloranthaceee, together with its naked bisexual 
flowers, and articulated stems, distinctly separate that order. Urticacew and 
StilaginaceeB may also be compared with Garrya on account of their imperfect 
unisexual flowers, somewhat amentaceous inflorescence, and simple fruit ; but 
their superior fruit, alternate leaves, and more perfectly foraied wood, are im- 
portant points of difference. Gnetacece may also be compared to Garrya on 
account of their opposite exstipulate leaves, amentaceous unisexual flowers 
appearing from the axils of connate bracts, their minute embryo lying in a 
great mass of albumen, and imperfect zoneless wood, which in both cases is 
chiefly constituted of woody fibre (the sides of which are marked with nume- 
rous brownish granules), and of annular and reticulated vessels lying scattered 
sparingly among the tubes of woody fibre. Finally, Henslovia, an imperfectly 
known genus, with regularly zoned wood filled with dotted ducts, like those of 
Ulmus, is not to be overlooked in comparing Garrya with other genera, on 
account of its imperfect unisexual flowers and opposite exstipulate leaves ; but 
the natural order {Hensloviacew) , of which it must be considered the type, is 
too little known to enable us to carry the comparison further.” 

Geography. West side of the dividing mountain range of North America, 
in temperate latitudes. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Garrya, Douglas. 


HENSLOviACEiE, Liudl. in Bot. Reg. 20. fol. 1686. (July 1834) ; Martius Conspectus, 

No. 11. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Floivers unisexual (dioecious). Calyx b- parted, lined with a 
woolly disk, [with a valvate sestivation. Males : Stamens 5, alternate with the sepals, 
perigynous, long, exserted, indexed in gestivation, Griffith in litt.'] ; anthers 2-celled, with a 


broad connective, the lobes oblique, bursting longitudinally. A rudiment of an ovary. 
Females ; Ovary superior, 2-celled with very numerous ovules attached horizontally to a 
placenta in the axis ; style cylindrical ; stigma obsoletely two-lobed ; [ovules with a large 
conspicuous foramen next the hilum, Griffith in litt.'] — Trees [with the habit and inflo- 
rescence of Combretaceae. Griffitii ] . Leaves opposite, entire, without stipules. Wood 
regularly zoned, with very abundant vasiform tissue (dotted ducts) . 

Affinities. Little as I have to add to what was aheady known concern- 
ing the remarkable plants that constitute the type of this small order, that lit- 
tle is important as confirming the propriety of its separation. My own ob- 
servations on the structure of the wood shew that it is composed to a great 
extent of the dotted or vasiform tissue so prevalent in Ulmus. My invalua- 
ble friend, Mr. Griffith, in a letter dated Merqui, in Burmah, Dec. 28, 1834, 
has added the particulars enclosed in brackets. The order is too little known 
to afford materials for much speculation as to its affinities. Brown points out 
the striking resemblance of the branches and leaves, especially the abrupt ter- 
mination of the former, to Oleacese, especially Syringa ; but beyond this all 
further relation between these plants seems to cease. (Wall. Plant, as. rar. 
III. 14.) Mr. Griffith notices the conformity of the habit and inflorescence 
to Combretaceae ; and it is not impossible that it may turn out, when more 
known, to be an apetalous polyspermous form of the Rhamnal alliance, to 
which its definite perigynous stamens alternate with the sepals and valvate ca- 
lyx seem to approximate it. It must, however, be observed that its unisexual 
flowers, large perigjmous disk, and long exserted stamens, with a very wide 
connection, bring it close to Stilaginaceae, although the fruit is so difierent. 

Geography. Trees of Tropical India. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Henslovia, Wall. 


Essential Character. — Floicers dioecious. Males : Sepals 3-4, with a valvate aesti- 
vation. Stamens numerous, arising from a common central point. Females: Calyx 
inferior, 3-4-toothed. Style 4-cleft. Drupe 4-celled with a single seed in each. Em- 
bryo inverted and amply furnished with albumen, Roxb. [Segments of the style reflexed, 
feathery within, Willd. Fruit berried, with 4 stones, each of which is one-seeded ; seeds 
pendulous without albumen, Gcertn .'] — A tree. Leaves opposite, exstipulate, entire. 
Flowers ; males in long racemes ; females axillary, solitary. 

Affinities. Here again seems to be the type of an unpublished order. 
It is clearly distinct from Urticacese and their allies, and yet it cannot be far 
removed from them. In the conflicting statements as to its real structure 
there is little further left, upon which we can seize. Barthng refers Tetragas- 
tris as a synonym to Hedwigia among Burseracese, I know not on what au- 
thority. Roxburgh considers it the same as this (FI. Ind. 3. 837.), and so 
does Adrien de Jussieu. Euphorh. 33. 

Geography. Natives of tropical India, 

Properties. Unknown. 


Trewia, L. 

Tetragasiris, Ggertn. 

Order CXXV. URTICACE.E. The Nettle Tribe. 

URTicKii:, Juss. Gen. 400. (1789) ; Guudichaud in Freyc. Voyage (1826) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 

105. (1830); Arnott in Edinh. Encycl. 129. (1832). — IJkticac'E.m, Endlich. Prodr. 

Norf. 37. (1833). — Artocarpe.®, R. Brown in Congo (1818); Blume Bijdr. 479. 

(1825); Ed. Prior. No. 80. (1830); Bartl. Ord. Nat. 104. (1830). — Sycoide/e, 

Link Handb. 1. 292. (1829). — Pholeosanthese and CiENOSANTHEiE, Blume Bijdr. 

(1825). — Batide^, Martins Conspect. No. 10. (1835). — Moreje, Endl. Prodr. 40. 


Essential Character. — monoecious or dioecious, scattered or clustered, or in 
catkins, or close heads. Calyx membranous, lobed, persistent. Stamens definite, distinct, 
inserted into the base of the calyx, and opposite its lobes ; anthers curved inwards in aesti- 
vation, turned backwards with elasticity when bursting. Ovary superior, simple ; ovule 
solitary, erect or suspended ; stigma simple. Fruit a simple indehiscent nut, surrounded 
either by the membranous or fleshy calyx ; or a fleshy receptacle, either covered by nume- 
rous nuts, lying among the persistent fleshy calyxes, or enclosing them within its cavity ; 
occasionally consisting of a single nut, covered by a succulent involucre. Embryo straight, 
curved, or spiral, -with or without albumen ; cotyledons flat ; radicle always pointing to the 
hilum. — Trees, shrubs, or herbs, sometimes lactescent. Leaves alternate, usually covered 
either with asperities or stinging hairs, with membranous stipules, which are deciduous or 
convolute in vernation. 

Affinities. I am convinced, after the most careful attention that I have 
been able to give this extensive and little studied order, that all the assem- 
blages of genera whose names are cited at the head of this article must be 
considered mere forms of one common type. Artocarpese I formerly distin- 
guished by their suspended ovules and milky properties ; but Amott states 
that he finds the former peritropal, and supposing their position to be uni- 
foimly suspended in the genus Artocarpus and its immediate allies, yet there 
is this in the character of Artocarpeae, which would, even under such circum- 
stances render it useless, that it forms an unnatural assemblage, for it would 
take from the true Urticeae Cannabis, and Humulus, on account of the posi- 
tion of their ovules, while it would exclude them along with Moms and 
some others because they do not milk. As to Batidese recently separated 
from Urticaceae by Von Martins, on account of their supposed naked flowers 
and bicarpellary fruit, it must be remarked that in the former character this 
distinguished Botanist has been misled by Roxburgh, and that in the latter he 
has been equally deceived, for Batis has a common Urticaceous fmit ; and it 
agrees with many genera of the order in its embryo having the radicle turned 
down upon the cotyledons. On account of this character and its habit, and 
notwithstanding its stamens being alternate with the segments of the calyx, 
it is better to let it remain at present in Urticaceae as one of the connecting 
links between that order and Curvembryosae. The existence of a curved 
embryo in Urticaceae shows how very nearly Chenopodiaceae and Urticaceae 
are really allied ; they, in fact, scarcely differ except in the stipulation, hispid 
surface, elastic stamens, and I may add narcotic properties of the latter. 
Polygonaceae are distinguished generally by their ochreae, and always by their 
radicle lying at the end of the seed most remote from the hilum ; Euphorbia- 
ceae by their tricoccous, or at least pluricarpellary fruit ; and Ulmaceae by their 
hermaphrodite flowers and bicarpeUary fruit. 

The only attempt that has yet been made to reduce the genera to order, is 
that by Gaudichaud, of which an account will be found in the first volume of 
Presl’s Repertorium Botanicum, as well as in the place above quoted. This 
arrangement has not been yet examined critically, but as it seems in general to 
form natural groups, I have admitted it without scruple upon the authority of 
the very excellent Botanist, with whom it has originated. It should, how- 


ever, be observed, that Endlicher objects to many of the genera. Prodr. fl. 
norf. 38. 8^c. 

Geography. Widely dispersed over every part of the world ; appearing 
in the most northern regions, and in the hottest climates of the tropics ; grow- 
ing now upon dry walls, where there is scarcely nutriment for a moss or a 
lichen, and inhabiting the dampest recesses of the forest. Elatostemese, Boeh- 
merieae, Cecropiese, Chlorophorese, Dorstenieae, Daphnitidese, Artocai*pe8e, Pou- 
roumese, Misandreae, and Batideae are either altogether confined to the tro- 
pics where the order is most abundant, or at all events occur only in very tem- 
perate countries. 

Properties. The tenacity of the fibres of many species is such that cor- 
dage has been successfully manufactured from them. The leaves of Hemp 
are poweiduUy narcotic. The Turks know its stupifying qualities under the 
name of Malach. Linnaeus speaks of its vis narcotica, phantastica, dementens, 
anodyna, and repellens. Even the Hottentots use it to get drunk with, and 
call it Dacha. The Arabians name it Hashish. Ainslie, 2. 189. A most 
powerfully narcotic gum-resin, called in Nipal Cheris or Cherris, is supposed 
to be obtained from a variety of Cannabis sativa. Ihid. 2. 73. Tlie effects 
of the venomous sting of the common nettles, Urtica dioica, urens, and pilu- 
lifera of Europe, are too well known. They are, however, not to be compared 
for an instant with those of some Indian species. Leschenault de la Tour 
{Mem. Mus. 6. 362.) thus describes the effect of gathering Urtica crenulata 
in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta : — “ One of the leaves slightly touched the 
first three fingers of my left hand : at the time I only perceived a slight prick- 
ing, to which I paid no attention. This was at seven in the morning. The 
pain continued to increase ; in an hour it had become intolerable : it seemed 
as if some one was rubbing my fingers with a hot iron. Nevertheless, there 
was no remarkable appearance ; neither swelling, nor pustule, nor inflamma- 
tion. The pain rapidly spread along the arm, as far as the annpit. I was 
then seized with frequent sneezing and with a copious running at the nose, as 
if I had caught a violent cold in the head. About noon I experienced a pain- 
ful contraction of the back of the jaws, which made me fear an attack of te- 
tanus. I then went to bed, hoping that repose would alleviate my suffering ; 
but it did not abate ; on the contrary, it continued nearly the whole of the 
following night ; but I lost the contraction of the jaws about seven in the 
eA^ening. The next morning the pain began to leave me, and I fell asleep. 
I continued to suffer for two days ; and the pain returned in full force when I 
put my hand into water. I did not finally lose it for nine days.” A similar 
circumstance occurred, with precisely the same symptoms, to a workman in 
the Calcutta Garden. This man described the sensation, when water was ap- 
plied to the stung part, as if boiling oil was poured over him. Another dan- 
gerous species was found by the same botanist in Java (U. stimulans), but its 
effects were less violent. Both these seem to be surpassed in virulence by a 
nettle called doom setan, or devil’s leaf, in Timor ; the effects of which are 
said, by the natives, to last for a year, or even to cause death. The common 
Hop, Humulus lupulus, is remarkable, as is well known, for its bitterness ; the 
active principle of it is called by chemists Lupulin. It is here also that the 
Fig, the Bread-fruit, the Jack, and the Mulberry, are found, — a curi- 
ous instance of wholesome or harmless plants in an order which contains the 
most deadly poison in the world, the Upas of Java ; the juice, however, of 
even those which have wholesome fruit, is acrid and suspicious ; and in a spe- 
cies of Fig, Ficus toxicaria, is absolutely venomous. The juice of aU of them 
contains a greater or less abundance of caoutchouc, and the Cecropia peltata 
is reported to yield American caoutchouc. But Humboldt doubts whether 
this is the fact, as its juice is difficult to inspissate. Cinch. For. p. 44. The 


seeds of a plant nearly allied to Cecropia, called Miisanga by the Africans 
of the Gold Coast, as well as those of Artocarpus, are eatable as nuts. The 
famous Cow Tree, or Palo de Vacca, of South America, which yields a co- 
pious supply of a rich and wholesome milk, belongs to this order ; it is supposed 
to be related to Brosimum. Brosimum alicastrum abounds in a tenacious 
gummy milk ; its leaves and young shoots are much eaten by cattle, but when 
they become old they cease to be innocuous. Tlie roasted nuts are used in- 
stead of bread, and have much the taste of Hazel nuts. Sivartz, 1. 19. A 
kind of paper is manufactured from Broussonetia papyrifera. The bai'k of the 
Moms dba contains moroxylic acid in combination with lime. Turner, 640. 
Fustick, a yellow dye, is the wood of Moms tinctoria. The seeds of Ficus re- 
ligiosa are supposed by the doctors of India to be cooling and alterative. 
Ainslie, 2. 25. The leaves of Ficus septica are emetic. Ibid. The Cochin- 
chinese consider that plant caustic and anthelmintic. The bark of Ficus race- 
mosa is slightly astringent, and has particular virtues in hsematuria and me- 
norrhagia. The juice of its root is considered a povrerful tonic. Ibid. 2. 31. 
The white glutinous juice of Ficus indica is applied to the teeth and gums, to 
ease the toothache ; it is also considered a valuable application to the soles of 
the feet when cracked and inflamed. The bark is supposed to be a powerful 
tonic, and is administered by the Hindoos in diabetes. Ibid. 2. 11. Gum 
lac is obtained from Ficus indica in great abundance. The tenacity of 
life in some plants of this family is remarkable. A specimen of Ficus australis 
lived and grew suspended in the air, without earth, in one of the hothouses in 
the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, for eight months, without experiencing any 
apparent inconvenience. Ed. P. J. 3. 80. The celebrated Banyan Tree of 
India is Ficus religiosa. Prince Maximilian, of Wied Neuwied, says that the 
colossal Wild Fig-trees “ are one of the most grateful presents of nature to 
hot countries : the shade of such a m.agnificent tree refreshes the traveller 
when he reposes under its incredibly wide- spreading branches, with their dark 
green shining foliage. Tlie Fig-trees of all hot countries have generally very 
thick trunks, with extremely strong boughs, and a prodigious crown.” Travels, 
p. 104. Is it possible that the Indian poison with which the Nagas tip their 
arrows, of the tree that produces which nothing is known, can belong to this 
tribe } See, for an account of the elFect of this poison, Brewster's Journal, 9 . 
219. The poisonous property of the Upas has been found to depend upon 
the presence of that most vimlent of all principles, called strychnia. Turner, 
650. Batis yields Barilla in great abundance. Jacq. Dorstenia contrayerva, 
has bitterish roots, a remarkable overpowering odour, with a little pungency. 
It is supposed to be an antidote to the bites of venomous animals. Fee. The 
tree Ule of Papantla, from which Caoutchouc is obtained in that country is 
supposed by Chamisso and Schlechtendahl to be a plant of this order. Deppe, 
in his original ticket, asks if it be not Castilloa elastica ? Linnoea, VI. 385. 


§ 1. Elatosteme^, 

Elatostema, Forst. 
Sciophila, Bl. 
Pellionia, G, 
Langeveldia, G. 
Pilea, Lindl. 

Dubreuilia, G. 

§ 2. Urerea;, G. 
Urtica, L. 

Urera, G. 

Fleurya, G. 

Laportea, G. 
Girardinia, G. 

Boehmeria, L. 
Duretia, G. 

Neraudia, G. 

Procris, Comm. 

Vanieria, Lour. 

Parietaria, L. 

Helxine, Req. 
Gesuouinia, G. 

Freirea, G. 
Thaumuria, G. 
Haynea, Schum. 
Pouzolzia, G. 
Rousselia, G. 
Soleirolia, G. 

Forskahlea, [.. 
Droguetia, G. 
Australina, G. 
Clibadium, Allem. 

§ 6. CECROPIEiE, G. 
Cecropia, L. 
Musanga, Chr. Sm. 
Coussapoa, Aubl. 

§ 7. Cannabine^, 
Blume, Bijdr. 
Cannabis, L. 
Hmnulus, L. 



Chlorophora, G. 



Antiaris, Lesch. 

Ipo, Pers. 
Gynocephalus, Bl. 
Conoceohalus, Bl. 

§ 9. More^, G, et 
Broussoneti^, G. 
Moms, L. 

Albrandia, G. 

Fatoua, G. 
Broussonetia, Vent. 

Papiria, Lam. 

§ 10. Fice^, G. 

Ficus, L. 

§11. Dorstenie.®, G. 
Dorstenia, L. 

Kosaria, Forsk. 
Sychinum, G. 

§ 12. Daphnitide.®, 
N. ab E. 

Laurophyllus, Thunb. 
Daphnitis, Spr. 
Dilobeia, Thouars. 

§ 13. Artocarpe^, G, 
Artocarpus, L. 
Sitodium, Gaertn. 
Rademachia, Thunb, 
Polyphema, Lour. 
Perebea, Aubl. 

? Bagassa, Aubl. 

? Hedycaria, Forst. 
Olmedia, R. P. 
Madura, Nutt. 

§ 14. POOROUME,®, G. 
Pourouma, Aubl. 
Bruea, G. 

§ 15. Misandre®, G. 
Misandra, Comm. 

, Gunnera, L. 

Panke, Feuill. 

§16. Batide®, Mart. 
. Batis, L. 

Borya, W. 

Bigelovia, Sm. 
Forestiera, Poir. 
Pyrenacantha, Hook. 
Tinda, Rheede. 
Epicarpurus, Bl. 
Aporosa, Bl. 
Pteranthus, Forsk. 

Louichea, L’Herit. 
Brosimum, Sw. 
Galactodendron, Kth. 
Solenostigma, Endl. 
Trophis, L. 

Streblus, Lour. 
Castilloa, Deppe. 



Ceratophylle®, DC. Prodr. 3. 73. (1828); Lindl. Synops. 225. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Flowers monoecious. Calyx inferior, many-parted. Male : 
Stamens from 12 to 20; filaments wanting; anthers 2-celled. Female: Ovary superior, 
1-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous; stigma filiform, oblique, sessile. Nut 1-seeded, inde- 
hiscent, terminated by the hardened stigma. Seed pendulous, solitary ; albumen 0 ; embryo 
with 4 cotyledons, alternately smaller ; plumula many-leaved; radicle superior. {DC .) — 
Floating herbs, with multifid cellular leaves. 

Affinities. In consequence of tlie number of its cotyledons, Richard 
placed this order near Coniferse, with which it seems to have no kind of 
affinity. De Candolle urges its relation to Hippuris and Myriophyllum, among 
Halorageae, from which it differs in its superior ovary ; and he inquires whe- 
ther Naias, which, according' to some, is dicotyledonous, does not belong to 
the same order. Agardh places it among Fluviales. Surely it is better to 
consider it a degeneration of Urticaceae, to which so many of its characters 
refer it, and as bearing the same relation to them as Podostemaceae and 
Callitrichaceae to some unkno\\Ti order, or as Pistiaceae to Araceae. 

Geography. Found in ditches in Europe. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Ceratoph 5 dlum, L. 

Order CXXVI. ULMACE^E. The Elm Tribe. 

Ulmace®, Mirbel Elem. 905. (1815); Lindl. Synops. 225. (1829.) — Celtide®, Rich.; 
Gaudich. in Freyc. Voy. 507. (1826). 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous, never in catkins. 
Calyx divided, campanulate, inferior, irregular. Stamens definite, inserted into the base of 
the calyx ; erect in aestivation. Ovary superior, 2-celled ; ovules solitary, pendulous ; 
stigmas 2, distinct. Fruit 1- or 2-celled, indehiscent, membranous or drupaceous. Seed 
solitary, pendulous ; albumen none, or in very small quantity ; embryo straight or curved, 
with foliaceous cotyledons ; radicle superior. — Trees or shrubs, with scabrous, alternate, 
simple, deciduous leaves, and stipules. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Urticaceae, from which they are only dis- 
tinguishable by their 2 -celled fruit and hermaphrodite flowers ; they are often 
combined with that order. 

Geography. Natives of the north of Asia, the mountains of India, China, 


North America, and Europe ; in the latter of which countries they form valu- 
I able timber- trees. 

! Properties. The inner bark of the Elm is slightly bitter and astringent, 
i but it does not appear to possess any important quality. The substance which 
I exudes spontaneously from it is called Ulmin ; it is also found in the Oak, 
ji Chestnut, and other trees, and, according to Berzelius, is a constituent of most 
! kinds of bark. Turner, 700. 


Planera, Gmel. Ulmus, L. Sponia, Commers. 

Abelicea, Sm. Celtis, L. Mertensia, H.B. K. 


i StilaginEjE, Agardh’s Classes, 199. (1824) ; Von Martins Hort. Reg. Monac. (1829). 

I Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual. Calyx 3- or 5-parted. Corolla 0. Sta- 
I mens 2, or more, arising from a tumid receptacle ; filaments capillary ; anthers innate, 
I! 2-lobed, with a fleshy connective and vertical cells opening transversely. Ovary superior ; 

I stigma sessile, 3 -4-toothed. Fruit drupaceous, with 1 seed and the remains of another, 
j Seed suspended ; embryo green, with foliaceous cotyledons, lying in the midst of copious 
fleshy albumen. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, with deciduous stipules. 

, Affinities. An obscure order, of the limits of which nothing has been 
j well made out. Judging from the genera Stilago and Antidesma, it is very 
I near Urticacese, from which it is chiefly distinguished by the great cushion- 
i shaped disk, remarkable anthers, and unelastic filaments ; in all which charac- 
ters it resembles Hensloviacese, which are dicarpellary and polyspermous. 

! The male specimens have sometimes a striking resemblance in inflorescence to 
i East Indian Cupuliferse. 

I Geography. Natives of the East Indies. 



j Stilago, L. 

Antidesma, L. 


! Order CXXVIII. MYRICACEJE. The Gale Tribe. 

! MvRiCEiE, Rich. Anal, du Fr. (1808) ; Ach. Rich. Elem. de la Bot. ed. 4. 561. (1828) ; 

Lindl. Synops. 242. (1829) ; Blume FI. Javce ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 98. (1830). 

: . Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual, amentaceous, achlamydeous. Males: 
I Stamens 6, rarely 8, somewhat monadelphous ; anthers 2- or 4-celled, opening lengthwise. 

Females: Ovary 1 -celled, surrounded by several hypogynous scales; OfwZe solitary, erect, 
•. vnth a foramen in its apex ; stigmas 2, subulate, or dilated, and petaloid. Fruit drupa- 
I ceous, often covered with waxy secretions, and with the hypogynous scales of the ovary, 

' become fleshy and adherent ; or dry and dehiscent, with the scales distinct. Seed solitary, 

I erect ; embryo without albumen ; cotyledons 2, plano-convex ; radicle short, superior. — 

■ Leafy shrubs, with resinous glands and dots, the leaves alternate, simple, with or without 

Affinities. One of the approaches made by these plants is to Ulmaceae 
' and Betulacese, from the former of which they are readily known by their 
amentaceous flowers and want of a perianth ; from the latter by their’ erect 
ovules, aromatic leaves, and 1 -celled ovary. In the latter respect they resem- 


ble Piperacese, from which, however, they differ materially in other points. 
Blume rejects Nageia because of its opposite leaves and albuminous seeds, 
without, however, stating to what order that genus really belongs. Comptonia 
he thinks the same as Myrica. 

Geography. Found in the cold parts of Europe and North America, the 
tropics of South America, the Cape of Good Hope, and India. 

Properties. Aromatic shrubs, or trees of considerable size. Comptonia 
asplenifolia possesses astringent and tonic properties, and is much used in the 
domestic medicine of the United States, in cases of diarrhoea. Barton, 1. 224. 
The root of Myrica cerifera is a powerfid astringent, and wax is obtained in 
great abundance from its berries. The fruit of Myrica sapida is about as large 
as a cherry, and, according to Buchanan, is a pleasant acid and eatable in 
Nipal. Don, p. 56. It has a pleasant, refreshing, acidulous taste. Wall. 
Tent. 60. 


Myrica, L. Putranjiva, Wall. 

Comptonia, Banks. ? Clarisia, R. et P. 

Order CXXIX. JUGLANDACE^. The Walnut Tribe, 

Juglandea:, DC. Theorie, 215. (1813) ; Kunth in Ann. des Sc. Nat. 2. 343. (1824) ; 

Blume FI. Jav. ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 397. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual, usually monoecious. in the males 

oblique, membranous, irregularly divided, attached to a single bract ; in the females supe- 
rior, with 4 divisions, which are sometimes permanent and leafy. Petals in the males 0 ; 
in the females occasionally present, and 4 in number, arising from between the calyx and the 
styles, and cohering at the base. Stamens indefinite, (3-36), hypogynous ; //amends very 
short, distinct; anthers thick, 2-celled, innate, bursting longitudinally. Disk 0. Ovary 
inferior, incompletely 2-4-celled ; ovule solitary, erect ; styles 1 or 2, and very short, or 
none ; stigmas much dilated, either 2 and lacerated, or discoid and 4- lobed. Fruit dru- 
paceous, 1 -celled, with 4 imperfect partitions. Seed 4-lobed; embryo shaped like the seed; 
albumen 0 : cotyledons fleshy, 2-lobed, wrinkled ; radicle superior. — Trees. Leaves alter- 
nate, unequally pinnated, without pellucid dots or stipules. Flowers racemose. 

Affinities. These have usually been mixed with Terebintacese, to which 
they, however, do not appear so closely allied as to Cupuhferse, with which 
they accord in their unisexual flowers, and superior calyx, and, in the case of 
the genus Synsedrys, in their lobed embryo. Among apetalous orders, their 
pinnated resinous undotted leaves particularly distinguish them. 

Geography. Chiefly found in N orth America ; a few are East Indian; 
one species, the common Walnut, is a native of the Levant and Persia; 
another, of Caucasus ; and a third, of the West India Islands. 

Properties. The seed of the Walnut is esteemed for its sweetness and 
wholesome qualities. It abounds in a kind of oil, of a very drying nature. 
The rind of the fruit, and even the skin of the kernel, are extremely astringent. 
Juglans cathartica or cinerea is esteemed anthelmintic and cathartic ; the fruit 
of several kinds of Hickory is eaten in America. The timber of all is valuable ; 
that of J. regia for its rich deep brown colour when polished, and that of Carya 
alba for its elasticity and toughness. 


Juglans, L. Carya, Nutt. Engelhardtia, Lesch. ? Decostea, Ruiz, et P. 

Hicorius, Rafin. Pterilema, Rnwdt. 

Pterocarya, Nutt. Dammara, Rumf. 



Essential Character. — Carpels solitary . Sterns jointed and furnished with sheaths. , 

This singular character designates the Casuaracese at first sight, and shews 
an approach at this part of the system to Equisetaceie among Gymnosperms. 


CasuarinejE, Mirb. in Ann. Mus. 16. 451. (1810) ; R. Brown in Flinders, 2. 571. (1814). 

Essential Character. — Floivers unisexual. Males : Flowers whorled about the 
articulations of the jointed rachis. Bracts 2, membranous, right and left of a two-leaved 
calyx, the sepals of which stand fore and aft, and adhere at their points, and at the time of 
flowering are separated from their bases and carried up by the stamen in the form of a 
calyptra to the anther. Stamen 1 ; filament subulate ; anther erect, two-celled, with parallel 
contiguous cells opening by a longitudinal fissure. Females, in very dense spikes. 
Rachis not jointed. Flowers numerous, solitary in the axils of imbricated bracts. Calyx 0. 
Ovary lenticular, with a solitary ovule. Styles 2, united at base. Caryopsides winged, 
hidden in thickened bracts, sessile. Seed erect, without albumen. Embryo inverted. — 
Branching weeping trees, with jointed shoots, the internodes of which are striated. Leaves 0 ; 
in their room short, toothed, ribbed sheaths. Flowers in spikes. Chiefiy from Bartling. 

Affinities. Brown, in the Appendix to Flinders’s Voyage, has the fol- 
lowing observations on the structure of this remarkable genus. 

“ In the male flowers of all the species of Casuarina, I find an envelope of 
four valves, as Labillardiere has already observed in one species, which he has 
therefore named C. quadrivalvis. Plant. Nov. Holl. 2. p. 67. t. 218. But as 
the two lateral valves of this envelope cover the others in the unexpanded 
state, and appear to belong to a distinct series, I am inclined to consider them 
as bractese. On this supposition, which, however, I do not advance with much 
confidence, the perianthium would consist merely of the anterior and posterior 
valves; and these, firmly cohering at their apices, are carried up by the 
anthera, as soon as the filament begins to be produced, while the lateral valves 
or bractese are persistent ; it follows from it, also, that there is no visible peri- 
anthium in the female flower; and the remarkable economy of its lateral 
bractese may, perhaps, be considered as not only afibrding an additional argu- 
ment in support of the view now taken of the nature of the parts, but also as 
in some degree again approximating Casuarina to Coniferse, with which it was 
formerly associated. The outer coat of the seed or caryopsis of Casuarina 
consists of a very fine membrane, of which the terminal wing is entirely com- 
posed ; between this membrane and the crustaceous integument of the seed, 
there exists a stratum of spiral vessels, which Labillardiere, not having dis - 
tinctly seen, has described as an ‘ integumentum arachnoideum ;’ and within 
the crustaceous integument there is a thin proper membrane, closely applied 
to the embryo, which the same author has entirely overlooked. The existence 
of spiral vessels, particularly in such quantity, and, as far as can be determined 
in the dried specimens, unaccompanied by other vessels, is a structure at least 
very unusual in the integuments of a seed or caryopsis, in which they are very 
seldom at all visible ; and have never, I believe, been observed in such 
abundance as in this genus, in all whose species they are equally obvious.” 

Blume remarks that Casuarina is undoubtedly related to Myrica in its 
ovaries, its single erect ovule, and its exalbuminous inverted embryo ; but it 
dificrs so much in its habit, that it is better, with Mirbel, to consider it a dis- 
tinct family, which dificrs from Myricaceee, in its fructification, especially in its 
achenia with membranous wings included between two lateral scales, which. 


as they grow up, are collected into a compact cone. Myrica, on the contrary, 
has distinct drupes, each somewhat immersed in a somewhat fleshy involucre 
(or calyx), which, although at first hypogynous, is eventually, after fecunda- 
tion, extended beyond the ovary, with which it is conglutinated. Of such an 
involucre there is no trace in Casuarina, since the lateral scales, surrounding 
each achenium like a 2-valved capsule, by no means answer to the calycine 
involucre of Myricacese, but rather to those interior bractlets which we observe 
at the base of the drupes in M)rricaceae. FI. Jav. 

Geography. New Holland, Malayan and South Sea plants. 

Property. Timber excellent. 

Casuarina, L. 

Alliance V. DATISCALES. 

Essential Character. — Carpels seyeral. -Seetfc numerous. Leases alternate. 

By no means a natural assemblage. It is probable that both the orders 
comprehended for the moment under this alliance have some other station. 


Datisce.®, R. Brown in Denham, 25. (1826) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 419. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Floivers unisexual. Calyx of the males divided into several 
pieces ; of the females superior, toothed. Stamens several ; anthers 2-celled, membranous, 
linear, bursting longitudinally. Ovary 1 -celled, with polyspermous parietal placentae; 
stigmas equal in number to the placentae, recurved. Fruit capsular, opening at the vertex, 
1 -celled, with polyspermous parietal placentae. Seeds enveloped in a membranous finely 
reticulated integument, with a cupulate membranaceous strophiole ; embryo straight, with- 
out albumen, its radicle very long, turned towards the hilum. Cotyledons, very short. — Her- 
baceous branched plants. Leaves alternate, cut, compound, without stipules. Flowers in 
axillary racemes. 

Affinities. Brown, in deciding that Datisca has no affinity with Reseda, 
in which I now agree, does not say to what he supposes the order it represents 
to be allied. We must suppose, however, that Cannabis among Urticaceae was 
in his view. -So little is at present known of the other genera, that I can 
only leave it here with its character a little improved by Barthng. 

Geography. The very few species of which this order consists are scat- 
tered over North America, Siberia, northern India, the Indian archipelago, 
and the south-eastern corner of Europe. 

Properties. Datisca is bitter. 


Datisca, L. 

Tetrameles, R. Br. 

, Tricerastes, Presl. 



Lacisteme^, Martins N. G.etSp. PI. 1. 154. (1824). 

Essential Character. — Calyx in several narrow divisions, inferior, covered over by a 
.dilated bract. Corolla wanting. Stamens hypogynous, standing on one side of the ovary 
with a thick 2-lobed connective, at the apex of each of whose lobes is placed a single cell of 
an anther, bursting transversely. Ovary superior, seated in a fleshy disk, 1 -celled, with 
several ovules attached to parietal placentae ; stigmas 2 or 3, sessile or on a style. Fruit 
capsular, 1 -celled, splitting into 2 or 3 valves, each of which bears a placenta in its middle. 
Seed usually, by abortion, solitary, suspended, with a fleshy aril ; integument crustaceous ; 
albumen fleshy ; embryo inverted, with plane cotyledons and a superior straight cylindrical 
radicle. — Small trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, with stipules. Flowers disposed 
in clustered axillary catkins. 

Affinities. Von Martins, the founder of this order, which he divides 
from Urticacese, speaks of it thus : “ The peculiar character consists in the 
^presence of a distinct perianth, while the amentaceous inflorescence is an in- 
dication of an affinity with apetalous orders of a lower grade.” The same 
botanist indicates its affinity with Chloranthacese in the structure of the fila- , 
ment, and with Sarny daceae in that of the fruit, “ the monadelphous stamens 
of both which may be perhaps considered a higher kind of evolution of the 
fleshy disk in the bottom of the flower of Lacistema.” In habit they are 
said to be something like Piperaceae, but more arborescent. 

Geography. Natives of low places in woods in equinoctial America. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Lacistema, Mart. 

Nematospermum, Rich. 

Group II. 

Essential Character. — Neither calyx nor corolla present. 

To this there is no exception. Euphorbia among syncarpous polypetalous 
plants, agrees technically with the character ; but as the student will find no 
order in this place with which that genus corresponds, he will easily discover 
that it has no station here, but is a deteriorated state of some polypetalous 

Alliance I. PIPERALES. 

Essential Character. — Carpels either solitary, or if more than one quite distinct. 
■ Flowers in spikes. Embryo always very minute in the base of fleshy albumen. 


Chloranthe.®, R. Brown in Bot. Mag. 2190. (1821) ; Lindl. Collect. Bot. 17. (1821) ; 
Meyer de Houttuynia otque Saurureis, 51. (1827) ; Blume Flora Javw, (1829.) 

Essential Character. — Flowers naked, spiked, hermaphrodite, or unisexual, with 
a supporting scale. Stamens lateral; if more than 1, connate, definite; awf Am 1 -celled, 


bursting longitudinally, each adnate to a fleshy connective, which coheres laterally in 
various degrees (2-celled, according to some) ; filament slightly adhering to the ovary. 
Ovary 1-celled; stigma simple, sessile; ovule pendulous. Fruit drupaceous, indehiscent. 
Seed pendulous ; embryo minute, placed at the apex of fleshy albumen, with the radicle 
inferior, and consequently remote from the hilum ; cotyledons divaricate. — Herbaceous 
plants or under-shrubs, with an aromatic taste. Stems jointed, tumid under the articula- 
tions. Leaves opposite, simple, with sheathing petioles and minute intervening stipules. 
Flowers in terminal spikes. 

Affinities. Nearly allied to Saururacese and Piperaceae, from both which 
they differ in the want of a sac to the embryo, and in the pendulous ovule, 
and opposite leaves mth intermediate stipules. Their anthers consist of a 
fleshy mass, upon the face of which the cell lies that bears the pollen ; whe- 
ther these anthers are 1- or 2-celled, is a matter of doubt; one botanist con- 
sidering those which have 2 cells to be double anthers, another un- 
derstanding those with 1 cell to be half anthers. Blume describes a calyx 
as being sometimes present in a rudimentary state, adhering to the ovary, and 
hence he suspects some aflinity between these plants and Opercularinese. But 
I am persuaded that no such rudiment exists : it is not represented in Blume’s 

Geography. Natives of the hot parts of India and South America, the 
West Indies, and Society Islands, 

Properties. The whole plant of Chi. officinalis has an aromatic fragrant 
odour, which is gradually dissipated in drpng ; but its roots retain a fragrant 
camphorated smell, and an aromatic, somewhat bitter, flavour. They are 
found to possess very nearly the properties of Aristolochia serpentaria, and in 
as high a degree. TTiere seems to be no doubt that it is a stimulant of the 
highest order. See Blume FI. Jav. 


Ascarina, Forst. Creodus, Lour. Hedyosmum, Sw. 

Chloranthus, Sw. Cryphcea, Hamilt. Tafalla, Ruiz et Pav. 

Nigrina, Thumb. Peperidia, Rchb. 


Saurure^, Rich. Anal. (1808) ; Meyer de Houttuynia atque Saurureis, (1827) ; 

Martius Hort. Monac. ( 1 829) . 

Essential Character. — Flowers naked, seated upon a scale, hermaphrodite. Stamens 
6, clavate, hypogynous, persistent ; filaments slender ; anthers continuous with the filament, 
cuneate, with a thick connective and 2 lateral lobes bursting longitudinally. Ovaries 4, 
each distinct, with 1 ascending ovule and a sessile recurved stigma, or connate into a 3- or 
4- celled pistil, with a few ovules ascending from the edge of the projecting semi- dissepi- 
ments. Fruit either consisting of 4 fleshy indehiscent nuts, or a 3- or 4-celled capsule, 
opening at the apex and containing a few ascending seeds. Seeds with a membranous inte- 
gument ; emhi'yo minute, lying in a fleshy lenticular sac, which is seated on the outside of 
hard mealy albumen at the end most remote from the hilum. — Herbaceous plants, growing 
in marshy places, or floating in water. Leaves alternate, with stipules. Hairs jointed. 
Flowers growing in spikes. 

Affinities. Very near Piperacese, with which they agree in habit, but 
from which they differ in the compound nature of their ovary, and their nu- 
merous stamens. From repeated examination of the embryo of Saururus, I 
have no doubt whatever that the embryo has no kind of vascular connexion 
with the sac that contains it ; and hence I adopt, the opinion of Browm, that 
-this sac is in reality nothing but the remains of the amnios surrounding the 
embryo. For the opinions of Mirbel and Richard upon this subject, sec the 


figures and remarks of the former in Ann. Mus. 16. 449., and of the latter in 
Humboldt and Bonpl. N. Gen. et Sp. 1. 3.; the latter being unquestionably 
wrong in considering the sac a portion of the embryo. Tliis order is one 
of those which tend to destroy the distinction between Monocotyledons and 
Dicotyledons. Its affinity with Fluviales is indicated by the floating habit 
and general appearance of Aponogeton, and with Typhacese by its anthers ; 
but its foliage and stipules are those of Dicotyledons, and the structure of the 
seed and the position of the embryo in a fles% sac demonstrate its vicinity to 

Geography. Natives of North America, China, the north of India, and 
the Cape of Good Hope, growing in marshes or pools of water. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Houttuynia, Thunb. Saururus, L, 
Polycarpa, Lour. Spathium, Lour. 

Aponogeton, Thunb. 

Order CXXXV. PIPERACE^E. The Pepper Tribe. 

PiPERACEiE, Rich, in Humb. Bonpl. et Kunth N. G. et Sp. PI. 1. 39. t. 3. (1815) ; 

Meyer de Houttuynia atque Saurureis, (1827). 

Essential Character. — Flowers naked, hermaphrodite, with a bract on the outside. 
Stamens definite or indefinite, arranged on one side or all round the ovary, to which they 
adhere more or less; anthers 1- or 2-celled, with or without a fleshy connective ; pollen 
smooth. Ovary superior, simple, 1 -celled, containing a single erect ovule; stigma sessile, 
j simple, rather oblique. Fruit superior, somewhat fleshy, indehiscent, 1 -celled, 1 -seeded. 
Seed erect, with the embryo lying in a fleshy sac placed at that end of the seed which is 
opposite the hilum, on the outside of the albumen. — Shrubs or herbaceous plants. Leaves 
opposite, verticillate, or alternate in consequence of the abortion of one of the pair of 
i leaves, without stipules. Flowers usually sessile, sometimes pedicellate, in spikes which 
i are either terminal, or axillary, or opposite the leaves. 

Affinities. As we approach the Monocotyledonous division of vegeta- 
bles, we find the distinction between them and Dicotyledons, as derived from 
their anatomical structure, becoming weaker and weaker ; but at the same time 
it appears to me that sufficient distinctions are still visible between these two 
modes of growth. Of this Piperacese are an instance. According to Richard, 
they are Monocotyledonous ; an opinion in which Blume concurs, after 
an examination of abundance of species in their native place of growth. See 
Ann. des Sc. 12. 222. But if the medullary rays constitute the great anatomi- 
cal difference between these divisions of the vegetable kingdom (and I know 
of no other which is absolute), then Piperacese are surely Dicotyledonous, as is 
shewn by Meyer {Dissertatio de Houttuynia, 38) and as may be ascertained by 
any one who will look at an old stem of any Pepper ; add to this, the veins of 
their leaves having a distinct articulation with the stem, and the 2-lobed em- 
bryo ; and it seems to me impossible to doubt their being properly stationed 
among Dicotyledons. In this view they are closely related to Polygonacese, 
Saururacese, and Urticacese, from all which, however, they are distinguished 
by obvious characters ; and also to Chloranthacese, from which they diff’er in 
the point of attachment of the ovule, and in the distinct existence of the remains 
of the amnios in the form of a sac around the embryo. In the opinion of those 
I who believe Piperacese to be Monocotyledons, their station is near Aracese, with 


which, indeed, they must be considered in any point of view to be in some 
measure connected. 

Geography. Exclusively confined to the hottest parts of the world. 
They are extremely common in tropical America and the Indian archipelago, 
but, according to Brown, are very rare in equinoctial Africa. Only 3 species 
have been found on the west coast ; several exist at the Cape of Good Hope. 
Congo, 464. 

Properties. Common Pepper, so well known for its pungent, stimulant, 
aromatic quality, represents the ordinary property of the order, which is not 
confined to the fruit only, but which pervades all the parts in a greater or less 
degree. The Cubebs of the shops, remarkable for their extraordinary power 
of allaying inflammation in the m'ethra and in the mucous membrane of the 
intestinal canal, are the dried fiiiit of Piper cubeba. Ainslie, 1. 98. The 
chemical principle called Piperin has been found in Black Pepper. Turner, 700. 
Piper anisatum has a strong smell of Anise, and a decoction of its berries is 
used to wash ulcers. Betel, an acrid stimulating substance, much used for 
chewing by the Malays, is the produce of Piper Betel, and Siriboa. Finally, 
P. inebrians possesses narcotic properties, of which the South Sea islanders 
avail themselves for preparing an intoxicating beverage. DC. 


Piper, L. Ottonia, Spr. 

Peperomia, R. et P. Laurea, Gaud. 

Alliance II. SALICALES, 

Essential Character. — Flowers amentaceous. Fruit mostly many-seeded, when 1- 
seeded in globular heads. 

This and the next are the only aUiances in this group in which an 
arborescent stature is acquired. By this circumstance they are at once dis- 
tinguished. From Monimiales the want of an involucre in Siicales sufficiently 
separates that alhance. 

Order CXXXVI. SALICACE.E. The Willow Tribe. 

'AMENTACE.E, Juss. Geu. 407. (1789) in part; Lindl. Synops. § 229. (1829). — Salicine.®, 
L. C. Richard MSS.; Ach. Richard. Elem. de la Bot.ed, 4. 560. (1828). 

Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual, either monoecious or dioecious, amen- 
taceous. Stamens distinct or monadelphous ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary superior, 1- or 2- 
celled ; ovules numerous, erect, at the base of the cell or adhering to the lower part of the 
sides; style 1 or 0 ; stigmas 2. Fruit coriaceous, 1- or 2-celled, 2-valved, many-seeded. 
Seeds either adhering to the lower part of the axis of each valve, or to the base of the cell, 
comose ; albumen 0 ; embryo erect ; radicle inferior. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, 
simple, with deliquescent primary veins, and frequently with glands ; stipules deciduous or 

Affinities. The hairy seeds, and polyspermous 2-valved fruit, dis- 
tinguish this order from Betulaceae, the only other with which it is likely to be 
confounded. It is usually combined with that order and Cupuliferae, under 
the name of Amentacese ; but it is more consonant with modem views of divi- 
sion to keep them all separate. 

Geography. Natives, generally, of the same localities as Betulaceae, but 


extending further to the north than the species of that order. The most 
northern woody plant that is known is a kind of Willow, Salix arctica. They 
are found sparingly in Barbary, and there is a species of Willow even in 

Properties. Valuable trees, either for their timber or for economical 
purposes ; the Willow, the Sallow, and the Poplar, being the representatives. 
Their bark is usually astringent, tonic, and stomachic ; that of Pop ulus 
tremuloides is known as a febrifuge in the United States ; the leaves of Salix 
herbacea, soaked in water, are employed in Iceland for tanning leather. 
Willow bai'k has been found by Davy to contain as much tanning principle as 
that of the Oak. Ed. P.J.l. 320. It has lately acquired a great reputation 
in France as a febrifuge. A crystallizable principle, called Salicine, has been 
obtained from Salix helix, which, according to Majendie, arrests the progress 
of a fever with the same power as sulphate of quinia. (See Journ. of the 
R. Inst. Oct. 1830, p. 177). 


SaJix, L. 

Populus, L. 

Order CXXXVII. PLATANACE^E. The Plane Tribe. 

Platane/e, Lestiboudois according to Von Martins. Hort. Reg. Monacensis, p, 46. (1829.) 

Essential Character. — Flowers amentaceous, naked ; the sexes in distinct catkins. 
Stamens single, without any floral envelope, but with several small scales and appendages 
mixed among them ; anthers linear, 2-celled. Ovaries terminated by a thick style, having 
the stigmatic surface on one side ; ovules solitary, or two, one above the other, and sus- 
pended. Nuts, in consequence of mutual compression, clavate, with a persistent recurved 
style. Seeds solitary, or rarely in pairs, pendulous, elongated ; testa thick ; embryo long, 
taper, lying in the axis of fleshy albumen, with the radicle turned to the extremity next 
(opposite, A. Rich.) the hilum . — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, palmate, or toothed, 
with scarious sheathing stipules. Catkins round, pendulous. 

Affinities. Formerly comprehended in the order called Amentacese, 
this is particularly known by its round heads of flowers, its 1 -celled ovary, 
containing 1 or 2 pendulous ovules, and its embryo lying in fleshy albu- 
men, by which it is distinguishable from both Betulacese, Myricaceae, and 
Artocarpeae, with all which, especially the latter, it has a close affinity. From 
the latter, indeed, it is chiefly known by the want of calyx, by the presence 
of albumen, and the absence of milk ; the habit of the two orders being much 
the same. Bartling combines Platanus with Artocarpeae, perhaps rightly. 
According to Gaertner, the radicle is next the hilum; according to Achille 
Richard {Diet. Class. 14. 23.), it is at the other extremity. 

Geography. Natives of Barbary, the Levant, and North America. 

Properties. Noble timber-trees, the wood of which is extremely valu- 
able; the bark of Platanus is remarkable for falling oflf in hard irregular 
patches, a circumstance which arises from the rigidity of its tissue, on account 
of which it is incapable of stretching as the wood beneath it increases in 


Platanus, L. 



Balsamiflu^, Blume FI. Javce. 

Essential Character. — Catkins unisexual, roundish. Males : Anthers numerous, 
oblong, nearly sessile ; with no calyx, but mixed with a few minute scales and covering the 
common receptacle. : Ovaries 2-celled, collected into a globe, each surrounded by 
a few scales ; styles 2, long. Fruit a kind of cone composed of indurated connected scales, 
in the cavities of which lie obconical, 2~lobed, 2-celled capsules. Seeds numerous, or soli- 
tary by abortion, compressed, membranous, winged, attached internally to the middle of 
the dissepiments in a peltate manner. Embryo inverted, in the midst of albumen. — Tall 
trees, yielding balsam. Leaves alternate, simple or lobed, with glandular serratures at the 
edges. Stipules deciduous. Female catkins on longer stalks than the males, and below 
them. Blume. 

Affinities. Especially known from all the neighbouring' orders by their 
2-lohed, 2-celled polyspermous capsules, and their albuminous embryo. They 
are nearest Betulacese in the structure of their fruit. Their balsamic products 
have no parallel among similar plants, except in a slight degree in Salicacese. 

Geography. The tropics of India, and the warmer parts of North 
America and the Levant, are the countries of this order. 

Properties. The fragrant resin Storax is yielded by several species of 


Liquidambar, L. 

Altingia, Nor. 


Essential Character. — Flowers placed within an involucre. Sexes distinct. Aromatic 
trees or shrubs. 

In this alliance we have the same form among Incomplete plants as 
Euphorbia exhibits in Polypetalous ones, namely, an involucre assuming the 
appearance of a calyx and enclosing in its cavity a number of simple, perfectly 
naked, monandrous or monogynous flowers. Further than this, there seems 
no relation with Monimiales and Euphorbia ; the former are much more closely 
akin to Urticacese, with which they accord in the nature of their carpels, and 
in the general character of the receptacle-like involucre of such plants as Am- 
bora, &c. Their naked flowers and aromatic opposite leaves are sufficient to 
distinguish them. Bartling assigns the alliance pellucid dots in the leaves ; 
but although they exist in Ruizia they are by no means universal. 


Monimie.-e, Juss. in Ann. Mus. 14. 130. (1809) ; DC. Ess. Med. 265. (1816) ; Bartl. Ord. 
Nat. 103. (1830) ; Arnott in Edinb. Encycl. 129. (1832). 

Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual. Involucre tubular, toothed or lobed at the 
apex, with valvular aestivation. indefinite, covering all the inside of the involucre ; 

anthers 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Ovaries several, superior, 1 -celled, distinct, en- 
closed within the tube of the involucre, each with its own style and stigma ; ovule pendu- 
lous. Fruit consisting of several 1 -seeded nuts, enclosed within the enlarged involucre. 
Seed pendulous ; embryo in the midst of an abundant albumen ; radicle superior. — Aroma- 


tic trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, without stipules. Hairs stellate. Flower heads axil- 
lary, in short racemes. 

Affinities. Allied to Urticaceae, from which they differ principally in 
their naked flowers enclosed within a calyx dike involucre, and in their oppo- 
site aromatic leaves ; also to Lauracese, from which they are known by the 
dehiscence of their anthers, the number of their ovaries, and their naked 
flowers ; and to Atherospermacese, which agree in sensible qualities, and in 
the number of their ovaries, but which differ in the dehiscence of the anthers, 
and in the erect position of the ovules. With Calycanthaceae they have also 
some relation. 

Geography. All natives of South America. 

Properties. All the parts of the bark and leaves exhale an aromatic 
odour, which is compared by travellers to that of Laurels or Myrtles. DC. 
Ruizia, the Boldu of Chili, produces a succulent fruit which is eaten by the 
natives. Both the wood and leaves are very fragrant ; the former makes a 
kind of charcoal, which is preferred beyond all other kinds by smiths. Bridges 
in litt. 


Ambora, Juss. Ruizia, R. et Pav. Mithridatea, Comm. Mollinedia, R. et P. 

Tambourissa, Sonn. Boldea, Juss. Brongniartia, Bl. 

Monimia, Pet. Thou. Peumus, Pers. 


Atherosperme.®, R. Brown in Flinders, 553. (1814) ; Amottin Edinb. Encycl. 130. (1832). 

Essential Character. — Flowers unisexual. Involucre calyx-like, tubular, divided at 
the top into several segments, usually placed in two rows, the inner of which is partly 
petaloid ; to these are superadded some scales in the female involucres. Stamens in the 
males very numerous in the bottom of the involucre, with scales among them ; in the 
females fewer, and arising from the orifice of the involucre; anthers adnate, 2-celled, 
bursting with a valve which separates from the base to the apex. Ovaries several in each 
involucre, usually indefinite, each with a single erect ovule ; styles simple, arising either 
from the side or the base ; stigmas simple. Nuts terminated by the persistent styles 
become feathery, enclosed in the enlarged tube of the involucre. Seed solitary, erect ; 
embryo short, erect, at the base of soft, fleshy albumen ; radicle inferior. — Trees. Leaves 
opposite, without stipules. Flower-heads axillary, solitary. 

Affinities. The anthers of this order are the same as those of Lauracese 
and Berberaceae, from the latter of w^hich they differ entirely, but with the 
former of which they agree in their aromatic odour. The order is nearly 
related to Monimiaceae, with which it is even combined by Jussieu and Bart- 
ling ; but it diflers in the position of the o\mle, and in the structure of the 

Geography. Natives of New Holland and South America. 

Properties. Aromatic shrubs. 


Atherosperma, Lab. Laurelia, Juss. Citrosma, R. et P. 

Pavonia, R. et P. 


Essential Character. — Flowers solitary. Carpels 2, or 3, combined. Seeds very 
numerous and minute. Obscure water plants, either with minute leaves, or with the stem 


and leaves all confounded in one broad mass, or else with the latter decomposed into capil-' 
lary segments. 

The discovery of the genus Philocrene, which has three sepals, diminishes 
the probability of this alliance being rightly grouped, and the observations by 
Bongard, who considers the supposed sterile stamens of Podostemum to be in 
reality an imperfect calyx, induce me still more to suspect it should be stationed in 
the Rectembryose group near Lacistemaceae. Nevertheless I allow it to retain 
its present place until further infonnation can be had concerning the African 
portion of the order. If there is any type of structure more nearly approaching 
that of Asexual plants, or Acrogens, than any other, it must he surely this 
which with the habit of Marchantiaceae and Jungermanniaceae has so much 
he structure of flowering plants. According to Bongard, the species have neither 
spiral vessels, nor stomates ; the latter would of course be absent on account 
of the submersed habits of the species of Mourera to which his observations 
chiefly apply. 


PodostemejE, Richard and Kunth in Humb. N. G. et Sp. 1. 246. (1815); Martins Nov. 

G. et Sp. 1. 6. (1822) ; Bartl, Ord. Nat. 72. (1830) ; Arnott in Edinh. Encycl. p. 

137. (1832) ; Bongard in VAcad. Imp. Petersb. FI. ser. III. 69. (1834). 

Essential Character. — Flowers naked, or with a very imperfect calyx, or with 3 
sepals, hermaphrodite, bursting through an irregularly lacerated spathe. Stamens hypogy- 
nous, varying from 1 to an indefinite number, either placed all round the ovary or on one 
side of it, distinct or monadelphous ; anthers oblong, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. 
Ovary 2- or 3-celled, with numerous ovules attached to a fleshy central placenta; styles or 
stigmas 2 or 3, and sessile. Fruit slightly pedicellate, ribbed, capsular, opening by 2 or 
3 valves, which fall off from the dissepiment, which is parallel with them. Seeds nume- 
rous, minute, according to Von Martins, entirely homogeneous ; but according to Bongard 
containing an exalbuminous dicotyledonous embryo. — Herbaceous branched floating plants 
[without stomates or spiral vessels. Bong.'] . Leaves capillary, or linear, or lacerated irre- 
gularly, or minute and densely imbricated, decurrent on the stem, with which they are 
not articulated. Flowers axillary or terminal, inconspicuous. 

Affinities. Von Martins has the following remarks upon this curious 
order. “ It is very doubtful in what part of the natural series Podostemese 
should be arranged ; for they are connected with so many other orders, in so 
various and complicated a manner, that it is highly probable that several 
genera, the affinities of which will be more apparent, still remain to be dis- 
covered. Nothing can be more singular than the mixture of different charac- 
ters which they exhibit. Thus, the stnicture of their spathes, and the want 
of a true calyx and corolla, approximate them to Naiades (Fluviales) and 
Araceae, while the character of their stamens and fruit is very much that of 
Juncaginacea? ; the former of these, however, differ in their lower degree of 
organisation, and the latter in the presence of a more or less perfect perianth, 
and in the composition of their capsule. Ijemna, a genus closely aUied to 
Aracese, seems to be more related to them in its spathe, h}T)ogynous stamens, 
habit, and mode of life, but is distinguished by its less highly developed few- 
seeded fruit. Again Mniopsis, in its ramification, in the form and position of 
its leaves, and in its stipules, and Lacis and Podostemum in the character of 
their spathe and the emersion of their pedicels at the time of flowering, caU 
remarkably to mind the habit of Jungermannise ; so that we should probably 
not be far from the truth, if we were to say that this order forms a transition 
from Naiades (Fluviales) to Juncaginaceae, on the one hand touching upon 
Araceae, thus being, as it were, a sort of noble analogy of Hepaticae among 
monocotyledons.” Nov. G. et Sp. 1. 7. Upon this it was difficult to make 


any additional remark, so long as no more was known of the structure of 
Podostemaceae. It however always appeared to me impossible to concur in 
opinion with Kunth, Richard, von Martins, Arnott, &c. who considered the 
order monocotyledonous ; for the following reasons. In the first place, the 
habit is that of dicotyledons, as for instance Podostemum of a starved pepper ; 
Mourera and Lacis of Ranunculaceae, not only in the resemblance of their 
leaves to those of aquatic Ranunculi, but in that of their flowers to those of 
Thalictrum ; Hydrostachys has its flowers arranged in the way of those 
of Saururus. Moreover the vernation of the leaves of Mourera is that of 
dicotyledons rather than of monocotyledons. These reasons have not appeared 
satisfactory to Bongard, who accordingly adopts the opinion of Martius and 
others ; it is not a little curious, however, that this clever botanist should 
himself have furnished the first and only direct evidence that has yet been 
offered, that Podostemaceee are really dicotyledonous, and consequently that 
he is in the wrong ; for although he calls the embryo, p. 70, monocotyle- 
donous, he represents it t. 3 and 5, as dicotyledonous, as it moreover evidently 
is, from the terms of his own description. 

Geography. Natives of rocks in rivers, still waters and damp places in 
South America and the islands off the east coast of Africa ; 1 species is found 
in North America. 

Properties. Some species of Lacis yield, when burnt, a considerable 
quantity of salt from their- ashes: Schomburgk. 


Podosteinon, Mich. Mourera, Aubl. (23.) Philocrene, Bong. Hydrostachys, Thou ar. 

? Dicroeia, Pet. Th. Marathrum, Humb. Mniopsis, Martius. Tristicha, Thouars. 

Lacis, Schreb. Crenias, Spreng. 


Essential Character — Carpels several, combined in a solid pistil, single-seeded. 
Floating plants. 


Callitrichine^e, Link Enum. 1. 7. (1821); Lavielle in Ann. Soc. Linn. Par. p. 229. 

(1824); DC. Prodr. 3. 71. (1828); a § of Haloragese. Lindl. Synops. 242. 


Essential Character. — Flowers usually unisexual, monoecious, naked, with 2 fistular 
coloured bracts. Stamens single ; filaments filiform, furrowed along the middle ; anther 
reniform, 1 -celled, 2-valved; the valves opening fore and aft. Ovary solitary, 4-cornered, 
4-celled; oumZcs solitary, peltate ; styles 2, right and left, subulate; stigmas simple points. 
Fruit 4- celled, 4-seeded, indehiscent. Seeds peltate ; embryo inverted in the axis of fleshy 
albumen ; radicle very long, curved, superior ; cotyledons very short. — Small aquatic her- 
baceous plants, with opposite, simple, entire leaves. Flowers axillary, solitary, very minute. 

Affinities. I have remarked in my Synopsis, that “ the affinity of this 
order to other dicotyledons appears to be of the same nature as that borne by 
Lemna to monocotyledons : they each exhibit the lowest degree of organisa- 
tion known in their respective classes.” Brown considers the order aUied to 
Haloragese : an opinion in which there is much plausibility, and in which 
Botanists seem to be generally disposed to concur. The great objection to it 
is this ; Haloragese are a reduced form of Onagracese, with the petals often 



absent, and the calyx sometimes diminished to what seems a mere rim ; but in 
reality, in consequence of the ovary being inferior, the whole of the tube of 
the calyx as well as its rim remains adhering to the ovary, so that the calyx 
is not in fact materially diminished ; but Callitrichacese are absolutely achlamy- 
deous. Now I think we have only one instance among Polypetalous Exogens 
of an entire loss of both calyx and corolla, and that is in the genus Euphorbia ; 
but in that instance the non-developement of those organs is probably owing 
to the want of room for their formation in the contracted involucre within 
whose tube they are crowded ; but in CaUitrichaceae no pressure whatever is 
exercised, but the flow^ers are at liberty to develope to whatever extent their 
nature will admit of. For these reasons I consider that Callitrachaceae are to 
be looked upon as an absolutely achlamydeous order, and that being the case, 
it wdll necessarily take its place where I have now stationed it. It is quite 
true that no veiy striking affinity can be pointed out as yet between it and 
the other parts of the Achlamydeous group ; but neither can this be done if it 
is referred to Onagrales, and yet that alliance, compared with Achlamydosse, 
is very completely known. If it is said that its floating habit assimilates it 
with Myriophyllum in Haloragese, so does the same habit associate it with 
Podostemaceee. It is hardly worth pushing this discussion further, but other 
points worth notice will readily suggest themselves to any experienced 

Geography. Natives of still waters in Europe and North America. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Callitriche, L. 

Group III. C^ubiferoi^ae* 

Essential Character. — Calyx tubular, often resembling a corolla. Ovary in most 
cases simple. Embryo never curved round albumen. 

Tliis may be considered as upon the whole,- the most highly developed 
form of Incompletee, the calyx being in all respects as perfect as that of Poly- 
petalse, and in some instances appendages at its orifice being produced which 
are analogous to petals, as in Thymelacese ; in those cases, however, the suc- 
culent nature of the appendages, their not withering away, the absence of spi- 
ral vessels from them, concur to refer them to abortions of the petaline rather 
than of the staminal series. It is here that we have one of the most direct tran- 
sitions to the Polypetalous sub class, for the relation of Daphnales to Rham- 
nales, of Proteales to Loranthacese, and of Lauracese to Myristicacese, are not 
to be questioned. The only cases in which this group can be confounded with 
any other, are in such plants as Scleranthaceae or Nyctaginacese ; but those 
have an embryo curved round mealy albumen, and besides are readily to be re- 
cognised after a little study. 

Alliance I. SANTALALES, 

Essential Character. — Calyx adherent to the sides of the ovary. Anthers opening 
by longitudinal fissures. 


Order CXLIII. SANTALACEiE. The Sanders-Wood Tribe. 

SANTALACEiE, R. Brown Prodr. 350. (1810) ; Juss. Diet, des Sc. Nat. 47. 287. (1827) ; 
Lindl. Synops. 207. (1829); Bartling Ord. Nat. 112. (1830) ; Arnott in Edinb. 
Encycl. 128. (1832). — OsYRiDEiE, Juss. in Ann. Mus. vol. 5. (1802) ; Martins Con- 
spectus, No. 82. (1835). — Nyssace^, Juss. in Diet, des Sciences, 35. 267. (1825). 
Martins Conspectus, No. 88. (1835). — Osyrin^, Link Handh. 1. 371. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 4- or 5- cleft, half-coloured, with valvate 
aestivation. Stamens 4 or 5, opposite the segments of the calyx, and inserted into their 
bases. Ovary 1 -celled, with from 1 to 4 ovules, fixed to the top of a central placenta near 
the summit ; style 1; often lobed. Fruit 1 -seeded, hard and dry, and drupaceous. 

Albumen fieshy, of the same form as the seed ; embryo in the axis, inverted, taper. — Trees 
or shrubs, sometimes under -shrubs or herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, or nearly oppo- 
site, undivided, sometimes minute, and resembling stipules. Flowers in spikes, seldom in 
umbels, or solitary, small. R. Br. 

Anomalies. Osyris differs in its dioecious flowers, in having a trifid calyx with only 
three stamens, and, according to the younger Gaertner, an erect seed with an embryo curved 
and lying a little out of the axis of the albumen, with its radicle superior, and therefore 
turned away from the hilum. 

Affinities. I consider their inferior fruit the true mark of this order, and 
that Anthobolese ought to be referred to Thymelacese. It is closely allied to 
Elseagnaceae and Thymelacese. Brown observes {Flinders, 569.) that one of 
the most remarkable characters of the order consists in its unilocular ovary 
containing more than one, but always a determinate number of ovules, which 
are pendulous, and attached to the apex of a central receptacle. This recep- 
tacle varies in its figure in the difi’erent genera, in some being filiform, in 
others nearly fiUing the cavity of the ovary. I refer Nyssaceae here, with- 
out any doubt. According to Jussieu, who is the only botanist that has much 
noticed that tribe, it contains but the single genus Nyssa, differing from 
Elaeagnaceae in its inferior ovary, albuminous pendulous seed, and superior ra- 
dicle. It is more nearly allied to Santalaceae ; but its ovary contains, instead 
of three ovules adhering to a central placenta, one only, which is pen- 
dulous, and its embryo is not cylindrical, but has enlarged foliaceous cotyle- 

Geography. Found in Europe and North America, in the form of little 
obscure weeds ; in New Holland, the East Indies, and the South Sea Islands, 
as large shnibs, or small trees. 

Properties. Sanders-wood is the produce of Santalum album. In In- 
dia it is esteemed by the native doctors as possessing sedative and cooling 
qualities, and as a valuable medicine in gonorrhoea. It is also employed as 
a perfume. Ainslie, 1. 377. The Thesiums are scentless and slightly astrin- 
gent. DC. 


Thesium, L. 
Comandra, Nutt. 
Leptomeria, R. Br. 
Stemonurus, Blume. 
Choretum, R. Br. 
Pyrularia, Mich. 
Hamiltonia, Willd. 

Calinux, Rafin. 
Osyris, L. 

? Helwingia, Willd. 
Grubbia, Berg. 
Arjona, Cav. 

Ophira, L, 

Quinchamalium, Jus 
Fusanus, L. 

Colpoon, Berg. 
Sphserocarya, Wall. 
Santalum, L. 
Sirium, L. 

Myoschilos, R. et P. 
Nyssa, L. 

? Octarillum, Lour. 
Pseudanthus, Sieb. 

? Cevallia, Lag. 

? Cervantesia, FI. Per. 



Alliance II. DAPHNALES, 

Essential Character. Calyx inferior, with an imbricated aestivation. Carpel soli- 
tary. Anthers opening by longitudinal fissures. 

Only differ from Penaeales in the compound structure of the fruit of the 

Order CXLIV. EL.^AGNACEiE. The Oleaster Tribe. 

ELiEAGNi, Juss. Gen. 15. (1789). — En^EAGNEiE, Ach. Rich. Monogr. (1823) ; Lindl. Synopsis, 
208. (1829) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 113. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Flowers dioecious, rarely hermaphrodite. Male : Calyx 4- 
parted ; stamens 3, 4, or 8, sessile ; anthers 2-celled. Female : Calyx inferior, tubular, 
persistent; the entire, or 2-4-toothed. Ovary superior, simple, 1 -celled; ovule soli- 
tary, ascending, stalked ; stigma simple, subulate, glandular. Fruit crustaceous, enclosed 
within the calyx become succulent. Seed erect ; embryo straight, surrounded by very thin 
fleshy albumen ; radicle short, inferior ; cotyledons fleshy. — Trees or shrubs, usually covered 
with leprous scales. Leaves alternate, or opposite, entire, without stipules. Flowers axil- 
lary, often fragrant. 

Affinities. Its leprous leaves, superior fruit, tubular calyx, and apeta- 
lous flowers, will at all times distinguish the Oleaster tribe, which touches at 
one point Thvnnelacese, from which it is known by the position of its ovule ; 
at another Proteacese, known by their valvate irregular calyxes, and dehiscent 
fruit ; at a third Santalacese, which have the ovary inferior ; and also at a 
fourth Combretaceae, which have petals, convolute cot^dedons, and a superior 
calyx. As lepidote, or scurfy leaves, fonn one of the distinguishing marks of this 
little order, it may be worth noticing that the principal natural orders in which 
a similar organization occurs are Malpighiaceae, which are polypetalous and 
tricarpous, Euphorbiaceae which are tricoccous, Rutaceae which are pol)rpeta- 
lous and polycarpous, Solanaceae which are monopetalous, and Chenopodiaceae. 
It is obvious that the latter is the only one of these orders with which Elaeag- 
naceae can be confounded ; and from that they are readily known by their tu- 
bular calyx and straight embryo. 

Geography. Tlie whole of the northern hemisphere, down to the equa- 
tor, is occupied more or less by this family, from Canada and Japan to Guiana 
and Java ; they are comparatively rare south of the line. 

Properties. Tlie berries of Hippophae rhamnoides are occasionally eaten ; 
the fruit of Elseagnus orientalis is almost as large as a Jujube, and is known in 
Persia as an article of the dessert, under the name of Zinzeyd ; that of E. ar- 
borea and conferta is eaten in Nipal. 


Elaeagnus, L. Hippophae, L. 

Shepherdia, Nutt. Conuleum, Rich. 

Order CXLV. THYMELACE^. The Mezereum Tribe. 

ThymeLjEjE, Juss. Gen. 76. (1789) ; R. Br. Prodr. 3.58. (1810) ; Lindley’s Synopsis, 208. 
(1829) ; Bartling Ord. Nat. 114. (1830) ; Arnott in Edinb. Encycl. 127. (1832). — 
Daphnoidee:, Vent. Tabl.II. 235. (1799). — Anthobole/e, Martius Conspectus, No. 
81. (1835). — Exocarpe.®, Arnott in Edinb. Encycl. 128, a § of Santalaceae, (1832). 

Essentiai. Character. — Calyx inferior, tubular, coloured; the limb 4 -cleft, seldom 


f) -cleft, with an imbricated Eestivation. Corolla 0, or sometimes scale-like petals in the 
orifice of the calyx. Stamens definite, inserted in the tube or its orifice, often 8, some- 
times 4, less frequently 2; when equal in number to the segments of the calyx or fewer, 
opposite to them ; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing lengthwise in the middle. Ovary solitary, 
with one solitary pendulous ovule ; style 1 ; stigma undivided. Fruit hard, dry, and nut- 
like, or drupaceous. none, or thin and fleshy ; em6r?/o straight ; cotyledons ^Izxio- 

convex ; radicle short, superior ; plumule inconspicuous. — Stem shrubby, very seldom her- 
baceous, with tenacious bark. Leaves without stipules, alternate or opposite, entire. 
Flowers capitate or spiked, terminal or axillary, occasionally solitary. R. Br. 

Affinities. Closely akin to Santalacese, Elaeagnaceae, and Proteacese, 
from all which the order is readily known by obvious characters ; especially 
from the two latter by the pendulous ovules, and from the former by the in- 
ferior calyx. Aquilariacese, placed by De Candolle near Chailletiacese, among 
polypetalous orders, differ from Thymelacese chiefly in their 2- valved fruit ; the 
scales in the throat of several genera of Thymelacese being of the same nature 
as the bodies called petals in Aquilariacese. I refer Anthobolese here, because 
of their superior fruit, a character which seems to me of more importance 
than the position of the ovules. It appears from the Botanical Appendix to 
Flinders’s Voyage, that there is a very remarkable species of Exocarpus which 
bears its flowers upon the margins of dilated foliaceous branches, after the 
manner of Xylophylla. Martins considers Anthobolese a distinct order, adopt- 
ing in that respect the suggestion of Jussieu ; this great botanist supposed 
that Cervantesia of the Flora Peruviana might possibly belong to them ; it 
seems, however, to belong rather to Santalacese. 

Geography. Natives sparingly of Europe, and the northern parts of the 
world, common in the cooler parts of India and South America, and abundant 
at the Cape of Good Hope and in New Holland. 

Properties. The great feature of this order is the causticity of the bark, 
which acts upon the skin as a vesicatory, and causes excessive pain in the 
mouth if chewed. A decoction of it is said to have been found useful in ve • 
nereal complaints. The berries of Daphne Laureola are poisonous to all ani- 
mals except birds. DC. The bark is composed of interlaced fibres, which 
are extremely tough, but which are easily separable ; in Jamaica a species is 
found which is called the Lace Bark Tree, in consequence of the beauti- 
fully reticulated appearance of the inner bark : cordage has been manu- 
factured from several species. A very soft kind of paper is made from 
the inner bark of Daphne Bholua, in Nipal. DC. Prodr. 68. Daphne 
Gnidium and Passerina tinctoria are used in the south of Europe to dye wool 


Dirca, L. 

Lagetta, Juss. 
Daphne, L. 
Scopolia, L. fil. 
Capura, L. 
Linostoma, Wall. 
Nectandra, Roxb. 

Schoenobiblus, Mart. 
Diarthron, Turcz. 
Passerina, L. 

Stellera, L. 
Struthiola, L. 
Lachnaea, L. 

Dais, L. 

Gnidia, L. 

Struthia, Roy. 
Thymelina, Hsgg. 
Pimelea, Banks. 
Thecanthus, Wikstr. 
Drapetes, Lam. 
Cansiera, Juss. 
Eriosolena, Bl. 



Wikstrbmia, Endl. 
Neea, R. et P. 

§ ANTHOBOLEiE, Bartl. 
Anthobolus, R. Br. 
Exocarpus, Lab. 


Hernandie/e, Blume Bijdr. 550. (1825) ; Arnott in Edinb. Encycl. 126. (1832). 

Essential Character. — Flowers moncEcious or hermaphrodite, with a calycine invo- 
lucel to the females or hermaphrodites. Calyx petaloid, inferior, tubular, 4-8-parted, deci-. 


duous. Stamens definite, inserted into the calyx in two rows, of which the outer is often 
sterile; bursting longitudinally. Ouary superior, 1 -celled; ovule pendulous; style 

1, or none ; peltate. Drupe fibrous, 1 -seeded. Seed solitary, pendulous ; embryo 

without albumen, inverted ; cotyledons somewhat lobed, shrivelled, oily. — Trees. Leaves 
alternate, entire. Spikes or corymbs axillary or terminal. 

Affinities. Adopted from Blume. It appears very near Thymelacese, 
differing almost solely in the fibrous drupaceous fruit, lobed cotyledons, and 
the presence of a sort of involucre to the female or hermaphrodite flowers. 
Hernandia has been hitherto referred to Lauracese or Myristicacese, from both 
of which it is obviously very different. 

Geography. Natives of the Indian archipelago and Guiana. 

Properties. The bark, seed, and young leaves, are all slightly purgative. 
According to Rumphius, the fibrous roots of Hernandia sonora, chewed and 
applied to wounds caused by the Macassar poison, forai an effectual cure. The 
juice of its leaves is a powerful depilatory ; it destroys hair wherever it is ap- 
plied, without pain. The wood appears to he very light. According to Au- 
blet, that of H. guianensis takes fire readily from a flint and steel, and is used 
as amadou. The seeds of Inocarpus are entire, and have a taste similar to 


Hernandia, L. 

Inocarpus, Forst. 

Order CXLVII. AQUILARIACE^E. The Agallochum Tribe. 

Aquilarine.®, R. Brown Cong. p. 25. (1818) ; DC. Prodr. 2. 59. (1825) ; Royle Illustr. 

171. (1835). 

Essential Character. — CaZya? turbinate or tubular ; limb 5 -cleft; segments spread- 
ing, persistent, with an imbricated aestivation; the orifice furnished with 10 or 5 bearded 
scales (sterile stamens). Stamens 10 or 5, in the latter case opposite the segments of the 
calyx ; filaments, except where united to the tube of the calyx, short or 0, smooth, inserted 
into the orifice of the calyx a little lower down than the scales. Anthers narrow, oblong, 
attached by their back below the middle, 2-celled, opening internally and lengthwise. 
Ovary superior, sessile or stipitate, downy, compressed, 1 -celled, having internally upon 
each flattened side a linear prominent placenta resembling a dissepiment ; hence spuriously 
2-celled, with a very narrow partition ; ovules two, of which one is suspended from each 
placenta, tapering downwards ; style 0, or conical and threadshaped ; stigma large, simple. 
Capsule pear-shaped, compressed, sessile, or stipitate, 1 -celled, 2-valved; valves bearing in 
the middle the placentae which almost touch each other. Seeds one on each placenta, or 
one sometimes abortive, rising up by aid of a funiculus originating near the apex of the 
placenta ; furnished with a tail-like aril, which descends straight from the hilum to the 
bottom of the capsule ; albumen 0 ; cotyledons thick, fleshy, hemispherical ; radicle straight, 
superior. — Trees. Branches smooth, with a tough bark. Leaves alternate, on short stalks, 
entire, without stipules, when full grown smooth, shining, with very fine veins which run 
together into a marginal vein just within the margin. Arnott in litt. 

Affinities. De Candolle places this order between Chailletiacese and 
Terebintacese, but with indications of doubt, and an erroneous character ; and 
Brown seems willing {Congo, 444.) to consider the order a section of Chaille- 
tiacese, adding, that it would not be difficult to shew its affinity to Th^nnelaceae. 
In this I fully concur, after an examination of a specimen of Aquilaria Agal- 
lochum, for which I am indebted to the East India Company; in fact, 
Aquilariacese chiefly difier from Thymelacese in their dehiscent fruit, and pro- 
bably also in the direction of their radicle. In both orders the ovary is superior 
and 1 -celled, both have similar scale-like bodies at the orifice of the calyx, and 


no petals, both suspended ovules, a single style, and capitate stigma. I am 
indebted to Mr. Amott for an amended character of the order, so framed as 
to include Gyrinops, as also for new generic characters of the two genera. 
Mr. Amott remarks, in confirmation of the affinity between Aquilariaceae and 
Thymelaceae, that the latter have sometimes 10 stamens. 

Geography. Natives of the East Indies. 

Properties. Aloes wood, Agila wood, or Eagle wood, containing a fragrant 
resinous substance, of a dark colour, is the inside of the trunk of the Aquilaria 
ovata and A. Agallochum. It is considered a cordial by some Asiatic nations, 
and has been prescribed in Europe in gout and rheumatism. Ainslie, 1. 4/9. 
For a valuable account of this substance, see Royle, as above quoted. 


Aquilaria, Lam, (24) 

Ophiospermum, Lour. 

Gyrinops, Gaertn. (25) 


Essential Character. — .Estivation of calyx valvate. Stamens opposite its lobes. 
Fruit simple, follicular. 

All the plants of this alliance have a remai’kably hard cuticle ; they are 
clearly known by the above character. 


Proteace^e, Juss. Gen. (1789) ; R. Brown in Linn. Trans. 10. 15. (1809) ; Prodr. 363. 

(1810) ; Suppl.Prim. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4-leaved, or 4-cleft, with a valvular aestivation. Sta- 
mens 4, sometimes in part sterile, opposite the se^ents of the calyx. Ovary simple, supe- 
rior; style simple; stigma undivided. Fruit dehiscent or indehiscent. Seed without 
albumen ; embryo with two, or occasionally several cotyledons, straight ; radicle inferior, — 
Shrubs or small trees. Branches usually umbellate. Leaves hard, dry, divided or undivided, 
opposite or alternate, without stipules ; their cuticle often covered equally on both sides 
with stomates. 

Affinities. There is no difficulty in distinguishing this order ; the hard 
woody texture of whose leaves, and irregular tubular calyxes having a valvate 
aestivation, stamens placed upon the lobes, along with a dehiscent fruit, at 
once characterise it. By these marks it is known from Elaeagnacese, and 
aU other orders. One of the most complete systematic monographs is 
Brown’s upon these, in the Linnsean Society’s Transactions, from which I find 
much to extract. According to this botanist, “ the radicula pointing towards 
the base of the fruit in aU Proteacese, is a circumstance of the greatest im- 
portance, in distinguishing the order from the most nearly related tribes ; and 
its constancy is more remarkable, as it is not accompanied by the usual posi- 
tion or even uniformity in the situation of the external umbilicus.” Linn. 
Trans. 10 . 36. Brown has also remarked, with his usual acuteness, that in 
consequence of the presence of hypogynous squamae, we may expect to find 
octandrous genera belonging to this family. See Flinders, 2. 606. The same 
writer observes {Flinders, 568), that there is a peculiarity in the structure of 
the stamina of certain genera of Proteacese, namely, Simsia, Conospermum, 


and Synaphea, in all of which, these organs are connected in such a manner 
that the cohering lobes of two different anthers form only one cell. Another 
anomaly equally remarkable exists in Synaphea, the divisions of whose barren 
filament so intimately cohere with the stigma, as to be absolutely lost in its 
substance, while the style and undivided part of the filament remain perfectly 
distinct. In another place he remarks : “A circumstance occurs in some spe- 
cies of Persoonia, to which I have met with nothing similar in any other plant : 
the ovarium in this genus, whether it contain one or two ovula, has never 
more than one cell ; but in several of the 2 -seeded species, a cellular substance 
IS, after fecundation, interposed between the ovula, and this gradually indu- 
rating, acquires in the ripe fruit the same consistence as the putamen itself, 
from whose substance it cannot be distinguished ; and thus, a fruit originally 
of one cell becomes bilocular ; the cells, however, are not parallel, as in all 
those cases where they exist in the unimpregnated ovarium, but diverge more 
or less upwards.” Brown in Linn. Trans. 10. 35. This is subsequently 
explained, by the same author {King’s Appendix), by the cohesion of the outer 
membranes of the two collateral ovules, originally distinct, but finally consti- 
tuting this anomalous dissepiment, the inner membrane of the ovule conse- 
quently forming the outer coat of the seed. 

Geography. “ The favourite station of Proteacese is in dry, stony, ex- 
posed places, especially near the shore, where they occur also, though more 
rarely, in loose sand. Scarcely any of them require shelter, and none a good 
soil. A few are found in wet bogs, or even in shallow pools of fresh water ; 
and one, the Embothrium ferrugineum of Cavanilles, grows, according to him, 
in salt marshes. Respecting the height to which plants of this order ascend, 
a few facts are already known. The authors of the Flora Peruviana mention, 
in general terms, several species as being alpine ; and Humboldt, in his valu- 
able Chart of Equinoctial Botany, has given the mean height of Embothrium 
emarginatum about 9300 feet, assigning it a range of only 300 feet. On the 
summits of the mountains of Van Diemen’s Island, in about 43® south lat., at 
the computed height of about 4000 feet, I have found species of Embothrium, 
as well as other genera, hitherto observed in no other situation. Embothrium, 
however, as it is the most southern genus of any extent, so it is also, as might 
have been presumed, the most alpine of the family. Two genera only of this 
order are found in more than one continent ; Rhopala, the most northern 
genus, though chiefly occurring in America, is to be met with also in Cochin 
China, and in the Malay archipelago ; and Embothrium, the most southern 
genus of any extent, is common to New Holland and America. It is remark- 
able, that Proteacese are almost entirely confined to the southern hemisphere. 
This observation originated with Mr. Dryander; and the few exceptions 
hitherto known to it, occur considerably within the tropic. The fact is the 
more deserving of notice, as their diffusion is very extensive in the southern 
hemisphere, not merely in latitude and longitude, but also in elevation ; for 
they are not only found to exist in all the great southern continents, but seem 
to be generally, though very unequally, spread over their different regions : 
they have been observed also in the larger islands of New Zealand and New 
Caledonia ; but hitherto neither in any of the lesser ones, nor in Madagascar. 
As in America they have been found in Terra del Fuego, in Chile, Peru, and 
even Guiana, it is reasonable to conclude that the intermediate regions are not 
entirely destitute of them. But with -respect to this continent, it may be 
observed, that the number of species seems to be comparatively small ; their 
organisation but little varied ; and further, that they have a much greater 
affinity with those of New Holland than of Africa. Of the botany of South 
Africa scarce any thing is known, except that of the Cape of Good Hope, 
where this family occurs in the greatest abundance and variety ; but even from 


the single fact of a genuine species of Protea having been found in Abyssinia 
by Bruce, it may be presumed that in some degree they are also spread over 
this continent. With the shores, at least, of New Holland, under which I 
include Van Diemen’s Island, we are now somewhat better acquainted; and 
in every known part of these, Proteacese have been met with. But it appears, that 
both in Africa and New Holland the great mass of the order exists about the 
latitude of the Cape of Good Hope, in which parallel it forms a striking feature 
in the vegetation of both continents. What I am about to advance respecting 
the probable distribution of this family in New Holland must be very cautiously 
received, as it is in fact chiefly deduced from the remarks I have myself made 
in Captain Flinders’s Voyage, and subsequently during my short stay in the 
settlements of New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Island, aided by what was 
long ago ascertained by Sir Joseph Banks, and by a very transitory inspection 
of an herbarium collected on the west coast, chiefly in the neighbourhood of 
Shark’s Bay, by the botanists attached to the expe^tion of Captain Baudin. 
From knowledge so acquired, I am inclined to hazard the following observa- 
tions : — The mass of the order, though extending through the whole of the 
parallel already mentioned, is by no means equal in every part of it ; but on 
the south-west coast forms a more decided feature in the vegetation of the 
country, and contains a far greater number of species, than on the east ; and 
in that part of the south coast which was first examined by Captain FUnders, 
it seems to be more scanty than at either of the extremes. On the west coast 
also, the species, upon the whole, are more similar to those of Africa than on 
the east, where they bear a somewhat greater resemblance to the American 
portion of the order. From the parallel of the map, the order diminishes in 
both directions ; but the diminution towards the north is probably more rapid 
on the east than on the west coast. Within the tropic, on the east coast, no 
genera have hitherto been observed, which are not also found beyond it ; un- 
less that section of Grevillea, which I have called Cycloptera, be considered as 
a genus : whereas, at the southern limit of the order several genera make 
their appearance, which do not occur in its chief parallel. The most numerous 
genera are also the most widely diffused. Thus Grevillea, Hakea, Banksia, 
and Persoonia, extensive in species in the order in which they are here men- 
tioned, are spread nearly in the same proportion ; and they are likewise the 
only genera that have as yet been observed within the tropic. Of such of the 
remaining genera as consist of several species, some, as Isopogon, Petrophila, 
Conospermum, and Lambertia, are found in every part of the principal parallel, 
but hardly exist beyond it. Others, as Josephea and Synaphea, equally 
limited to this parallel, have been observed only towards its western ex- 
tremity ; while Embothrium (comprehending, for the present, under this name 
all the many-seeded plants of the order), which is chiefly found on the east 
coast, and makes very little progress towards the west, advances to the utmost 
limit of south latitude, and there ascends to the summits of the highest 
mountains. Genera consisting of one or very few species, and which exhibit 
generally the most remarkable deviations from the usual structure of the 
order, are the most local, and are found either in the principal parallel, or in 
the highest latitude. The range of species in the whole of the order seems to 
be very limited ; and the few cases which may be considered as exceptions to 
this, occur in the most extensive genera, and in such of their species as are 
most strictly natives of the shores. Thus Banksia integrifolia, which grows 
more within the influence of the sea than any plant of the order, is probably 
also the most widely extended, at least in one direction, being found within 
the tropic, and in as high a latitude as 40®. It is remarkable, however, that 
with so considerable a range in latitude, its extension in longitude is com- 
paratively small ; and it is still more worthy of notice, that no species of this 


family has been found common to the eastern and western shores of New 
Holland.” Brown in Linn. Trans. 10. 

Properties. Handsome evergreen shrubs, much prized by gardeners for 
the neatness of their appearance, and the beauty or singularity of their flowers ; 
but of no known use, except as fire-wood, for which they are commonly em- 
ployed at the Cape of Good Hope. The fruit of Guevina is sold like nuts in 
the markets of Chile, under the name of Avellano. 


Aulax, Berg. 
Leucadendron, R. Br. 
Conocarpos, Adans. 
Ew'yspermum, Salis. 
Chasm e, Salisb. 
Petrophila, R. Br. 
Isopogon, R. Br. 
Protea, L. 

Erodendron, Salisb. 
Leucospermum, R.Br. 

Diastella, Salisb. 
Mimetes, Salisb. 
Serruria, Salisb. 
Nivenia, R. Br. 
Paranomus, Salisb. 

Sorocephalus, R. Br. 

Soranthe, Salisb. 
Spatalla, Salisb. 
Adenanthos, La Bill. 
Simsia, R. Br. 
Conospermum, Sm. 
Synaphea, R. Br. 
Franklandia, R. Br. 
Symphionema, R.Br. 
Agastachys, R. Br. 
Cenarrhenes, La Bill. 
Persoonia, Sm. 

Linkia, Cav. 
"Brabejum, L. 
Guevina, Mol. 
Quadria, Ruiz. Pav. 

Bellendena, R. Br. 
Anadenia, R. Br. 
Grevillea, R. Br. 
Lyssanthe, Salisb. 
Stylurus, Salisb. 
Hakea, Schrad. 

Conchium, Sm. 
Lambertia, Sm. 
Xylomelum, Sm. 
Orites, R. Br. 
Helicia, Lour. 

Helittophyllum, Bl. 
Ropala, Aubl. 
Rhopala, Schreb. 
Euplassa, Salisb. 

Knightia, R. Br. 
Embothrium, Forst. 
O.ceocallis, R. Br. 
Telopea, R. Br. 

Hylogyne, Salisb. 
Lomatia, R. Br. 

Tricondylus, Salisb. 
Stenocarpus, R. Br. 

Cybele, Salisb. 
Banksia, Linn. f. 
Hemiclidia, R. Br. 
Dryandra, R. Br. 

Josephia, Salisb. 

? Cylindria, Lour. 
Andriopetalum, Pohl. 

Alliance IV. LAUREALES, 

Essential Character. — Anthers opening by valves which curve backwards. Carpels 
solitary, either superior or inferior. 

Order CXLIX. LAURACE^. The Cinnamon Tribe. 

Lauri, Gen. 80. (1789); — LaurinjE, Vent. Tahl. (1799); R. Brown Prodr. 401. 

(1810) ; Nees in Wall. PI. as. rar. 2. 58. (1831) ; Laurin. Expositio, (1833). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4-6-cleft, with imbricated aestivation, the limb some- 
times obsolete. Stamens definite, perigynous, opposite the segments of the calyx, and 
usually twice as numerous ; the 3 innermost, which are opposite the 3 inner segments of 
the calyx, sterile or deficient ; the 6 outermost scarcely ever abortive ; anthers adnate, 
2-4-celled ; the cells bursting by a longitudinal persistent valve from the base to the apex ; 
the outer anthers valved inwards, the inner valved outwards [or both valved inwards] . 
Glands usually present at the base of the inner filaments. Ovary single, superior, with 
one or two single pendulous ovules ; style simple ; stigma obtuse. Fruit baccate or drupa- 
ceous, naked or covered. Seed without albumen ; embryo inverted ; cotyledons large, 
plano-convex, peltate near the base ! ; radicle very short, included, superior ; plumule 
conspicuous, 2-leaved. — Trees, often of great size. Leaves without stipules, alternate, sel- 
dom opposite, entire or very rarely lobed. Inflorescence panicled or umbelled. R.Br. 

Affinities. Distinguished from all incomplete apetalous dicotyledons, 
except Atherospermacese, by the peculiar dehiscence of their anthers, and 
divided from that order by the ovule being pendulous, not erect. In sensible 
qualities they resemble Myristicacese, which are at once known by their uni- 
sexual flowers and columnar stamens. The order has been learnedly illus- 
trated by Nees von Esenbeck, in the places above referred to, and his observa- 
tions are worthy of deep attention from every scientific botanist. I hav-e 


been obliged by him with his latest views of the genera of the order which 
are given in the list that follows this article. 

Geography. Trees inhabiting cool places in the tropics of either hemis- 
phere ; in a very few instances only, straggling to the northward in North 
America and Europe, No genus is known to exist in any part of the conti- 
nent of Africa. This is the more remarkable, as several species of Laurus 
have been found both in Teneriffe and Madeira, and some other genera exist 
in Madagascar, and in the Isles of France and Bourbon, Brown, Congo, 464. 

Properties. It would be difficult to name another order at once so 
important and uniform in its qualities as this, the species being universally 
aromatic, warm, and stomachic. Cinnamon and Cassia are the produce of 
various species ; the most genuine are yielded by Laurus Cinnamomum and 
L. Cassia ; but L. Culilaban and Malabathrum can both be substituted for 
these spices : the Cinnamon of the Isle of France is Laurus cupularis, that of 
Peru is L. Quixos. The Cinnamon of Santa Fe is produced by Laurus Cin- 
namomoides. Hurnh. Cinch. For. 27. Eng. ed. The Sassafras nuts of the 
London shops are the fruit of the Laurus Pucheri of the Flora Peruviana. 
Ibid. Camphor is yielded by Laurus Camphora and other species ; even by 
the Cinnamon tree itself. The properties of all these are due to the presence 
of a volatile oil ; but they also contain in many cases a fixed oil which is sup- 
posed to constitute the principal part of the fruit of Persea gratissima, so much 
esteemed in the West Indies under the name of the Avocado Pear ; the same 
oil appears in the form of a greasy exudation in the fruit of Litsea sebifera. 
A species of Laurus in Sumatra, called by Jack, Parthenoxylon, yields an 
oil useful in rheumatic affections ; and an infusion of the roots is drank as 
sassafras, the qualities of which it resembles. Ed. P. J. 6. 398. The bark 
of Laurus Benzoin is highly aromatic, stimulant, and tonic, and is extensively 
used in North America in intermittent fevers. The oil of the fruit is said to 
be stimulant. Barton, 2. 95. A plant of this family found in the forests of 
Spanish Guiana yields a volatile oil, with a warm and pungent taste and 
aromatic smell. It is employed externally as a discutient, and internally as a 
diaphoretic, diuretic, and resolvent. Ed. P. J. 12. 417. The volatile oil 
obtained from some species of Laurus found in vast forests between the 
Oronoko and the Parime, is produced in great abundance by merely making 
an incision into the bark with an axe, as deep as the liber. It gushes out in 
such quantity, that several quarts may be obtained by a single incision. 
It has the reputation of being a powerful discutient. For further informa- 
tion, see Brewster's Journal, 1. 134. In addition to these qualities, there 
is present in some species an acrid, red, or violet juice, like that found in 
Myristicacese ; it is particularly abundant in L. parvifolia, globosa, foetens, 
and caustica. 


(Supplied by Professor C. G. Nees von Esenbeck, Dec. 1. 1835.) 

§ 1. CiNNAMOMEiE, Bolda, Feuill. Mespilodaphne,N.abE.§ 8. Dicypellia, 

N. ab E. Alseodaphne, N.ab.E.§ 6. Acrodiclidia, N. ab E. 

Cinnamomum, Burm. Hufelandia, N. ab E. N. ab E. Dicypellium, N, et M. 

§ 2. CAMPHOREiE, § 5. Cryptocarye^, Aydendron, N. et M. Licaria, Aubl. 

N. ab E. N. ab E. Evonymodaphne, Petalanthera, N. et M, 

Camphora, N. ab E. Endiandra, R. Br. N. ab E. (26) Pleurothyrium, 

§ 3. Ocote-e, N. ab E. Beilschmiedia, N.abE. Acrodiclidium, M. N. ab E. (27) 
Apollonias, N. ab E. Cecidodaphne, N.abE. Misanteca, Schult. § 9. Oreodaphne^, 
Ocotea, Aubl. Cryptocarya, R. Br. § 7. NECXANDREiE, N. ab E. 

§ 4. PERSEiE, N. ab. E. Agathophyllum, W. N. ab E. Teleiandra, Nees. 

Persea, Gaertn. Ravensara, Sonn. Nectandra, Roland. Leptodaphne, N. et M. 

Machilus, Rumf. Evodia, Guerin. Pomatium, N. et M, Ajouea, Aubl. 


Endlicheria, Nees.* § 10. Flaviflor^, 
Oreodaphne, N. et M. N. ab E. 
Camphoromaea,N.etM. Sassafras, N. ab E. 

Strych nodaphne, 
N. et M. 
N. et M. 

Benzoin, N. ab E. 

§ 11. Tetranthere.®, 
N. ab E. 

Daphnidium, N. ab E. 
Tetradenia, N. ab E. 

Cylicodaphne, N.ab E. lozosmene, N. ab E. 

Tetranthera, Jacq. 

Polyadenia, N. ab E. 

Laurus, Plin. 

Lepidadenia, N. ab E. Adenostemum, Pers. 
Dodecadenia, N. ab E. Gomortega, R. et P 
Actinodaphne,N.abE. Keulia, Molia. 

? Scyphogyne, Ad. Br. 


iLLiGEREyE, Blume in Ann. Sc. N. S. 2. 95. (1834) ; Martins Conspectus, No. 83. (1835). 

— GYROCARPEiE, a § of Lauraceas, Nees ab Esenb. Laurin. expositio 20. (1833). 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermapdrodite or polygamous by abortion. Calyx 
with the tube adherent to the ovary ; the border superior, divided in two rows, deciduous, 
or in part persistent, and augmenting in size ; the segments with an indexed valvular aesti- 
vation. Petals 0. Stamens inserted in the top of the tube, opposite the external seg- 
ments, and equal to them in numbers, furnished at the base on each side with a gland or 
appendage, or with glands mixed among them. Anthers 2-cell ed ; the cells opening inwards 
from the base to the apex by a permanent valve. Omri/ inferior, 1 -celled; ovule solitary, 
pendulous ; style 1, simple ; stigma peltate or obtuse, somewhat oblique. Fruit indehis- 
cent ; seed nut-like, without albumen ; cotyledons leafy, twisted together. Blume. 

Affinities. Tlie only writer who has treated of this order is Blume, 
who remarks that one of the genera belonging to it has the habit of Cucurbi- 
tacese or Passifloraceae, its leaves being ternate and its stem twining; but 
that in reality the order has the same relation to Lauraceae as Vaccinaceae to 
Ericaceae. I observe that Nees Von Esenbeck in his manuscript list of Lau- 
raceous genera now omits Gyrocarpus, from which I infer that he assents to 
its forming an order apart. 

Geography. Trees or shrubs found in the tropical parts of America 
and Asia. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Illigera, Bl. 

Gyrocarpus, Jacq. 


Laurin^, § Cassythcee, Nees ab Esenb. Laurin. Expos. 20. (1833). — Cassythe.®, Lindl. 

Nixus PI. 15. (1833). 

Essential Character. — The general structure of Lauraceae, but ; the ste7n dodder-like, 
parasitical, leafless ; flowers hermaphrodite ; the series of stamens all perfect, without 
glands ; stamens 9 ; anthers 4-celled, the 3 inner turned backwards ; caryopsis included in 
the berried perianth crowned by the converging segments. 

Affinities. Although this strange plant is universally comprehended 
among Lauraceae, and notwithstanding that the climbing habit of Illigera 
seems to justify such a measure, yet I am persuaded that we must, if we would 
preserve our orders really in a natural state separate this, as we separate Oro- 
banchaceae and Monotropaceae elsewhere. It is too violent a shock to our 
ideas of resemblance to include in the very same order a plant like our wild 

Si Endlicheriam, Presl. retines, huic nomen Schauera tribuas precor. N. ab E. 


Cuscutaand the noble forest trees of which the majority of Lauracese consists. 
Besides it appears from the short character given above, from Nees Von Esen- 
beck’s work, that there are distinctions enough even in the fructification to 
define Cassythacese as a peculiar order. 

Geography. Found in the hotter parts of all the tropics. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Cassytha, L. 

Alliance V. PEN^ALES. 

Essential Character. — Carpels several. Calyx with an imbricated or valvate 

These plants would belong to Thymaelacese if it were not for their com- 
pound fruit, for there is nothing in the habit of Penaeacese to prevent it. 

Order CLII. PEN^ACE^. 

PENiEACEiE, R. Brown, verbally (1820) ; Guillemin in Diet. Class. 13. 171. (1828) ; 

Martins Hort. Monac. (1829) ; Kunth in Linncea, v. 667. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, with 2 or more bracts at its base j hypocra- 
teriform, with a 4-lobed limb valvate in aestivation, or deeply 4 -parted imbricated in aesti- 
vation. Stamens either 4, arising from below the recesses of the limb, with which they 
alternate, or 8, arising from near the base of the calyx ; anthers 2-celled, turned inwards, 
usually with membranous valves lying on the face of a thick fleshy connective, sometimes 
with fleshy valves, and an obliterated connective. Ovary superior, 4 -celled, with a sim- 
ple sfyZe and 4 stigmas; ovules either ascending, collateral, in pairs, or solitary and sus- 
pended; the foramen always next the placenta. Fruit capsular, 4-celled, dehiscent or 
indehiscent ? Seed erect or inverted ; testa brittle ; nucleus a solid fleshy mass, with no 
distinction of albumen or embryo ; radicular end next the hilum?; hilum fungous. — Shrubs. 
Leaves opposite, imbricated, without stipules. Flowers terminal and axillary, usually red. 

Affinities. According to an observation of Jussieu, this order is allied to 
^pacridacese ; but I confess I am unable to perceive on what account. To me 
it appears related in the first degree to some apetalous dicotyledons, such as 
Proteacese, with some of which the species agree in habit, and in the case of 
Pensea fruticulosa even in the thickened connective and the structure of the 
lobes of the stigma, each of which is strikingly like that of a Grevillea. To 
Bruniaceae they must be compared, notwithstanding the presence of petals in 
that order, for the sake ofLinconia, in which the pendulous ovule agrees with 
Geissoloma, and the thickened connective of the anthers, which is common to 
several species, although not present in Geissoloma. The fungous hilum of 
the seed is similar to that of Polygalaceae, with which, however, Penaeaceae 
have no other apparent relation. 

This order exhibits a singular instance of two distinct kinds of aestivation 
and attachment of ovules among species which it is impossible to separate 
from each other. In true Penaea the aestivation is valvate, and the ovules as- 
cending, while in Geissoloma the former is imbricate, and the latter suspended. 
Penaea has also tetrandrous flowers, with peculiarly fleshy anthers, while 
Geissoloma has octandrous flowers, with no peculiar fleshiness in the anthers. 
Considering the near affinity of this order to Thymelaceae, this circumstance 
contributes very much to shake our confidence in the value of the position of 


the ovule as a mark of distinction between Santalacese, Elaeagnacese, and Thy- 
melaceae ; and it further contributes to strengthen the opinion that the posi- 
tion of the ovule is unimportant in Urticaceae. 

Geography. Evergreen shrubs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Properties. A subviscid, sweetish, somewhat nauseous gum-resin, called 
SarcocoUa, is produced by Penaea mucronata (and others) . It was supposed 
by the Arabians to possess, as its name indicates, the power of agglutinating 
wounds. Ainslie, 1.380. It contains a pecuhar principle, named 
which has never been detected in any other vegetable matter, and which has 
the property of forming oxalic acid, being treated with nitric acid. DC. 


Penaea, L. 

SarcocoUa, Kth. 

Geissoloma, Lindl. 

Group IV. Columnossiae. 

Essential Character. — Stamens usually monadelphous, and the oyarj/ 3- 6-celled; 
or at all events the latter character combined with an inferior ovary. Wood, if any, desti- 
tute of concentric zones. 


Essential Character. — Calyx inferior. Stem with a stratum of spiral vessels between 
the wood and bark. Flowers dioecious. 

Order CLIII. NEPENTHACEiE. The Pitcher-Plant Tribe. 

Aristolochia:, § Nepenthinae, Link Handb. 1. 369. (1829). 

Essentiai, Character. — Flowers dioecious. Calyx 4-leaved, inferior, oppositely im-^ 
bricated in aestivation. Stamens cohering in a solid column, bearing at the apex about 1 6 
anthers, collected in various directions in one head ; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudi- 
nally and externally. Ovary superior, 4-cornered, 4-celled, with an indefinite number of 
ascending ovules attached to the sides of the dissepiments ; stigma sessile, simple. Fruit 
capsular, 4-celled, 4-valved, with the seeds sticking to the sides of the dissepiments, which 
proceed from the middle of the valves. Seeds indefinite, very minute, fusiform, with a lax 
outer integument ; albumen oblong, much less than the seed, lying about the middle of the 
outer integument; embryo in the midst of fleshy albumen, with 2 cotyledons placed face to 
face ; {radicle turned towards the hilum. Ad. Brongn. Nees ab Esenbeck ; turned to the 
extremity opposite the hilum, Richard). — Herbaceous or half -shrubby caulescent plants. 
Leaves alternate, slightly sheathing at the base, with a dilated foliaceous petiole, pitcher- 
shaped at the end, which is articulated with a lid- like lamina. Stem without concentric 
zones, with an abundance of spiral vessels in both wood, pith and bark, and also with a 
dense layer of the same between the wood and the bark. Racemes terminal, dense, many- 

Affinities. The relation that is home by the highly curious plants which 
this order contains was not even guessed at until Adolphe Brongniart pointed 
out a resemblance between them and Cytinacese, which had not before been 
suspected, but which he considered so important as to justify him in placing 
it in the same order. While we admit the ingenuity with which this opinion 


is sustained, it is impossible to agree with Brongniart in the conclusion at 
which he has arrived. To say nothing of the extreme dissimilarity in habit 
between these plants, the structure of their fruit appears to me essentially dif- 
ferent ; and the seeds of Cytinus being unknown, the resemblance between 
it and Nepenthes is reduced to a similarity in the arrangement of the anthers, 
which cannot m the present case be considered of much importance, as it in 
some degree depends upon the unisexuality of the flowers of both genera. 
The only intelligible approximation of the order has been made by Brown, who 
with his usual unerring sagacity points out its relation to Aristolochiaceae ; as 
to which the structure of the wood in some respects completely confirms his 
views. Like that order, it is zoneless, although plainly exogenous ; but it has 
this in particular to characterise it, that the system of spiral vessels is deve- 
loped in a degree unknown in any other plants. The water contained in the 
unopened pitcher of a plant which flowered in the Botanic Garden of Edin- 
burgh, was found by Dr, Turner “ to emit, while boiling, an odour like baked 
apples, from containing a trace of vegetable matter, and to yield minute crystals 
of superoxalate of potash on being slowly evaporated to dryness,” B. Mag. 
2798. There is a good account of the germination of Nepenthes, in Jame- 
son’s Journal for April 1830, from which it may be concluded that the long 
loose tunic of the seed is intended to act at first as a buoy, to float the seed 
upon the surface of the water, and afterwards as an anchor, to keep it fast 
upon the mud until it can have struck root. 

Geography. All natives of swamps in the East Indies and China. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Nepenthes, L. 

Phyllamphora, Lour. 


Essential Character. — Ovary inferior. 

Order CLIV. ARISTOLOCHIACEi^L. The Birthwort Tribe. 

Aristolochi^, Juss. Gen. (1789) ; R. Brown Prodr. 349. (1810) ; Lindley’s Synopsis, 
224. (1829) ; Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 1543. {Dec. 1832). — Pistolochin^e and Asarin.®, 
Link Handb. 1. 367. (1829) — Asarine^e, Bartl. Ord. Nat. 81. (1830). 

Essential Character. — FZoiL'm hermaphrodite. Calyx superior, tubular with 3 seg- 
ments, which are valvate in aestivation, sometimes regular, sometimes very unequal. Sta- 
mens 6 to 10, epigynous, distinct, or adhering to the style emd stigmas. Ovary inferior, 3- 
or 6-celled ; ovules numerous, horizontally attached to the axis ; style simple, stigmas radia- 
ting, as numerous as the cells of the ovary. Fruit dry or succulent, 3- or 6-celled, many 
seeded. Seeds with a very minute embryo placed in the base of fleshy albumen. — Herba- 
ceous plants or shrubs, the latter often climbing. Leaves alternate, simple, stalked, often 
with leafy stipules. PTood without concentric zones. Flowers axillary, solitary, browm or 
some dull colour. 

Affinities. These are usually stationed upon the limits of monocotyle- 
dons and dicotyledons, agreeing with the former in the ternary division of the 
flower, and in some respects in habit ; with the latter in the more essential 
points of their structure. De Candolle, in the Botanicon GalUcum, places 
them between Elseagnaceae and Euphorbiacese, to the former of which they 
approach through Asarum, but with the latter of which their relation is not 


obvious. To Passifloracese they may be compared, on account of the twin- 
ing habit, alternate leaves, and leafy habit of many species ; and to Cucurbita- 
cese, on account of theirt wining habit, and inferior ovary. Brown, however, 
most correctly shews that their affinity is in reality with Nepenthaceae. 

Geography. Very common in the equinoctial parts of South America, 
and rare in other countries ; found sparingly in North America, Europe, and 
Siberia ; more frequently in the basin of the Mediterranean, and in small num- 
bers in India. 

Properties. These are in general tonic and stimulating; Aristoloehia 
is, as its name implies, reputed emmenagogue, especially the European spe- 
cies rotunda, longa, and Clematitis. An infusion of the dried leaves of 
Aristoloehia bracteata is given by native Indian practitioners as an anthelmin- 
tic ; fresh bruised and mixed with castor oil, they are considered as a valuable 
remedy in obstinate psora. The root of Aristol. indica is supposed by the 
Plindoos to possess emmenagogue and antarthritic virtues ; it is very bitter. 
Arist. odoratissima, a native of the West Indies, is a valuable bitter, andalexi- 
pharmic. Ainslie, 2. 5. The Aristoloehia fragrantissima, called in Pern 
Bejuca de la EstreUa, or Star Reed, is highly esteemed in Peru as a remedy 
against dysenteries, malignant inflammatory fevers, colds, rheumatic pains, &c. 
llie root is the part used. See Lamherfs Illustrations of Cinchona, p. 150, 
&c. The pow’er of the root of Aristoloehia serpentaria in arresting the pro- 
gress of the worst forms of typhus, is highly spoken of by Barton, 2. 51. It 
has an aromatic smell, approaching that of Valerian, with a warm, bitterish, 
pungent taste. Asarum canadense, called Wild Ginger in the United States, 
is nearly allied in medical properties to the Aristoloehia serpentaria. Barton, 
2. 88. The root of Asarum europseum, or Asarabacca, is used by native prac- 
titioners in India as a poweiTul evacuant : they also employ the bruised and 
moistened leaves as an external appheation round the eyes in certain cases of 
oiihthalmia. Ainslie, 1. 24, Tlie leaves and roots of the same plant are 
emetic ; but this quality is lost, according to De Candolle, by keeping or by 
steeping in ^egar. Hancock {Quarterly Journal, July, 1830, p. 334,) sus- 
pects the tme Gauco remedy for the bite of snakes to be some species of Aris- 
tolochia, among the different kinds of which the natives of Spanish America 
chiefly seek their antidotes. The plant called Raiz de Mato is an aromatic 
bitter species, and is esteemed as a most certain remedy in the Oronoque and 
Venezuela for the bite of venomous sei*pents. Aristoloehia trilobata has an 
aromatic stem, which is used against the bite of serpents. Barren. A. gran- 
diflora has a powerful nauseous narcotic smell, and is poisonous to hogs and 
cattle. Swartz jl. ind. occ. 1568. 

Aristoloehia, L. 
Bi-agantia, Lour. 
Ceramium, Bl. 
Munnichia, Bl. 


Heterotropa, Morren. 
Asarum, L. 

Thottea, Rottb. 
Hoequartia, Dumort. 

Trichopodium, Lindl. 

Trichopus, Gaertn. 
Trimeriza, Lindl. 

Group V. CurhembrpOi^fie* 

Essential Character. — Embryo curved round albumen, or having the form of a 
horse-shoe, or spiral ; calyx rarely tubular, but sometimes long and petaloid. 

The plants comprehended in this alliance are with difficulty distinguished 
in mass from Urticales, because the embryo of the latter is sometimes 


curved, never, however, round mealy albumen, and because in some of this group 
the embryo is straight, but then mealy albumen is present. Yet I am per- 
suaded that this is a tmly natural combination, and I leave to more acute bo- 
tanists to detennine exactly what the combining character is, if they can. 
Nyctaginacese are the most highly developed form of the group, and seem to 
connect it more with Monopetalae than any other order comprehended in it. 


Esskntiai. Character. — Albumen present. Radicle next the hilum. 

Order CLV. AMARANTACE^^l. The Amaranth Tribe. 

Amaranthi, Juss. Gen. 87. (1789). — Amaranthace^e, R. Brown Prodr. 413. (1810); 

Von Martins Monogr. (1826) ; Lindley’s Stjnopsis, 213. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 3- or 5-leaved, hypogynous, scarious, persistent, occa- 
sionally with 2 bractlets at the base, and generally immersed in dry coloured bracts. Sta- 
mens hypogynous, either 5, or some multiple of that number, either distinct or monadel- 
phous, occasionally partly abortive; anthers either 2-celled or 1 -celled. Ovary single, 
superior, 1- or few-seeded ; the ovules hanging from a free central funiculus ; style 1 or 
none ; stigma simple or compound. Fruit a membranous utricle. Seeds lentiform, pen- 
dulous ; testa crustaceous ; albumen central, farinaceous ; embryo curved round the cir- 
cumference ; radicle next the hilum ; plumule inconspicuous. — Herbs or shrubs. Leaves 
simple, opposite or alternate, without stipules. Flowers \n heads or spikes, usually coloured, 
occasionally unisexual, generally hermaphrodite. Pubescence simple, the hairs divided by 
internal partitions. 

Affinities. Different as this order appears to be from Chenopodiacese in 
habit, especially if we compare such a genus as Gomphrena with Chenopo- 
dium itself, it is so difficult to define the difierences that distinguish the two 
orders, that, beyond habit, nothing certain can be pointed out. Brown remarks 
{Prodr. 413.), that he has not been able to ascertain any absolute diagnosis to 
distinguish them by ; for the hypogynous insertion attributed to their stamens 
is not only not constant in the order, but is also found in some Chenopodia- 
cese. Martins, in a learned dissertation upon the order, describes Chenopodia- 
cese as being apetalous, and Amarantaceae as poh^etalous, considering the 
bractlets of these latter as a calyx, and that which I call a calyx a corolla. 
But it seems to me that this view of their stmctm'e is not borne out by analogy, 
and that it is impossible to believe the floral envelopes of the two orders to be 
of a difibrent nature. I am certainly unable to indicate any better mode of 
distinguishing them than has been pointed out by those who have gone before 
me ; and at the same time I cannot hesitate to keep asunder orders which it 
is evident that nature has divided. Bartling combines these plants in a single 
class, along with Caryophyllese, Phytolaccacese, Scleranthacese, and Illecebra- 
ceae ; and there is no doubt of the affinity borne to each other by all these, as 
is pointed out by their habit and by the structure of their seeds. Illecebra- 
cese are in fact only known by their petals and great membranous stipules. 

Geography. These plants grow in crowds or singly, either in dry, 
stony, barren stations, or among thickets upon the borders of woods, or a 
few even in salt marshes. They are much more frequent within the tro- 
pics than beyond them, and are unknown in the coldest regions of the 
world. 53 are found in tropical Asia, 105 in tropical America, but 5 in 
extra-tropical Asia, and but 21 in extra-tropical America; 5 are natives of 


Europe, 28 of New Holland, and 9 of Africa and its Islands. See Fon Martius 

Properties. Many of the species are used as potherbs, on account of 
the wholesome mucilaginous quahties of the leaves. Amaranthus obtusifolius 
is said to be diuretic. Several are objects of interest with gardeners for the 
beauty of their colouring and the durability of their blossoms. Gomphrena 
ofiicinahs and macrocephala have a prodigious reputation in Brazil, where they 
are called Para todo, Perpetua, and Raiz do Padre Salerma ; as the first of 
these names imports, they are esteemed useful in all kinds of diseases, espe- 
cially in cases of intermittent fevers, colics, and diarrhoea, and against the bite 
of serpents. Plantes Usuelles, nos. 31. and 32. 

Digera, Forsk. 
Deeringia, R. Br. 
Charpentiera, Gaud. 
Chamissoa, H. B. K. 
Allmannia, R.Br. 
Amarantus, L. 
Aerva, Forsk. 
Berzelia, Mart. 

? Polychroa, Lour. 
Celosia, L. 
Cladostachys, Don. 

Lestibudesia, Pet. Th. 
Hoplotheca, Nutt. 
Gomphrena, L. 
Hebanthe, Mart. 
Philoxerus, R. Br. 
Rosea, Mart. 

Iresine, Willd. 
Trommsdorffia, Mart. 
Serturnera, Mart. 
Pfaffia, Mart. 
Mogiphanes, Mart. 

Brandesia, Mart. 
Bucholzia, Mart. 
Alternanthera, Forsk. 
Trichinium, R. Br. 
Psilotrichum, Bl. 
Cyathula, Lour. 
Tryphera, Bl. 

Saltia, R. Br. 
Ptilotus, R. Br. 
Nyssanthes, R.Br. 
Centrostachys, Wall. 

Achyranthes, L. 
Desmochaeta, DC. 
Pupalia, Mart. 
Microtea, Sw. 

H. B. K. 
Mohlana, Mart. 
Leiospermum, Wall. 
Polyscalis, Wall. 

N. ab E. (28) 

Order CLVL CHENOPODIACE^. The Goosefoot Tribe. 

Atriplices, Juss. Gen. 83. (1'789). — Chenopode^, Vent. Tail. 2. 253. (1799); R. Brown 
Prodr. 405. (1810) ; C. A. Meyer in Led. FI. Alt. 1. 370. (1829) ; Lindlefs Sy- 
nopsis, 213. (1829) ; Moquin Tandon in Ann. Sc. Nov.Ser. 1. 203. (1834). — Cyno- 
CRAMBE^, Th. N. ab E. Gen. pi. Europ. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx deeply divided, sometimes tubular at the base, per- 
sistent, with an imbricated aestivation. Stamens inserted into the base of the calyx, oppo- 
site its segments, and equal to them in number, or fewer. Ovary single, superior, or occa- 
sionally adhering to the tube of the calyx, with a single ovule attached to the base of the 
cavity ; style in 2 or 4 divisions, rarely simple ; stigmas undivided. Fruit membranous, 
not valvular, sometimes baccate. Embryo curved round farinaceous albumen, or spiral, or 
doubled together without albumen ; radicle next the hilum ; plumule inconspicuous. — 
Herbaceous plants or under -shrubs. Leaves alternate without stipules, occasiondly oppo- 
site. Flowers small, sometimes polygamous. 

Affinities. The difficulty of distinguishing these from Amarantacese has 
been discussed under the latter order. They are distinguished from Phyto- 
laccacese, independently of the simplicity of the structure of their ovary by 
their stamens never exceeding the number of the segments of the calyx, to 
which they are opposite : in Phytolaccaceae, if they are not more numerous 
than the segments of the calyx, they are alternate with them. Theodor Nees 
von Esenbeck separates Cynocrambese on account of the singular structure of 
their calyx and style, and, I presume, their having stipules. 

Geography. Weeds inhabiting waste places in all parts of the world, 
but, unlike Amarantaceje, abounding least within the tropics, and most in ex- 
tra-tropical regions. They are exceedingly common in all the northern parts 
of Europe and Asia. 

Properties. Some of these are used as potherbs, as Basella, Spinage, 
Garden Orach (Atriplex hortensis), and Chard Beet ; the roots of others form 
valuable articles of food, as Beet and Mangel Wurzel, Many of them possess 


an essential oil, which renders them tonic and antispasmodic ; such are Cheno- 
podium ambrosioides and botrys. Chenopodium Quinoa is a common article 
of food in Peru. But the most important of their qualities is the production 
of soda, which is yielded in immense quantities by the Salsolas, Salicornias, and 
others. The essential oil of Chenopodium anthelminticum, known in North 
America under the name of Worm-seed Oil, is powerfully anthelmintic. Bar- 
ton, 2. 187. The seeds of Atriplex hortensis are said to be so unwholesome 
as to excite vomiting. Chevallier has remarked the singular fact, that Che- 
nopodium vulvaria exhales pure ammonia during its whole existence. This is 
the only observation upon record of a gaseous exhalation of azote by perfect 
vegetables ; and the facility with which this principle is abandoned by ammo- 
nia may perhaps explain the presence of azotic products in the vegetable 
kingdom. Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1. 444. 

Salicornia, L. * 
Halocnemon, M. Bieb. 
Caroxylon, Thunb. 
Anabasis, L. 

Brachylepis, Meyer. 
Cyclolepis, M. Tand. 
Villemetia, Merckl. 

Bassia, All. 

Salsola, L. 
Nanophyton, Less. 
Halimocnemis, Meyer. 
Halogeton, Meyer. 
Schanginia, Meyer. 
Schoberia, Meyer. 
Suaeda, Forsk. 
Lerchia, Hall. 


Cochliospermum, Krascheninnikovia, 

Lga. Giildenst. 

Kochia, Roth. Eurotia, Adans. 

Chenolea, L. 
Anisacantha, R. Br. 
Sclerolsena, R. Br. 
Cornulaca, DC. 
Traganum, DC. 
Hemichroa, R. Br. 
Polycnemum, L. 
Camphorosma, L. 
Threlkeldia, R. Br. 
Corispermum, L. 
Ceratocarpus, L. 
Diotis, Schreb. 
Ceratospermum, P( 

Crucita, Loeffl. 
Spinacia, L. 

Beta, L. 

Acnida, L. 

Axyris, L. 
Halimus, Rchb. 
Oligandra, Less. 
Atriplex, L. 

Obione, Gaertn. 
Blitum, L. 
Rhagodia, R. Br. 
Enchylaena, R.Br. 
Monolepis, Schr. 

Galenia, L. 
Chenopodium, L. 
Teloxys, M. Tand. 

M. Tand. 

Roubieva, M. Tand. 
Acroglochin, Schrad. 
Blitanthus, Rchb. 
Lecanocarpus, Nees. 
Anredera, Juss. 
Hablizia, M. Bieb. 

H. B. K. 
Basella, L. 

Dysphania, R. Br. 

See the rudiments of an arrangement of this order into §, in Ledebour^s 
FI. Altaica, 1. 370; B,nd hy MoquinTandon in Ann. Sc. n. Ser. 4. 209 (1835) ; 
neither is sufficiently extensive to be adopted here. 


Affinities. I have already excluded from Ficoidese or Mesembryaceae 
all the apetalous genera usually referred to that order, considering that the 
tendency to produce petals is in that case of too powerful a nature to admit of 
exception. The apetalous genera formerly included among Mesembryaceae 
are in fact so very much the same as Chenopodiaceae, that I know of no cha- 
racter to distinguish them except their ovary being formed of several carpels. 
Tliey, therefore, bear the same relation to Chenopodiaceae as Datiscaceae to 


Tetragonia, L. Aizoon, L. Miltus, Lour. 

Sesuvium, L. Veslingia, Fabr. 




The Virginian Poke Tribe. 

Phytolacce^, R. Brown in Congo, 454. (1818); Bartl. Ord. Nat. p. 299. (1830). — 
Riviniace.®, Agh.; Martins Conspectus, No. 91. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx of 4 or 5 petaloid leaves. Stamens either indefinite, 
or, if equal to the number of the divisions of the calyx alternate with them. Ovary of 
from 1 to several cells, each containing 1 ascending ovule ; styles and stigmas equal in 
number to the cells. Fruit baccate or dry, entire or deeply lobed, 1- or many-celled. 
Seeds ascending, solitary, with a cylindrical embryo curved round mealy albumen, with the 
radicle r\Qxt the hilum. — Under-shrubs or herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, entire, with- 
out stipules, often with pellucid dots. Flowers racemose. 

Affinities. Nearly related to Chenopodiaceae and Polygonaceae, from 
the first of which they are distinguished by their multilocular ovary, and by 
their stamens exceeding the number of divisions of the calyx, or alternate with 
them ; or if their ovary is simple by the cal)^^; being petaloid, a circumstance 
which never occurs in Chenopodiaceae. From Polygonaceae they are known 
by the radicle being turned towards the hilum, and the want of stipules. Ri- 
vina, which has the albumen very much reduced in quantity, and a unilocular 
fruit, connects Phytolaccaceae with Petiveriaceae. Brown remarks {Congo, 
455.) that these two orders, widely as they differ in the structure of the ovaiy, 
are connected by a species of Phytolacca related to P. abyssinica, in which the 
5 cells are so deeply divided that they merely cohere by their inner angles*; 
and also by Gisekia, which has 5 distinct ovaries. 

Geography. Natives of either America, within or without the tropics, 
Africa, and India. Phytolacca decandra is natm'alised in some of the southern 
parts of Europe. 

Properties. A tincture of the ripe berries of Phytolacca decandra 
seems to have acquired a well-founded reputation as a remedy for chronic and 
syphilitic rheumatism, and for allaying syphiloid pains. By some it is said to 
be more valuable than Guaiacum. It has had no inconsiderable reputation as 
a remedy for Cancer ; but it is no longer esteemed, and it is probable that it 
was only found serviceable in ill-conditioned sluggish ulcers, wdiich are too 
frequently mistaken for real cancer. Its pulverised root is an emetic. Barton, 
2. 220. And a spirit distilled from the berries is stated to have killed a dog 
in a few minutes, by its violent emetic effects. According to De CandoUe, 
this plant is also a powerful purgative. But it acts so violently and is ac- 
companied by such ambiguous narcotic symptoms as not to be at all calculated 
for internal use. Barton. The leaves are extremely acrid, but the young 
shoots, which lose this quality by boiling in water, are eaten in the United 
States as Asparagus. 


Phytolacca, L. Gisekia, L. ? Ciyptocarpus, Semonvillaea, Gay. 

Anisomeria, Don. Kcelreutera, Murr. H. B. K. Gaudinia, Gay. 

Rivina, L. Bosea, L. 


Essential Character. — Albumen present. Radicle at the end of the embryo most 
remote from the hilum. 

21 ] 

Order CLVIII. POLYGONACEJE. The Buck-wheat Tribe. 

PoLYGONEJE, Juss. Gen. 82. (1789); R. Brown Prodr. 418. (1810); Lindl. S7jnops. 209. 

(1829) ; Bentham in Linn. Trans, ined. (1836). 

Essential Character. — Calyx divided, inferior, imbricated in aestivation. Stamens 
definite, inserted in the bottom of the calyx ; anthers dehiscing lengthwise. Ovary supe- 
rior, with a single erect ovule ; styles or stigmas several. Nut usually triangular, naked, or 
protected by the calyx. Seed with farinaceous albumen, rarely with scarcely any ; 
embryo inverted, generally on one side ; plumule inconspicuous ; radicle at the end remote 
from the hilum. — Herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs. Leaves alternate, their stipules cohe- 
ring round the stem in the form of an ochrea; when young, rolled backwards. Flowers 
occasionally unisexual, often in racemes. 

Affinities. Brown remarks, that “ the erect ovulum with a superior ra- 
dicle together afford the most important mark of distinction between Polygo- 
naceae and Chenopodiacese, a character which obtains even in the genus Erio- 
gonum, in which there is no petiolar sheath, and scarcely any albumen, the 
little that exists being fleshy.” Generally speaking, however, the cohesion of 
the scarious stipules into a sheath, technically called an ochrea, or boot, is suf- 
ficient to distinguish Polygonaceae from all other plants. Bentham admits two 
Tribes, Polygonaceae which have loose flowers and ochreae ; and Eriogoneae 
which have flowers in involucres and usually no stipules. 

Geography. There are few parts of the world that do not acknowledge 
the presence of plants of this order. In Europe, Africa, North America, and 
Asia, they fill the ditches, hedges, and waste grounds, in the form of Docks 
and Persicarias ; the fields, mountains, and heaths, as Sorrels and trailing or 
twining Polygonums ; in South America and the West Indies they take 
the form of Coccolobas or sea- side grapes ; in the Levant, of Rhubarbs ; 
and even in the desolate regions of the North Pole they are found in the shape 
of Oxyria. 

Properties. Sorrel on the one hand, and Rhubarb on the other, may 
be taken as the representatives of the general qualities of this order. Wliile 
the leaves and young shoots are acid and agreeable, the roots are universally 
nauseous and purgative. To these two qualities is to be superadded a third, 
that of astringency, which is found in a greater or less degree in the whole 
order, but which becomes in Coccoloba uvifera so powerful as to rival gum 
Kino in its effects. Some of the Polygonums are extremely acrid, as the P. Hy- 
dropiper, which is said to blister the skin. There is a species of Polygonum, 
called Cataya in the language of the Brazilian Indians, an infusion of the ashes 
of which is used to purify and condense the juice of the sugar-cane. It has a very 
bitter peppery taste, and is employed on the Rio St. Francisco with advantage 
in the disease called O Largo, which is an enlargement of the colon, caused by 
debility. Pr. Max. Trav. 71. The stem of the Rheum has been supposed to 
contain a peculiar acid called the rheumic, but this is now known to be the 
oxalic. Turner, 641. Rumex acetosa contains pure oxalic acid. 623. 

The principle in which the active property of Rhubarb exists is supposed to be 
a peculiar chemical substance called Rhubarbarin. Ibid. 701. Some informa- 
tion may be found upon the Rhubarbs of India in the Trans, of the Med. and 
Phys. Soc. of Calcutta, 3. 438. by Royle ; but nothing certain has been collected 
by him with regard to the plant producing the true officinal substance. Many spe- 
cies of Polygonum are used in dyeing. The seeds of P. fagopyrum or Buck- wheat 
and tataricum are used as food, for the sake of their mealy albumen ; those of 
P. aviculare are said to be powerfully emetic and purgative ; but this is doubted, 
by Meisner. Mon. 49. The seeds of Polygonum barbatum are used as me- 



dicine by Hindoo practitioners, to ease the pain of griping in the colic. Ains- 
lie, 2. 2. The leaves of P. hispidum are said by Humboldt to be substituted, 
in South America, for Tobacco, N. G. andSp. 2. 178. 


§ 1. PoLYGONE^jBent 
Koenigia, L. 

Rumex, L. 

Acetosa, Moench. 
Lapathum, Moench. 

Burch. (29) 
Emex, Neck. 

Vibo, Moench. 

Oxyria, Hill. 

Rheum, L. 
Podopterus, PI.B. 
Triplaris, Ij. 

Blochmannia, Weig. 
Coccoloba, L. 
Briinnichia, Banks. 

Rajana, Walt. 
Atraphaxis, L. 
Antinoron, Raf. 

Polygonella, Mich. 
Tragopyrum, M. Bieb. 
Ceratogonum, Meisn. 
Polygonum, L. 
Fagopyrum, Gaertn. 
Calliphysa, F. et M. 
Calligonum, L. 
Pallasia, L. 
Pterococcus, Pall. 

Oxygonum, Burch. 

Espinosa, Lag. 

§ 2. Eriogone.e, 

Eriogonum, Michx. 
Chorizanthe, R. Br. 
Mucronea, Benth. 


Essential Character. Albumen absent. Cotyledons spiral. 


PETIVERIE.E, Agardh Classes, (1825). — Petiveriace^, Link Handb. 1. 392. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx of several distinct leaves. Stamens perigynous, either 
indefinite, or, if equal to the segments of the calyx, alternate with them. Ovary superior, 
1 -celled; styles 3 or more; stigma lateral; ovule erect. Fruit 1 -celled, indehiscent, dry. 
Seed erect, without albumen ; embryo straight ; cotyledons convolute ; radicle inferior. — 
Under -shrijibs or herbaceous plants, with an alliaceous odour. Leaves alternate, entire, with 
distinct stipules, often with minute pellucid dots. Flowers racemose. 

Affinities. Obviously akin both to Phytolaccacese and Polygonacese, with 
the former of which Brown combines them. They are, however, distinguished 
from Phytolaccacese by the presence of stipules, and by their straight embryo 
destitute of albumen, and spiral cotyledons. From Polygonacese they are 
known by the same characters, and also by the radicle being turned towards 
the hilum, and the stipules not having the foi*m of ochrese. 

Geography. West Indian or tropical American plants ; for the Seguiera 
asiatica of Loureiro probably does not belong to the order. 

Properties. Nothing is known of their qualities, except that Petiveria 
alliacea yields a strong smell of garlic. 


Petiveria, L. 

Seguiera, L. 

? Villamilla, R. P 

Alliance IV. SCLERALES. 

Essential Character. — Tube of the calyx hardened. 


ScLERANTHEiE, Link Enum. 417. (1821) ; DC. Prodr. 3. 377. (1828) a % of Illecebreae, 
Lindley’s Synopsis, 217. (1829) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 300. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx 4- or 5-toothed, with an 
urceolate tube. Stamens from 1 to 10, inserted into the orifice of the tube. Ovary simple, 
superior, 1 -seeded. Styles 2 or 1, emarginate at the apex. Fruit a membranous utricle 
enclosed within the hardened calyx. Seed pendulous from the apex of a funiculus, which 
arises from the bottom of the cell ; embryo cylindrical, curved round farinaceous albumen. 
— Small herbs. Leaves opposite, without stipules. Flowers axillary, sessile. 

Affinities. Referred by De Candolle to Illecebreae, from which they 
differ in absence of petals and stipules, these plants appear to me to constitute 
a distinct order, more nearly related to Chenopodiacese, from which they chiefly 
differ in the indurated tube of the calyx, from the orifice of which the stamens 
proceed, and in the number of the latter often exceeding that of the divisions 
of the calyx. 

Geography. Natives of barren fields in Em*ope, Asia, and North 
America, and in sterile places in countries of the southern hemisphere beyond 
the tropics. A single species is described from Peru. 

Properties. Uninteresting weeds, of no known use. 


Mniarum, Forst. Scleranthus, L. 

Ditoca, Banks, Guilleminia, H.B. K. 


The Marvel of Peru Tribe. 

Nyctagines, Juss. Gen. 90. (1789) ; R. Brown Prodr. 421. (1810) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 109. 


Essential Character. — Calyx tubular, somewhat coloured, contracted in the middle ; 
its limb entire or toothed, plaited in aestivation ; becoming indurated at the base. Stamens 
definite, hypogynous ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary superior, with a single erect ovule ; style 1 ; 
stigma 1. Fruit a thin utricle, enclosed within the enlarged persistent base of the calyx. 
Seed without its proper integuments, its testa being coherent with the utricle ; embryo with 
foliaceous cotyledons, wrapping round floury albumen ; radicle inferior ; plumuld inconspi- 
cuous. — Stem either herbaceous, shrubby, or arborescent. Leaves opposite, and almost 
always unequal ; sometimes alternate. Flowers axillary or terminal, clustered or solitary, 
having an involucre which is either common or proper, in one piece or in several pieces, 
sometimes minute. 

Affinities. The tubular calyx, the limb of which is plaited in aestiva- 
tion, and the base of which becomes hardened round the ovary, so that it 
resembles a woody pericarp, will, if taken with the curved embryo and farina- 
ceous albumen, at all times distinguish Nyctaginacese ; add to which, the 
articulations of the stem are tumid, as in Geraniaceae. Its nearest affinity is 
perhaps with Polygonaceae, from which it, however, differs so much that it 
need not be compared with them. 

Geography. Natives of the warmer parts of the world in either hemi- 
sphere, scarcely extending far beyond the tropics, except in the case of the 
Abronias found in North-west America. 

Properties. In consequence of the generally purgative quality of the 
roots of species of this family, one of them was supposed to have been the true 


jalap plant, which is, however, now known to be a mistake. See Convolvu- 
laceae. The flowers of several species of Mirabilis are handsome, as are those 
also of some of the Abronias; but the greater part of the order is com- 
posed of obscm'e weeds. The genus Pisonia consists of trees or shmbhy plants. 


Mirabilis, L. 

Nyctago, Juss. 
Tricratus, L’Herit. 

Ahronia, Juss. 
Trichya, Cav. 

Oxybaphus, L’Herit. Boldoa, Cav, Buginvillea, Commers. 

Calyxhymenia, R.P. Salpianthus, H.B.K. Torreya, Spreng. 
Vitmannia, Turr. Reichenbachia, Spreng. Oxia, Lour. 

Allionia, L. Boerhaavia, L. Nexea, R. P. ? 

Calymenia, Nutt, Pisonia, L. Okenia, Schlecht. 

Calpidia, Pet. Thou, Epilithes, Bl. 

Mitscherlichia, Kth. 

Alliance V. COCCULALES. 

Essential Character. — Albumen present. Flowers formed upon a ternary plan, with 
the divisions of the calyx in two row's. 

It is usual to refer the species of this alliance to Poh’petalse, because the 
calyx has its segments in two series ; and it cannot be denied that, if paper- 
characters are alone to be consulted, this ought to be the proper com*se. But 
if we compare Cocculales with the orders with which they are thus as- 
sociated, we cannot find one other important circumstance of agreement. 
It is usual to station them near Berberacese, or Anonaceae ; but what their 
affinity really is with such orders it^is difficult to conceive, even if we admit 
their relationship to Schizandrese. But if we look at them with an unpreju- 
diced eye, w^e cannot fail to be struck with their general resemblance to 
Smilacese among Endogens, difi'ering in little except their dicotyledonous, more 
highly developed, embryo, and exogenous stem. In the next place, their floral 
envelopes, although in two rows, and therefore technically composed of both 
calyx and corolla, agree altogether with the biseriate calyx of some Polygo- 
naceae, such as Rumex. Thirdly, the absence of zones from the wood 
assimilates them to Columnosae. In short, look at these plants in what way 
we will, their relation seems to be in aU important particulars with Imperfectae. 
I, therefore, station them here at the peril of ofiending all the prejudices that 
have been gradually growing up since the appearance of the Genera plantarura 
of Jussieu in 1789, 

Order CLXII. MENISPERMACE^. The Cocculus Tribe. 

Menisperme^, Juss. Gen. 284, (1789) ; DC. Syst. 1. 508. (1818). — Menispermace^, 
DC. Prodr. 1. 95, (1824) ; Wight and Arnott. Prodr. FI. Penins. Ind. 1.11. (1834). 

Essential Character. — Flowers (by abortion?) unisexual, usually dioecious and very 
small. Sepals in one or several rows, each of which is composed of either 3 or 4 parts, 
hypogynous, deciduous. Stamens monadelphous, or occasionally distinct, sometimes oppo- 
site the inner sepals and equal to them in number, sometimes 3 or 4 times as many. An- 
thers adnate, turned outw'ards or proceeding immediately from the point of the filament. 
Ovaries sometimes numerous, each wdth one style, cohering slightly at the base, sometimes 
completely soldered together into a many-celled body, which is occasionally in consequence 
of abortion 1 -celled. Drupes usually berried, 1 -seeded, oblique or lunate, compressed. 
Seed of the same shape as the fruit ; embryo curved, or turned in the direction of the cir- 
cumference; cotyledons flat, sometimes lying face to face, sometimes distant from each 


other and lying in separate cells of the albumen, which is thin or fleshy, rarely none ; radicle 
superior, but its position is sometimes obscured by the curvature of the seed. — Shrubs, 
with a flexible tough tissue, and sarmentaceous habit. Leaves alternate, entire or occa- 
sionally divided, mucronate. Flowers small, usually racemose. 

Affinities. Having already explained my own views as to this order, I 
may here mention those of other Botanists. Some Anonacese agree with it in 
having a twining habit, and the whole resemble them in the ternary division of 
their flowers ; De Candolle points out a resemblance with Sterculiaceae, consist- 
ing in the monadelphous stamens and peltate leaves ; according to Aug. de 
St. Hilaire, this order is related to Euphorbiaceae through Phyllanthus, the 
male flowers of which are in certain species absolutely the same as those of 
Cissampelos. It is adso thought to approach Malvaceae by those genera which, 
like Caperonia, have stipulate leaves, and distinct caducous petals separated 
from the calyx by the gynophore. FI. Bras. 59. 

The position of the seed is altered materially from that of the ovule in the 
progress of the growth of the fruit. According to Aug. de St. Hilaire, the 
ovule of Cissampelos is attached to the middle of the side of a straight 
ovary, which after fecundation gradually incurves its apex until the style 
touches the base of the pericarp, when the two surfaces being thus brought 
into contact unite, and a drupe is formed, the seed of which is curved like a 
horse-shoe, and the cavity of which is divided by a spurious incomplete dis- 
sepiment, consisting of two plates : the attachment of the seed is at the top of 
the false dissepiment, on each side of which it extends equally. PI. Usuelles, 
no. 35. The whole order requires careful revision by means of living plants, 
and is well worth the especial attention of some Indian botanist. 

Geography. Tlie whole of this order consists of fewer than a hundred 
species, which are common in the tropics of Asia and America, but uncommon 
out of those latitudes : all Africa contains but 5, North America 6, and 
Siberia 1 . Tlie species are universally found in woods, twining round other 

Properties. The root of several species is bitter and tonic, and the seeds 
of some of them narcotic. The root of Menispermum palmatum, Lam. or the 
Calumbo root, is esteemed highly on account of its powerful antiseptic, tonic, 
and astringent properties. See Bot. Mag. fol. 2970. Menispermum cordi- 
folium of WiUd. called Gulancha in Bengal, is used extensively in a variety of 
diseases by the native practitioners of India, especially in such as are attended 
by febrile symptoms not of a high inflammatory kind, and in fevers of debility : 
the parts used are the root, stems, and leaves, from which a decoction called 
Pdchana is prepared. A sort of extract called Palo is obtained from the stem, 
and is considered an excellent remedy in urinary afiections and gonorrhoea. 
Trans. M. &; P. Soc. Calc. 3. 298, Cocculus platyphylla is used by the Bra- 
zilians in intermittent fevers and liver complaints. Its properties, like those 
of Cocculus cinerascens, are highly esteemed, and appear to be due to the pre- 
sence of a bitter and tonic principle. Similar qualities are found in Cocculus 
peltatus, crispus, and Fibraurea by the Malays. Boyle. In the seed of Coc- 
culus suberosus a bitter crystallisable poisonous principle has been detected, 
called picrotoxia. PI. Usuelles, 42. The root of Cocculus Bakis is very bitter 
and diuretic ; it is used in Senegal against intermittent fevers, &c. FI. Seneg. 
1. 13. The roots of the Orelha de Onca of Brazil, Cissampelos ovalifolia, are 
bitter, and their decoction is employed with success in intermittent fevers. PL 
Usuelles, no. 34. Cissampelos ebracteata, also called Orelha de Onca, is 
reputed an antidote to the bite of sei*pents. Ibid. no. 35. The root of 
Cissampelos pareira and Abuta amara is both diuretic and aperient, and known 
under the name of Pareira brava. DC. The Abuta candicans of Cayenne, 
wliere it is known by the name of Liane amere, is extremely bitter. Ibid. The 

drug called in the shops Cocculus indicus is the seed of Menispei*mum Coc- 
culus, and is well known for its narcotic properties, especially in poisoning 
fishes. Nevertheless, according to De Candolle, the berries of Menispermum 
edule, Lam. are eaten with impunity in Egypt ; but they are acrid, and a very 
intoxicating liquor is obtained from them by distillation. Royle also states 
that the fruit of several is eatable. The bitter poisonous principle of Cocculus 
indicus is the above-mentioned vegetable alkali, picrotoxia. It has been sup- 
posed that a peculiar acid, called the menispermic, also existed in the same 
plant ; but this is now known to have been merely a mixture of sulphuric and 
oxahc acids. Turner, 653. Forskahl states that from the berries of Cocculus 
cebatha, although acrid, a spirit is distilled in Arabia called Khumr-ool-majnoon ; 
Royle adds that he found the root of Cissampelos obtecta used for the same 
purpose in Gurhwahl. Illustrations, 62. 


Spirospermum, Pt.Th. Fibraurea, Lour. Cissampelos, L. 
Braunea, Willd. Limacia, Lour. Stephania, Lour, 

Anamirta, Colebr. Androphylax,'SS[&c\di. Clypea, Blume. 

Clypea, W. et A. Wendlandia, Willd. Menispermum, L. 

Cocculus, DC. Epibaterium, Forst. Abuta, Aubl. 

Chondodendron,'R.'? . Nephroia, Lour. Trichoa, Pers. 
Cebatha, Forsk. Bagalatta, Roxb. Batschia, Thunb. 

Leceba, Forsk, Pselium, Lour. Phytocrene, Wall. 

Gynostemma, Blume. 

Natsiatum, Roxb. 

lodes, Blume. 
Coscinium, Colebr. 
Tiliacora, Colebr. 
Meniscosta, Blume. 
Agdestis, M 09 . Sess. 
Meborea, Aubl. 
Rhopium, Schreb. 
Tephranthus, Neck. 

Sub-Order ? LARDIZABALE^. 

Lardizabale.®, § of Menisperraaceae, DC. Prodr. 1. 95. (1824) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 343. 


Many- seeded cai*pels and compound leaves are assigned to these plants by 
De Candolle ; otherwise they are said to accord with Menispermacese. I am 
myself unacquainted with the genera; but I learn from Mr. Amott that 
Dr. Brown, the highest of all authorities in these matters, considers them dis- 
tinct from MenisperAiaceae. 


Lardizabala, R. et P, Stauntonia, DC. Burasaia, Thouars. 

Hollbollia, Wall. 


Essential Character. — Petals combined in a monopetalous corolla. 

If it were not for the frequent occurrence of what are called gamopetalous 
plants among Polypetalae, that is of plants whose petals cohere more or less 
into a tube, this sub-class would have very nearly definite limits ; for such ex- 
ceptions as Glaux in Primulaceae, which is apetalous, and E^iottia, &c. in 
Ericaceae, which are polypetalous, are unimportant. But with regard to the 
gamopetalous genera of polypetalous orders, as Correa in Rutacese, Stack- 
housiaceae, Fouquieraceae, and others without end, the only method of recog- 
nizing them is to see if the petals cannot be easily separated, or if they do not 
separate spontaneously by the base at least, or if the pistil is not apocarpous. 
As to the affinities of Monopetalae, they are extremely various. SteUatae touch 


Umbelliferse ; Ericaceae border closely upon Celastraceae through Cyrilia ; 
Aquifoliacese have a similar relation ; Ebenaceae almost touch Guttiferae, &c. &c. 
Tliey may also be said to approach Incompletae by way of Solanaceae and 
Nyctaginaceae, while Salvadoraceae join Chenopodiaceae by way of Galenia. 

Upon attentively considering the orders of which this sub-class consists, it 
is at once obvious that there is a cluster of plants with the ovary either 
originally split, or finally splitting into little nuts, as in Labiatae in the first 
instance, and Verbenaceae in the last. These naturally separate from the 
remainder and may be designated the Nucamentaceous group ; all the orders 
belonging to this group have an ovary constructed ‘ upon a bicarpellary type. 
Agreeing with these in the latter circumstance, but disagreeing in their fruit 
being nucamentaceous ; having, on the contrary, a capsular fruit with a 
manifest central placenta, some with regular, some with irregular, flowers, is 
another set of orders to which the name Dicarposce may be applied. Thirdly, 
we have a very large number of plants, the fruit of which is usually inferior, 
belonging to orders, a part of which have the ovary constructed with one 
carpel, and another part with two or more carpels ; these facts give us two 
more groups, the Epigynous and the Aggregose, the former usually having 
the flowers loosely arranged, the latter in dense round heads. Finally, the 
remainder of the orders of Monopetalous Dicotyledons form a fifth natm-al 
assemblage, essentially distinguished by having more cai*pels than two, sym- 
metrical flowers, and a superior ovary. To these the name of Polycarpous may 
be conveniently applied. Hence the groups are — 

1. IPolgcarpoeae* Flowers hypogynous. Carpels more than 2. 

2. (IBpi02no0ae* Flowers epigynous. Carpels 2 or more. 

3. aG0reco0ae* 

4. ii5ucamcrtto0aCf 

5. 2)icarpo0ae* 

Carpels single. 

Fruit consisting of several (usually 4) lobes, which are 
either originally distinct, or separate from each other 
when ripe, without any trace of a central placenta. 

Fruit bicai-pellary, capsular. 

The two last groups might be arranged upon a different plan, making one 
of them comprehend all the regular, and the other the irregular, dicarpellary 
orders ; but the arguments of Mr. Bentham have persuaded me to abandon 
the former in favour of that which is now proposed. 

, Group I. 

Essential Character. — Ovary superior, consisting of several carpels, either combined 
or distinct ; if inferior, then the anthers opening by pores. 

The orders here combined are very much more closely allied to each other 
than to any others in the Monopetalous sub- class. The twining Volvales, 
indeed, seem at first sight to differ materially from the remainder ; but they 
are plainly connected with the first three alliances by means of the shrubby 
species of themselves and of Nolanaceae. Vaccinacese offer an exception to the 
usual character of the group, in consequence of their ovary being inferior ; by 
that circumstance they are verbally referred to Epigynosae ; but all their 
affinities are here, and their anthers opening by pores will shew the student 
how to recognize them. Many Ericaceae approach Rutaceae, and some of 
them Celastraceae. Myrsinaceae are almost brought in contact with Rham- 


naceae through Choripetalum. Primulacese touch closely upon Solanaceae, 
from which, however, they are known, independently of all other circumstances, 
by their stamens opposite the segments of the corolla. 

Alliance I. BREXIALES, 

Essential Character, — Albumen absent. Carpels 5. Sterile stamens between the 
fertile ones. Seeds indefinite. 


BrexiacEjE, Ed. Prior. No. 95. (1830} ; Arnott in Edinh. Encijcl. 104 (1832) ; Martins 
Conspectus, No. 291. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, small, persistent, 5-parted; aestivation imbri- 
cated. Petals 5, hypogynous, imbricated in aestivation. Stamens 5, hypogynous, alternate 
with the petals, arising from a narrow cup, which is toothed between each stamen; anthers 
oval, innate, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally, fleshy at the apex ; pollen triangular, cohering 
by means of fine threads. Ovary superior, 5-celled, with numerous ovules attached in two 
rows to placentae in the axis ; style 1, continuous ; stigma simple. Fruit drupaceous, 
5-celled, many-seeded. Seeds indefinite, attached to the axis, with a double integument, 
the inner of which is membranous ; albumen 0 ; cotyledons ovate, obtuse ; radicle cylin- 
drical, centripetal. — Trees, with nearly simple trunks. Leaves coriaceous, alternate, simple, 
not dotted, with deciduous minute stipules. Flowers green, in axillary umbels, surrounded 
by bracts on the outside. 

Affinities. The solitary genus upon which this order is founded does 
not exhibit any very obvious affinities, for which reason it is probable that 
other genera remain to be discovered which will establish the connexion that 
is at present wanting. Its habit is that of some Myrsinacese, especially of 
Theophrasta, from which it differs in being pol)rpetalous, in the stamens being 
alternate with the petals, and in many other circumstances. With Rhamnacese 
and Celastraceae its relation is no doubt strong, but its stamens are hypogy- 
nous, not perigynous, and its seeds indefinite. Some resemblance may be 
traced between it and Anacardiacese, especially in the resinous appearances 
visible upon the young shoots, and also in habit; but its fructification is 
entirely at variance with that order. With Pittosporacese it agrees in its 
hypogynous definite stamens, its polyspermous fruit, its alternate undivided 
leaves, and habit ; but it disagrees in a number of important particulars. I 
once thought it approached more nearly to Celastraceae than to any other 
order ; but its relationship to Theophrasta seems so great that I am unwilling 
to remove it from the vicinity of Primulales, especially as it is so much a cha- 
racter of the Polycarpous group to separate the petals. The fruit is well 
described by Wallich in the Flora Indica. 

Geography. Madagascar trees. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Brexia, Thouars. 

Venana, Law. 


Alliance IT. ERICALES. 

Essential Character. — Antfiers opening by pores, hard and dry, often with appen- 
dages. Carpels from 4 to 5, or more. 

The worst of this character is, that Monotropaceae do not open their anthers 
hy pores ; their evident relationship to the other orders renders it, however, 
necessary to keep them here. 

Order CLXIV. PYROLACEiE. The Winter Green Tribe. 

Pyrolene, Lindl. Coll. Bot. t. 5. (1821) ; Synops. 175. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-leaved, persistent, inferior. Corolla monopetalous, 
hypogynous, regular, deciduous, 4- or 5 -toothed, with an imbricated aestivation. Stamens 
hypogynous, twice as numerous as the divisions of the corolla ; anthers 2-celled, opening by 
pores. Ovary superior, 4- or 5-celled, many-seeded, with a hypogynous disk; style 1, 
declinate ; stigma slightly indusiate. Fruit capsular, 4- or 5-celled, dehiscent, with central 
placentae. Seeds indefinite, minute, winged ; embryo minute, at the base of a fleshy albumen. 
— Herbaceous plants, rarely under-shrubs. Stems round, raked ; in the frutescent species 
leafy. Leaves simple, entire or toothed. Flowers in terminal racemes, or solitary. 

Affinities. The habit of these plants is so different from that of Ericaceae 
that I cannot hesitate to separate them, especially as their winged seeds, with a 
minute embryo, and declinate styles, are real marks of difference. Pyrola 
(Cladothamnus ?) fruticosa forms a passage to Ericaceae, and P. aphylla to 
Monotropaceae. A sort of approach to the indusiate stigma of Goodeniaceae 
occurs in that of P. aphylla and others. 

Geography. Natives of Europe, North America, and the northern parts 
of Asia, in fir woods, or in similar situations. 

Properties. Chimaphila umbellata is a most active diuretic ; it is also 
found to possess valuable tonic properties. The- leaves, applied to the skin, 
act as slight vesicatories. It is remarkable enough that C. maculata, a very 
closely allied species, should be asserted by American practitioners to be 
wholly inert. See Barton, 1. 28. 


Pyrola, L. Chimaphila, Ph. Moneses, Salisb. Galax, L. 

Chimaza, R. Br. Cladothamnus, Bong. Blandfordia, Andr. 


MoNOTROPEiE, Nutt. Gen. 1. 272. (1818) ; DC. et Duby. 319. (1828). 

Essential Character. — In all things the same as Pyrolaceae, except; style straight; 
anthers bursting longitudinally ; embryo minute, at the apex of fleshy albumen ; stems leaf- 
less, or nearly so, but covered with fleshy scales. — Parasitical plants. 

Affinities. The dehiscence of the anthers separates these from Pyrolaceae, 
as well as their leafless, scaly, and parasitical habit; besides which, it would 
appear that there is a difference in the position of the embryo, that organ being 
at the apex of the albumen in Monotropaceae, and at its base in Pyrolaceae, 
Tolmiea forms a transition from these to Pyrolaceae, and P. aphylla back again. 

Geography. Natives of Europe, Asia and North America, in cool places 
especially in fir woods. 

Properties. Unknown. 



Tolmiea, Hooker. Pterospora, Nutt. 

Hypopithys, Dill. Schweinitzia, Elliot. 

Monotropa, L. 

Order CLXVI. ERICACE.^. The Heath Tribe. 

Eric^e, Juss. Gen. 1.59. (1789). — Erice.®, R. Brown Prodr. 557. (1810) ; Lindl. Synops. 
172. (1829). — Rhododendra, Juss. Gen. 158. (1789). — Ericine^, Desv. Journ. 
Bot. 28. (1813) ; Don in Edinb. Phil. Journal, p. 150. (1834) ; Klotzsch in Linncea, 
vol. 9. 67. Lilt. (1835). — Rhodorace.® and Ericace^, DC. FI. Fr.3. 611. and 675. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 4- or 5-cleft, nearly equal, inferior, persistent. Corolla 
hypogynous, monopetalous, 4- or 5 -cleft, occasionally separable into 4 or 5 pieces, regular 
or irregular, often withering, with an imbricated aestivation. Stamens definite, equal in 
number to the segments of the corolla, or twice as many, hypogynous, or scarcely inserted 
into the base of the corolla ; anthers 2-celled, the cells hard and dry, separate either at the 
apex or base, where they are furnished with some kind of appendage, and dehiscing by a 
pore. Ovary surrounded at the base by a disk, or secreting scales, many-celled, many- 
seeded; style 1, straight; stigma 1, undivided or toothed, or 3 -cleft. capsular, many- 

celled, with central placentae ; dehiscence various. Seeds indefinite, minute ; testa firmly 
adhering to the nucleus ; embryo cylindrical, in the axis of fleshy albumen ; radicle opposite 
the hilum. — Shrubs or under-shrubs. Leaves evergreen, rigid, entire, whorled, or opposite, 
without stipules. Inflorescence variable, the pedicels generally bracteate. 

Affinities. Formerly separated into two orders by Jussieu, who distin- 
guished Ericese and Rhodoraceae by the dehiscence of their capsule ; a charac- 
ter which is not now esteemed of ordinal importance, and which is conse • 
quently abandoned. The order differs from Vaccinacese and Campanulaceae 
in the superior ovary, from Epacridaceae in the structure of the anthers, from 
Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae in the structure of the seeds and in habit, and 
from all the orders of which Scrophulariaceae and Gentianaceae may be consi- 
dered the representatives, in the number of cells of the ovary agreeing with 
the lobes of the calyx and corolla. An unexpected transition to Campanula- 
ceae is furnished by the curious genus Calysphyrum. The order has been re- 
modelled by Don, but not upon satisfactor}^ grounds, according to Klotzsch, 
who criticises the arrangement of the former Botanist with extreme severity. 
I do not pretend to judge between these two authors, but until the order has 
been carefully revised I prefer adopting the views of Klotzsch, who is evi- 
dently well acquainted with his subject. 

Geography. Most abundant at the Cape of Good Hope, where immense 
tracts are covered with the species ; common in Europe and North and South 
America, both within and without the tropics ; less common in northern Asia 
and India, and almost . unknown in Australasia, where their place is supplied 
by Epacridacese. 

Properties. Their general quahties are, to be astringent and diuretic; 
Azalea procumbens. Rhododendron ferrugineum and chrysanthemum, and Le- 
dum palustre, being examples of the former, and Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi of 
the latter. This, De Candolle observes, has been confounded wdth Vaccinium 
Vitis Idea by some practitioners, but most improperly, the chemical composi- 
tion of the two plants being extremely different. See Essai MM. 194. An 
infusion of the leaves of Uva Ursi has been employed with success in cases of 
gonorrhoea of long standing. Ibid. The berries of the succulent-fruited 
kinds are usually grateful, and sometimes used as food. Gaultheria procum- 
bens and ShaUon, Arctostaphylos alpina, and Brosssea coccinea, are examples 



of this. In the island of Corsica an agreeable wine is said to be prepared 
from the berries of Arbutus Unedo. Ed. P. J. 2. 199. Gaultheria pro- 
cumbens possesses stimulating and anodyne properties. In North America an 
infusion of it is used as tea. Barton, 1 . 178. An infusion of the berries in brandy 
is taken in small quantities, in the same way as common bitters. Ibid. The 
fruit of Arbutus Unedo, taken in two great quantity, is said to be 'narcotic, 
and a similar quality no doubt exists in several other plants of the order ; Le- 
dum palustre renders beer heady, when used in the manufacture of that beve- 
rage ; Rhododendron ponticum and maximum, Kalmia latifolia, and some 
others, are well known to be venomous. The honey which poisoned some of the 
soldiers in the retreat of the ten thousand through Pontus was gathered by 
bees from the flowers of Azalea pontica. The shoots of Andromeda ovalifolia 
poison goats in Nipal. Don Prodr. 149. It is stated by Dr. Horsfield that 
a very volatile heating oil, with a peculiar odour, used by the Javanese in 
rheumatic aflfections, is obtained from a species of Andromeda. Ainslie, 2. 
107. The flowers of Rhododendron arboreum are eaten by the hill people of 
India ; and are formed into a jelly by European visitors. The ferruginous 
leaves of Rhododendron f ampanulatum are used as snuff by the natives of In- 
dia, as we are informed by De Candolle, is in the United States the brown 
dust that adheres to the petioles of Kalmias and Rhododendrons. Royle’s 
Illustr. 259. 


§ 1. Erice^e, D. Don. 
Erica, L. 

* Pachysa, Don. 

* Ceramia, Don. 

* Desmia, Don. 

* Eurylepis, Don. 

* Eurystegia, Don. 

* Lophandra, Don. 

* Dasyanthes, Don. 
Thoracosperma, Klotz. 
Gypsocallis, Salisb. 

Lamprotis, Don. 
Blaeria, L. 

Sympieza, Lichst. 
Nabea, Lehm. 

Callista, Don. 

Euryloma, Don. 
Chona, Don. 

Syringodea, Don. 
Ectasis, Don. 
Octopera, Don. 
Eremia, Don. 
Salaxis, Salisb. 
Philippia, Klotzch. 

Salaxis, W. 
Calluna, Salisb. 

§ 2. Andromede^, 

Andromeda, L. 

* Cassandra, Don. 

* Zenobia, Don. 

* Leucothoe, Don. 

* Pieris, Don. 
Cassiope, Don. 
Lyonia, Nutt. 
Bryanthus, Gmel. 

Phyllodoce, Don. 

Bruckenthalia, Rchb. 
Menziesia, Sm. 
Daboecia, Don. 
Candollea, Baumg. 
Enkianthus, Lour. 

Melodora, Salisb. 
Arbutus, L. 
Arctostaphylos,Tourn . 
Pernettya, Gaud. 
Agarista, Don. 
Diplecosia, Bl. 
Gaultheria, L. 

Epigaea, L. 
Phalerocarpus, Don. 
Clethra, L. 

Elliottia, Nutt. 

§ 3. Rhodore^, Don. 
Rhodothamnus, Rchb. 
Rhododendron, L. 
Rhodora, L. 
Anthodendron, Rchh. 
Azalea, L. 

Vireya, Bl. 

Bejaria, Mutis. 

Acunna, R. P. 
Hymenanthus, Bl. 
Kalmia, L. 
Chamaeledon, Lk. 

Loiseleuria, Desv. 
Leiophyllum, Pers. 
Ammyrsine, Ph. 
Fischera, Swz. 
Ledum, L. 

Pickeringia, Nutt. 

Order CLXVII. VACCINACEiE. The Bilberry Tribe. 

Vaccinie^, DC. Theor. Elem. 216. (1813) ; DC. and Duty, 31.6. (1818) ; Lindl. Synops. 

134. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, entire, or with from 4 to 6 lobes. Corolla 
monopetalous, lobed as often as the calyx. Stamens distinct, double the number of the 
lobes of the corolla, inserted into an epigynous disk ; anthers with 2 horns and 2 cells, 
bursting by pores. Ovary inferior, 4- or 5-celled, 1 or many-seeded ; style simple ; stigma 
simple. Berry crowned by the persistent limb of the calyx, succulent, 4- or 5-celled; cells 
1- or many-seeded. Seeds minute ; embryo straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen; coty- 
ledons very short ; radicle long, inferior. — Shrubs, with alternate coriaceous leaves. 

* In this list the names with an asterisk are probably to be considered as mere sections of 
the genus which they follow. 


Affinities. Formerly combined with Ericaceae, from which the order 
differs in its inferior ovary and succulent fruit. It is confounded by Achille 
Richard with Escalloniaceae, which are essentially distinguished by their flowers 
being polypetalous, the anthers bursting lengthwise, &c. &c. &c. Myrtacese 
are obviously separated by being polypetalous, by the leaves being opposite 
and marked with transparent dots, &c. 

Geography. Natives of North America, where they are found in great 
abundance as far as high northern latitudes ; sparingly in Europe ; and not 
uncommonly on high land in the Sandwich Islands. 

Properties. Much the same as those of Ericacese : their bark and leaves 
are astringent, slightly tonic, and stimulating. The berries of many are eaten, 
under the names of Cranberry, Bilberry, Whortleberry, &c. Several species 
are choice subjects of the gardener’s care. 


Vaccinium, L. 
Oxycoccus, Pens. 
Gaylussacia, H. B. K. 
Lussacia, Spr. 

Thibaudia, Pav. 
Cainnium, Thouars. 
Agapetes, Don. 
Ceratostema, Juss. 

Cavendishia, Lindl. 
Symphysia, Presl. 
Sphyrospermum, P. et 


Epacride^, R. Brown Prodr. 535. (1810) ; Link Handh. 1. GOl. (1829), a § o/Ericeae. 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-parted (very seldom 4-partedj, often coloured, per- 
sistent. Corolla hypogynous, monopetalous, either deciduous or withering, sometimes 
capable of being separated into 5 pieces, its limb with 5 (rarely 4) equal divisions, some- 
times, in consequence of the cohesion of the segments, bursting transversely ; the aestivation 
valvular or imbricated. Stamens equal in number to the segments of the corolla, and alter- 
nate with them ; very seldom fewer in number. Filaments arising from the corolla, or 
hypogynous. Anthers simple, with a single receptacle of pollen, which forms a complete 
partition sometimes having a border ; undivided, opening longitudinally. Pollen either 
nearly round or formed of 3 connate grains. Ovary sessile, usually surrounded at the base 
with 5 distinct or connate scales ; with several, rarely a single, cell ; ovules solitary or 
indefinite ; style 1 ; stigma simple, or occasionally toothed. Fruit drupaceous, baccate, or 
capsular. Seeds with albumen. Embryo taper, straight, in the axis, more than half as 
long as the albumen. — Shrubs or small trees, their hair, when present, being simple. Leaves 
alternate, very rarely opposite, entire or occasionally serrated, usually stalked ; their bases 
sometimes dilated, cucullate, overlapping each other and half sheathing the stem. Flowers 
w-hite or purple, seldom blue, either in spikes or terminal racemes, or solitary and axillary ; 
the calyx or pedicels with 2 or several bracts, which are usually of the same texture as the 

Affinities. This order differs from Ericaceae solely in the structure of 
the anther ; but that organ being one of the principal features of Ericaceae, 
any material deviation from it acquires a peculiar degree of consequence. In 
Ericaceae the anther consists of 2 cells, usually furnished with peculiar appen- 
dages ; in Epacridaceae is is simply 1 -celled, with no appendages whatever. 
The order like both the last is remarkable for containing spdcies with both 
definite and indefinite seeds. 

Geography. All natives of the Indian archipelago, or Australasia, or 
Polynesia, where they abound as Heaths do at the Cape of Good Hope. It is 
remarkable that only 1 or 2 of the H eath tribe are found in the countries occu- 
pied by Epacridaceae. 

Properties. The fruit of Lissanthe sapida, called the Australian cran- 
berry, is eatable. Chiefly remarkable for the great beauty of the flowers of 
many species. 



§ 1. STYPHELIiE, Bai 
Styphelia, Sm. 
Astroloma, R. Br. 

Ventenatia, Cav. 
Stenanthera, R. Br. 
Melichrus, R. Br. 
Cyathodes, La Bill. 

Lissanthe, R. Br. 

Perojoa, Cav. 
Monotoca, R. Br. 
Acrotriche, R. Br. 
Trochocarpa, R. Br. 
Decaspora, R. Br. 

§ 2. Epacride/e, 
Epacris, Forst. 
Lysinema, R. Br. 
Prionotes, R. Br. 
Cosmelia, R. Br. 
Andersonia, R. Br. 
Poftceletia, R. Br. 

Sprengelia, Sm. 

Poiretia, Cav. 
Cystanthe, R. Br. 
Pilitis, (31). 

Richea, R. Br. 
Dracophyllum, La Bill. 
Sphenotoma, R. Br. 


Essential Character. — Anthers bursting longitudinally, without any kind of appen- 
dage. Carpels 4-5, very often with their dissepiments absorbed. 

Order CLXIX. PRIMULACEiE. The Primrose Tribe. 

Lysimachi^, Juss. Gen. 95. (1789). — Primulacea;, Vent. Tabl. 2. 285. (1799) ; R. Brown 
Prodr. 427. (1810) ; Lindl. Synops. 182. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx divided, 5-cleft, seldom 4-cleft, inferior, regular, per- 
sistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, regular; the limb 5-cleft, seldom 4-cleft. 
Stamens inserted upon the corolla, equal in number to its segments, and opposite them ! 
Ovary 1 -celled; style 1 ; stigma capitate. Capsule opening with valves ; placenta central, 
distinct. Seeds numerous, peltate ; embryo included within fleshy albumen, and lying across 
the hilum ; radicle with no determinate direction. — Herbaceous plants. Leaves usually 
opposite, either whorled or scattered. R. Br. 

Anomalies. Samolus has the ovary half inferior, and 5 sterile stamens, in addition to 
the 5 fertile ones. Glaux is apetalous. 

Affinities. Nearly allied to' all the regular monopetalous orders with 
capsular superior fruit, especially to Solanaceae and Ericacese, from both which, 
and all others, they are readily known by the stamens being placed opposite 
the segments of the corolla, and not alternate with them.- In this respect they 
agree with Myrsinaceae, which differ principally in their fleshy fruit and arbo- 
rescent habit. Another character of Primulaceae is to have the embryo lying 
across the hilum within the albumen, so that the radicle is presented neither 
to the umbilicus nor to one extremity, but to one side. Trientalis differs 
a little in its somewhat succulent fruit. Glaux, an apetalous genus is, and I 
think correctly, placed here ; but, according to Don {Jcmeson's Journal, Jan. 
1830, p. 166.), it should be referred to Plantaginacese, “where it will form 
the connecting link between that family and Primulaceee.” 

Geography^ Common in the northern and colder parts of the globe, 
growing in marshes, hedges, and groves, by fountains and rivulets, and even 
among the snow of cloud-capped mountains. The genus Douglasia was found 
by the traveller whose name it bears, blossoming while covered with snow, 
on the Rocky Mountains of America. They are uncommon within the tropics, 
where they usually occupy either the sea shorey or the summits of the most 
lofty hills. 

Properties. As beautiful objects of culture, these rank among the most 
esteemed, both on account of their bright but modest-looking flowers, among 
the earliest harbingers of spring, and also for the sake of their fragrance. Their 
sensible properties are feeble. The Cowslip is slightly narcotic, and the root 
of Cyclamen is famous for its acridity ; yet this is the principal food of the 
wild boars of Sicily, whence its common name of Sowbread. Anagallis ar- 


vensis and coeriilea, the Mouron of the French, have enjoyed a great reputation 
as specifics in case of madness ; but their use is discontinued. It appears, 
however, that An. aiwensis does really possess highly energetic powers, for 
Orfila destroyed a dog by making him swallow 3 drachms of the extract. 
Upon examination it was found to have inflamed the mucous membrane of 
the stomach. 


Cyclamen, L. 
Dodecatheon, L. 
Soldanella, L. 
Cortusa, L. 
Androsace, L. 
Aretia, L. 
Andraspis, Duby. 
Gregoria, Duby. 

Douglasia, Lindl. 
Primula, L. 
Trientalis, L. 
Hottonia, L. 

Lubinia, Venten. 
Schwenckia, L. 

Chcetochilus, Vahl. 
Asterolinon, Link. 

Lysimachia, L. 
Lerouxia, Merot. 
Godinella, Lestib. 
Ephemerum, Rchb. 

Thyrsanthus, Schk. 
Euparea, Banks. 
Jirasekia, Schm. 
Naumburgia, Mbnch. 

Anagallis, L. 
Centunculus, L. 
Bacopa, Aubl. 
Coris, L. 

Glaux, L. 

Samolus, L. 

Sheffieldia, Forst. 


Ophiosperma, Vent. Jard. Cels. 86. (1800). — MyRSiNEi®, R. Brown Prodr. 532. (1810.) — 
Ardisiace^e, Juss, Ann. Mus. XV. 350. (1810) ; Bartl. Ord. Nat. 163. (1830) ; 
Alph. DC. in Linn. Trans. 17. 100. (1834). — ^Egicere^, Blume in Ann. Sc. Nov. 
Ser. 11.91. (1834). 

Essential Character. — Flou'ers hermaphrodite or polygamous, rarely unisexual. 
Calyx 4- or 5-cleft, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogjmous, 4-5-cieft, equal. Stamens 
4-5, opposite the segments of the corolla ! into the bases of which they are inserted ; fila- 
ments distinct, rarely connate, sometimes wanting, sometimes 5 sterile petaloid alternate 
ones ; anthers attached by their emarginate base, with 2 cells, dehiscing longitudinally. 
Ovary 1, with a single cell and a free central placenta, in the midst of which is immersed a 
definite or indefinite number of peltate ovules ; style 1, often very short; stigma lobed or 
undivided. Fruit fleshy, mostly 1 -seeded, sometimes 2-4-seedeA Seeds peltate, with a 
hollow hilum and a simple integument ; albumen horny, of the same shape as the seed ; 
embryo lying across the hilum, taper, usually curved ; cotyledons short ; radicle, if several 
seeds ripen, inferior. Plumula inconspicuous. — Trees or shrubs. alternate, undi- 

vided, serrated or entire, coriaceous, smooth ; stipules 0 ; sometimes under-shrubs, with op- 
posite or ternate leaves. Inflorescence in umbels, corymbs, or panicles, axillary, seldom 
terminal. Flowers small, white or red, often marked with sunken dots or glandular lines. 

Affinities. Scarcely difihrent from Primulacese, except in their arbore- 
scent habit and fleshy fruit ; the embryo always lies across the hilum, and the 
stamens are opposite the lobes of the corolla, as in that order ; add to which, 
the connivence of the anthers in a cone, which is frequent in Primulacese, is 
common in Mwsinace^e also. Brown remarks (1. c.), that the order is related 
to Sapotacese through Jacquinia, and to Primulacese through Bladhia. The 
immersion of the ovules in a fleshy placenta is a peculiar character of this tribe, 
.^gicerese of Blume differ in nothing except their want of albumen, and, 
which is probably a consequence of that peculiarity, their embryo germinating 
in the pericarp, like the Mangroves among which the ^gicereSe grow. But it 
is to be supposed that in a situation among the mud of the sea shore, the 
dampest that can well exist, the nascent embryo of a plant has no occasion 
for that supply of food, which in the form of albumen is so often stored up for 
them under other circumstances. I therefore consider the presence of albu- 
men in ^giceras to be a special but not an ordinal character in' this case, Msesa 
is to other Myrsinaceae what Samolus is to other Primulaceae. Mr. Amott re- 
marks to me that in some genera he finds dots of different shapes mixed as in 
Sarny daceae. 


Geography. Tropical plants without exception, and common both in 
India and America ; but “ no species has been met with in equinoctial Africa, 
though several exist both at the Cape of Good Hope and in the Canary Is- 
lands.” Brown in Congo, 465. 

Properties. Almost unknown. Generally handsome shrubs, with fine 
evergreen leaves. Bread is said to be prepared from the pounded seeds of 
Theophrasta Jussiaei in St. Domingo, where it is called Le Petit Coco. Hamilt. 
Prodr. p. 27. A slight degree of pungency exists in the berries of Embelia 
Ribes, and some others ; Cathartic properties are ascribed to those of Embe- 
lia robusta, Myrsine bifaria. Royles Illustr. 265. 


§ 1. ^Egicere^, a. DC. 
iEgiceras, Gaertn. 

§ 2. Ardisiea;, A. DC. 
Wallenia, Swz. 
Weigeltia, A. DC. 
Conomorpha, A. DC. 
Cybianthus, Mart. 
Myrsine, L. 

Romeria, Thunb. 
Samara, Swz. 
Scleroxylum, W. 

Rapanea, Aubl. 
Cahalleria, R. et P. 
Mang'Hlla, Juss. 
Badula, Juss. 

Barthesia, Commers, 
Oncostemum, Adr. J. 
Ardisia, Swz. 

Icacorea, Aubl. 
Anguillaria, Gaertn. 

Bladhia, Thunb. 
Pyrgus, Lour. 
Othera, Thunb. 

, Embelia, Juss. 
Choripetalum, A. DC. 
? Corynocarpus, Forst. 
Samara, L. 

§ 3. MiESEiE, A. DC. 
Maesa, Forsk. 
Bceohotrys, Forst. 
Sibouratia, Thouars. 


Malaspinaea, Presl. 
Oncinus, Lour. 
Jacquinia, L. 

Bonellia, Bert. 
Theophrasta, L. 
Eresia, PI. 

Leonia, R. P. 
Clavija, R. P. 

Order CLXXI. SAPOTACE^. The Sappodilla Tribe. 

Sapot^, Juss. Gen. 151. (1789). — Sapote^, R. Brown Prodr. 528. (1810). — 
Sapotace^, Endl. Prodr. Norf.4S. (1833). 

Essential Character. — Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx divided, regular, persistent. 
Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, regular, deciduous, its segments usually equal in num- 
ber to those of the calyx, seldom twice or thrice as many. Stamens arising from the corolla, 
definite, distinct, the fertile ones equal in number to the segments of the calyx, and opposite 
those segments of the corolla which alternate with the latter, seldom more. Anthers usually 
turned outwards ; the sterile stamens as numerous as the fertile ones, with which they 
alternate, sometimes absent. Ovary with several cells, in each of which is 1 erect ovule. Style I . 
Stigma undivided, occasionally lobed. Fruit baccate with several 1 -seeded cells, or by 
abortion with only 1. Seeds nut-like, sometimes cohering into a several-celled putamen. 
Testa bony, shining, its inner face opaque and softer than the rest. Embryo erect, large, 
white, usually enclosed in fleshy albumen. Cotyledons, when albumen is present, foliaceous; 
when absent, fleshy and sometimes connate. Radicle short, straight, or a little curved, 
turned towards the hilum. Plumule inconspicuous. — Trees or shrubs, chiefly natives of 
the tropics, and abounding in milky juice. Leaves alternate, without stipules, entire, 
coriaceous. Inflorescence axillary. 

Affinities. This order is certainly near Ebenaceae, with which it agrees 
in habit, arborescent stem, alternate entire leaves, and axillary inflorescence ; 
and moreover in its monopetalous regular hypog}Tious corolla, the absence of 
a hypogynous disk, an ovary with several cells, and definite ovules and sta- 
mens. The two orders, however, differ in several points. Sapotaceae have 
usually a milky juice, and their wood is among the softer kinds ; their flowers 
are always hermaphrodite, the segments of the calyx and corolla are often 
placed in a double row ; their stamens are always in a single row, the fertile 
ones rarely more numerous than the segments of the calyx, and opposite the 
divisions of the corolla ; their style is undivided ; the cells of the ovary are always 
1 -seeded, with erect ovules ; the testa is thick and bony ; the embryo is large 
with respect to the fleshy albumen, which is sometimes deficient ; the radicle 



is very short, and inferior. In Ebenaceae there is no milk, and the wood is 
very hard ; the flowers are usually unisexual, the segments of the calyx 
and corolla are almost always in a single row : the stamens are usually doubled, 
and either twice or four times as numerous as the segments of the corolla, or, 
if equal to them, alternate with them ; the style is generally divided, the cells 
of the ovary sometimes 2-seeded, the ovules always pendulous, the testa thin 
and soft, the embryo middle-sized or small in respect to the cartilaginous al- 
bumen, which is always present ; the radicle is of middling length, or very 
long and superior. R. Brown Prodr. 529. It is worth remarking, that the 
woody shell of the seed of Sapotacese is certainly testa, and not putamen, as is 
proved by the presence of the micropyle upon it. If Acosta of the FI. Peruviana 
really belongs here, Sapotacese will exhibit in that genus an approach to the 
irregularity of Labiosse, and to the monadelphous stnicture of Meliacese. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of the tropics of India, Africa, and Ameri- 
ca ; a few are found in the southern parts of North America, and at the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

Properties. The fimit of many is esteemed in their native countries as 
an article of the dessert : such are the Sappodilla Plum, the Star Apple, the 
Marmalade (Achras mammosa) the Medlar of Surinam, the Mimusops Elengi, 
and others ; they are described as having generally a sweet taste, with a little 
acidity. The seeds of Achras Sapota are aperient and diuretic ; those of some 
others are filled with a concrete oil, which is used for domestic purposes. Mi- 
musops Kaki, like many trees with astringent bark, yields a gum, while its 
fmit is of a sweetish taste, and much eaten by the natives of India. Royle. 
A kind of thick oil, like butter, is obtained from the fruit of Bassia butyi'acea, 
the Mahva or Madhuca Tree. Tlie flowers of the same tree are employed ex- 
tensively in the distillation of a kind of arrack. Ed. P. J, 12. 192. Tlie 
juice of the bark of Bassia longifolia is prescribed by the Indian doctors in 
rheumatic afiTections. Ainslie, 2. 100. The Butter Tree of Mungo Park was 
also a species of Bassia. See Royle s Illustrations, p. 263, for further infor- 
mation concerning these Bassias. The bark of 4 species of Achras is so as- 
tringent and febrifugal as to have been substituted for quinquina. The Cow 
Tree of Humboldt has been sometimes supposed to be referable to this order ; 
but there seems no reason now to doubt its belonging to Artocarpeae. The 
Tingi da Praya of Brazil, with which the Indians destroy fish, is the Jacquinia 
obovata. The branches are bruised and thrown into the water. It must not 
be confounded with another fish poison, called Tingi only, which is a species of 
PauUinia. Pr. Max. Trav. 166. 


Achras, L. 

Lucuma, Juss. 
Chrysophyllum, L. 
Nycterisition, R. P, 

Imbricaria, Commers. 
Binectaria, Forst. 
Mimusops, L. 

Bassia, Kon. 

Bumelia, Sw. 

Hornschuchia, Nees. 
Hunteria, Roxb. 
Sersalisia, R. Br. 
Sideroxylon, L. 

Argania, Schousb. 

Omphalocarpus, P. 
de B. 

? Acosta, R. P. 

Order CLXXII. EBENACE.^. The Ebony Tribe. 

Guaiacan^, Gen. 155. (1789) part of the first sect.— E b-enaceje, Vent. Tabl. 443. 
(1799) ; Brown Prodr. 524. (1810). — Ebenaceae, § Diospyreae, DC. and Duby, 
320. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Flowers polygamous or dicecicus, seldom hermaphrodite. 
Calyx in 3 or 6 divisions, nearly equal, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, 


regular, deciduous, somewhat coriaceous, usually pubescent externally, and smooth inter- 
nally ; its limb with 3 or 6 divisions, imbricated in aestivation. Stamens definite, either 
arising from the corolla, or hypogynous ; twice as many as the segments of the corolla, 
sometimes 4 times as many, or the same number, and then alternate with them ; filaments 
simple in the hermaphrodite species, generally doubled in the polygamous and dioecious 
ones, both their divisions bearing anthers, but the inner one generally smaller ; anthers 
attached by their base, lanceolate, 2-celled, dehiscing lengthwise, sometimes bearded ; pollen 
round, smooth. Ovary sessile, without any disk, several -celled, the cells each having 1 or 
2 ovules pendulous from their apex ; style divided, seldom simple ; stigmas bifid, or simple. 
Fruit fleshy, round or oval, by abortion often few-seeded, its pericarp sometimes opening in 
a regular manner. Seed with a membranous testa of the same figure as the albumen, which 
is cartilaginous and white ; embryo in the axis, or but little out of it, straight, white, gene- 
rally more than half as long as the albumen ; cotyledons foliaceous, somewhat veiny, lying 
close together, occasionally slightly separate ; radicle taper, of middling length or long, 
turned towards the hilum ; plumule inconspicuous. — Trees or shrubs, without milk, and a 
heavy wood. Leaves alternate, without stipules, obsoletely articulated with the stem, quite 
entire, coriaceous. Infiorescence axillary. Peduncles solitary, those of the males divided, 
of the females usually 1 -flowered, with minute bracts. R. Br. 

Affinities. Very near Oleacese, with which they agree in the placenta- 
tion of the seeds and other points of structure ; distinguished by their alter- 
nate leaves, constantly axillary and usually unisexual flowers, the stamens of 
which are at least double the number of the lobes of the corolla. R. Br. 
They are more closely allied to Aquifoliaceae, from which they chiefly differ in 
the number of their stamens and their divided sexes. For their resemblance 
to Sapotacese, see that order. 

Geography. Chiefly Indian and tropical ; a very few are found north- 
ward as far as Switzerland in Europe, and the state of New York in North 

Properties. Remarkable only for the hardness and blackness of the 
wood of such species as Diospyrus Ebenus, Ebenaster, melanoxylon, Mabolo, 
tomentosa and Roylei, and for the eatable quality of the fruit. The former is 
well known under the name of Ebony and Ironwood ; the latter is occasion- 
ally introduced from China as a dry sweetmeat. It is noted for extreme 
acerbity before arriving at maturity. The bark of Diosp. virginiana is said to 
be a febrifuge. The fruit of Diospyrus Embry opteris is so glutinous as to be 
used in Bengal for paying boats. Royle. 


Diospyros, L. 

Ebenus, Commers. 
Embry opteris, Gaertn. 
Royena, L. 

Cargillia, R. Br. 
Maba, Forst. 

Pisonia, Rottb. 
Ferreola, Roxb. 
Ebenoxylum, Lour. 

Pouteria, Aubl. 

Labatia, Sw. 
Phelline, La Bill, 
Goetzea, Wydl. 

Sub-Order ? STYRACEiE. 

Styrace.®, Rich. Anal, du Fr. (1808) ; Fon Martius, N. Gen. et Sp. PI. 2. 148. (1826). — 
Ebenace^, a § of Styraceae, DC. and Duby, 320. (1828). — Symplocine^, Don 
Prodr. Nep. 144. (1825). — Styracin^, Rich, in Humb.N. G. et Sp. 3. 256. (1818) ; 
Svnops. 2. 315. (1823). — Halesiace.®, Don in Jameson's Journ. {Dec. 1828) ; Link 
Handb.l. 667. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior or superior, with 5 divisions, persistent. 
Corolla monopetalous, the number of its divisions frequently different from that of the 
calyx; with imbricated aestivation. Stamens definite or indefinite, arising from the tube of 
the corolla, of unequal length, cohering in various ways, but generally in a slight degree 
only ; anthers innate, 2-celled, bursting* inwardly. Ovary superior, or adhering to the 
calyx, with from 3 to 5 cells ; ovules definite, the upper ascending, the lower pendulous, or 
rnce versA ; style simple ; stigma somewhat capitate. Fruit drupaceous, surmounted by or 


enclosed in the calyx, with from 1 to 5 cells. Seeds ascending or suspended, solitary, with 
the embryo lying in the midst of the albumen ; radicle long, directed towards the hilum ; 
cotyledons flat, foliaceous. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, without stipules, usually 
toothed, turning yellow in drying. Flowers axillary, either solitary or clustered, with scale- 
like bracts. The hairs often stellate. 

Affinities. Tlie plants comprehended under this name require a careful 
examination and settlement. They have been at one time combined with 
Ebenacese, or divided into the two orders of Styracese and Symplocaceae, from 
both which Halesiacese have been again separated by Don and Link. From 
Ericaceee they differ in habit, in the definite number of their seeds, and their 
inferior ovary; from Ebenaceae in the latter character, in the perigynous in- 
sertion of the stamens, in the peculiar circumstance of part of the ovules being 
erect and part inverted, and in the style being simple. Von Martins consi- 
ders Styraceae as gamopetalous rather than monopetalous : but what is the 
real difference in the meaning of these two words ? Don says that Halesia- 
ceae are a group widely different from Styraceae, and that they are principally 
knovm from Columelliaceae by the indefinite stamens and simple stigma. 
Jameson s Journ. 1828. The genus Symplocos is different in habit from Sty- 
rax and Halesia, turning yellow in drying. Jussieu refers Styrax to Melia- 
ceae, with which family the order has no doubt much affinity. De Candolle 
considers them nearly akin to Ternstrdmiaceae. Essai Medic. 204. 

Geography. Found in North and South America within and without 
the tropics, and in tropical Asia and China. 

Properties. Some of the genus S}Tnplocos are used in dying yeUow ; 
others, as Alstonia theiformis, are employed as tea, on account of a slight as- 
tringency in their leaves. Storax and Benzoin, fragrant gum-resins, com- 
posed of resin, benzoic acid, and a peculiar aromatic principle, are the produce 
of two species of Styrax. 


Symplocos, L. Hopea, L. Turaria, Molin. Strigilia, Cav. 

Alstonia, Mut. Styrax, L. Diclidanthera, Mart. Cypellium, Desv. 

Ciponima, Aubl. Halesia, L. ? Morelosia, Llave. Decadia, Lour. 

Paralea, Aubl. 

Order CLXXIII. AQUIFOLIACE.E. The Holey Tribe. 

Ilicinea;, Ad. Brongniart Mtmoire sur les Rhamnees, p. 16. (1826) ; Lindl. Synops.p. 73. 
(1829). — Aquifoliace^, DC. Thtorie, ed. 1. 217. (1813); a § o/ Celastrineae, 
lb. Prodr. 2. 11. (182.5) ; Martins H. R. Mon. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Sepals 4 to 6, imbricated in aestivation. Corolla 4- or 5- 
parted, hypogynous, imbricated in aestivation. Stamens inserted into the corolla, alternate 
with its segments ; filaments erect ; anthers adnate. Disk none. Ovary fleshy, superior, 
somewhat truncate, with from 2 to 6 cells ; ovules solitary, pendulous from a cup-shaped 
funiculus ; stigma subsessile, lobed. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent, with from 2 to 6 stones. 
Seed suspended, nearly sessile ; albumen large, fleshy ; embryo small, 2-lobed, lying next 
the hilum, with minute cotyledons, and a superior radicle. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alter- 
nate or opposite, coriaceous. Flowers small, axillary, solitary or fascicled. 

Affinities. Included in Rhamnaceae by most botanists, but well distin- 
guished by Ad. Brongniart, who remarks that the suggestion of Jussieu, in his 
Genera Plantanim, that Aquifoliacese ought probably to be placed among 
Monopetalse, near Sapotacese or Ebenacese, wiU probably be adopted. From 
Celastracese, with which the order is combined in most modern works, 
it differs in the form of the calyx and corolla, in the disposition and insertion 


of the stamens, and especially in the structure of the ovary and fruit. In these 
respects Aquifoliacese are found by Brongniart to agree so completely with 
Ebenaceie, that that order does not, in fact, differ essentially from Aquifoliacese, 
except in characters of a secondary order, such as the calyx and corolla less 
deeply divided, the stamens often double the number of the segments of the 
corolla, the style being sometimes divided, the cells of the ovary usually con- 
taining 2 collateral ovula, and, finally, in the cells of the fruit not becoming 
bony, as in most Aquifoliacese. Von Martins places them near Polygalaceoe. 

Geography. Found in various parts of the world, especially in the West 
Indies, South America, and the Cape of Good Hope. Several are found in 
North America; but 1, the common Holly, in Europe. 

Properties. The bark and berries of Prinos verticillatus possess, in an 
eminent degree, the properties of vegetable, astringent, and tonic medicines, 
along with antiseptic powers which are highly spoken of by American prac- 
titioners. Barton, 1. 208. Prinos glaber and Ilex Paraguensis are used as 
tea : the latter yields the famous beverage called Mate in Brazil. Myginda 
Gongonha is diuretic. DC. 


Cassine, L. 

Maurocenia, Mill. 
Hartogia, Thunb. 

Schrehera, Thunb. 
Curtisia, Ait. 

Doratium, Soland. 

Relhania, Gmel. Botryceras, Willd. 
Junghousia, Gmel. Prinos, L. 

Myginda, Jacq. Ageria, Adans. 

Rhacoma, L. Winterlia, Moench. 

Crossopetalum,P.BT. Macoucoua, Aubl. 
Ilex, L. 

Aquifolium, Toum. 

Nemopanthes, Rafin 
Nuttallia, DC. 

Skimmia, Thunb. 
Lepta, Lour. 

? Monetia, L. 

? Desfontainia,R.P.(32) 

Alliance IV. NOLANALES. 

Essential Character. — Fruit divided into distinct lobes. 


Nolanace.®, Lindl. Nixus PL 18. (1833) ; Martins Conspectus, No. 119. (1835). — 
CoNvoLVULACEiE § Dichondreae, Choisy (1834). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-parted, regular or irregular. Corolla monopetalous, 
with a plaited aestivation, usually thickened in the tube. Stamens 5, equal, inserted into 
the tube, alternate with the segments of the corolla ; anthers oblong, 2-celled, bursting 
longitudinally. Pistil composed of several carpels, either distinct with distinct styles, or 
distinct with a single style, or partially combined into several sets with a single style seated 
on a succulent disk. Stigma somewhat capitate. Fruit enclosed in the permanent calyx, 
constructed like the pistil ; pericarp woody, and a little succulent or membranous. Seeds 
ascending, solitary ; embryo curved, w’ith either straight or doubled cotyledons, in the 
midst of a small quantity of albumen ; radicle next the hilum. — Prostrate or erect, her- 
baceous or suffruticose plants. Leaves alternate, without stipules. Flowers usually showy. 

Affinities. The genus Nolana, sometimes referred to Boraginaceae, 
sometimes to Convolvulaceae, has been erected into a distinct order, on account, 
on the one hand, of < its regular plaited corolla, and, on the other, of its 
separate carpels. It appears to approach far more nearly to the latter than 
the former, differing, in reality, in nothing excepting its separate carpels, that 
is to say, much as Boraginacese from Toumefortiaceae, or Labiates from 
Verbenaceae, 8cc, The only difficulty in this character consists in knowing 
whether the genera Falkia or Dichondra belong to Convolwilaceae or to 


NolanaceEe. With the latter they agree in their separate ovaries, with the 
former in the structure of their embryos ; with both they disagree in the 
entirely apocarpous state of their cai'pels. If we attend to the embryo, they 
win stand among Convolvulacese ; if to the carpels, among Nolanacese : upon 
the whole, the latter must be accounted of the most importance, and conse- 
quently it is with Nolanaceee that I arrange them. Many more species of 
Nolana, than are described, are known, some of them shrubby ones ; but I do 
not find any characters that can be depended upon to form them into genera : 
in some species (N. prostrata) the carpels are combined by fours into 5 
nuculae ; in others they are aU separate (N. paradoxa) ; in others they are two 
solitary and simple and six combined in threes ; in others they are altogether 

Geography. Chile, Peru, and the Cape of Good Hope, are the principal 
stations of the species. Dichondra is found in most hot latitudes. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Nolana, L. Falkia, L. 

Teganium, Schm, Dichondra, Forst. 
Steripha, Gsertn. 

Alliance V. VOLVALES. 

Essential Character. — Carpels from 2 to 4, combined. Anthers never opening by 


CUSCUTE.E, J. S. Presl. FI. Cech. 1. 247. Bartl. Ord. Nat. 192. (1830) ; Martins. Conspect. 

No. 125. (1835). — CuscuTiNiE, Link Handb. 1.594. (1829); Lindl. Nixus PI. 18. 

(1833). — CuscuTACE^, Lindl. Key, 63. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx inferior, persistent, 4-5-parted, with an imbricate 
sestivation. Corolla persistent, cut round at the base ; the limb regular, 4-5-cleft, imbricated 
in aestivation. Scales alternating with the segments of the corolla, and adhering to them, 
rarely wanting. Stamens equal to the segments of the corolla, and alternate with them ; 
anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary 2-celled ; ovules twin, collateral, erect ; 
styles 2, simple, sometimes connate. Capsule 2-celled, cut round at the base; cells 1-2- 
seeded. Seeds with a central fleshy albumen, and a spiral acotyledonous embryo. — Leaf- 
less, twining, parasitical herbs, with clustered 

Affinities. Similar motives which induced me to separate Cassythaceae 
from Lauracese have led me to divide this order from Convolvulaceae, with which 
its peculiar habits forbid us to confound it, and from which its technical cha- 
racters seem sufficient to separate it. 

Geography. Found aU over the world, occasionally, in cool, temperate, 
sub-humid climates. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Cu scuta, L. 

Grammicn, lour. 

Order CLXXVI. CONVOLVULACEiE. The BindvvebdTribe. 

Convolvuli, /mss. Gen. 133. (1789). — Convolvulace^e, R. Brown Prodr. 481. (1810) ; 

Lindl. Synops. 167. (1829) ; Choisyin Mem. Soc. Phys. Gentv. (1834). 

Essential Character. — Calyx persistent, in 5 divisions, remarkably imbricated, as if 
in more whorls than one, often very unequal. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, regular, 
deciduous ; the limb 5-lobed, plaited. Stamens 5, inserted into the base of the corolla, 
and alternate with its segments. Ovary simple, with 2 or 4 cells,. seldom with 1 ; some- 
times in 2 or 4 divisions ; few-seeded ; the ovules definite and erect, when more than 1 
collateral; style 1, usually divided at the top; stigmas obtuse or acute. Disk annular, 
hypogynous. Capsule with from 1 to 4 cells ; the valves fitting, at their edges, to the 
angles of a loose dissepiment, bearing the seeds at its base. Seeds with a small quantity of 
mucilaginous albumen ; embryo curved ; cotyledons shrivelled ; radicle inferior. — Herba^ 
ceous plants or shrubs, usually twining and milky, smooth, or with a simple pubescence. 
Leaves alternate, undivided, or lobed, seldom pinnatifid, with no stipules. Inflorescence 
axillary or terminal; peduncles 1- or many-flowered, the partial ones generally with 2 

Affinities. The plaited corolla, imbricated calyx (as in calycose polype- 
taloe) and climbing habit, are the primd facie marks of this order, which 
approaches Cordiacese in its shrivelled cotyledons, and through that tribe 
Boraginaceae. Nolanacese would seem to establish a more direct relationship 
betw'een ConvolvTdaceae and that order. Polemoniaceae are known by their 
loculicidal dehiscence, which in Convolvulaceae is always opposite the dissepi- 
ments. Hydroleaceae are characterised by their indefinite seeds, and taper 
embryo lying in the midst of fleshy albumen. Solanaceae have a dicarpellaiy 
fruit and numerous seeds ; otherwise, they are very like the shrubby erect 
species of Convolvulaceae. 

Geography. Very abundant in all parts of the tropics, but rare in cold 
chmates, where a few only are found : they twine round other shrubs, or creep 
among the weeds of the sea- shore. 

Properties. Their roots abound in an acrid milky juice, which is strongly 
purgative; this quality depends upon a peculiar resin, which is the active 
principle of the Jalap, the Scammony, and the others whose roots possess 
similar qualities. Conv. Jalapa produces the real jalap, and C. Scammonia 
the scammony; besides which, C. Turpethum, C.- Mechoacanus, sepium, 
arvensis, Soldanella, macrorhizus, maritimus, macrocarpus, and probably many 
others, may be used with nearly equal advantage. The root of Convolvulus 
panduratus is used in the United States as jalap ; its operation is like that of 
rhubarb; it is supposed to be also diuretic. Barton, 1. 252. The roots of 
Conv. floridus and scoparius, and Ipomcea Quamoclit, are used as sternuta- 
tories ; those of C. Batatas and edulis are useful articles of food : the former 
is the common sweet Potato of European gardens. Convolvulus dissectus 
abounds in prussic acid, and is one of the plants from which the liqueur Noyau 
is prepared. Bot. Mag. 3141. The Ipomsea sensitiva of Tui*pin is remarkable 
for the extreme irritability of its corolla. 


1. Argyreiea:, Chois. Humbertia, Lam. 

Rivea, Ch. 

Maripa, Aubl. 
Argyreia, Lour. 

Lettsomia, Roxb. 
Blinkworthia, Cb. 

Endrachium, Gmel. 
Thouinia, Sm. 
Smithia, Gmel. 
Moorcroftia, Ch. 

§2.CoNVOLVULEiE,Ch. Batatas, Ch. 
Quamoclit, Tourn. Pharbitis, Ch. 
Calbcea, Cav. Calonyction, Ch. 

Macrostemma, Pers. Exogonium, Ch. 
Mina, Lex. Lepistemon, Bl. 

Morenoa, Lex. Ipomasa, Ch. 


Convolvulus, Ch. 
Aniseia, Ch. 

Porana, L. 

Dinetus, Sweet. 
Neuropeltis, Wall, 
Prevostea, Ch. 

Dethardingia, Nees. Evolvulus, L. 
Reinwardtia, Spr. ? Wilsonia, R. Br. 

Polymeria, R. Br. 
Calystegia, R. Br. 
Shuteria, Ch. 

Calycobolus, W. 
Dufourea, H. B. K. 

Breweria, R. Br. 

Bonamia, Thouars. Mouroucoua, Aubl. 
Cressa, L. 

Skinneria, Ch. 

The Greek Valerian Tribe. 

PoLEMONiA, Juss. Gen. 136. (1789). — Polemonide.^:, DC. and Duty, 329. (1828). — 
PoLEMONiACEiE, Lindl. Sy7iGps. 168. (1829) ; Bentham in Bot. Reg. 1622. {Oct. 

Essential Ch.\racter. — Calyx inferior, monosepalous, 5-parted, persistent, some- 
times irregular. Corolla regular, S-lobed. Stamens 5, inserted into the middle of the 
tube of the corolla, and alternate with its segments. Ovary superior, 3 celled, with a few 
or many ovules ; simple ; a trifid ; orwZes ascending or peltate. 3 -celled, 

3-valved, few- or many-seeded, with a loculicidal or septicidal dehiscence ; the valves 
separating from the axis. Seeds angular or oval, or winged, often enveloped in mucus, 
ascending ; embryo straight in the axis of horny albumen ; radicle inferior ; cotyledons 
elliptical, foliaceous. — Herbaceous plants, with opposite, or occasionally alternate, com- 
pound, or simple leaves ; stem occasionally climbing. 

Affinities. The ternary division of the ovary connected with the pen- 
tandrous corolla and 5-lohed calyx bring this order near Convolvulacese, from 
which the habit, embryo, and corolla, distinguish it ; from Gentianacese, to 
which it also approaches, the 3-celled ovary di^'ides it. It is remarkable for 
the blue colour of the pollen, which is usually of that hue, whatever may be the 
colour of the coroUa. In Collomia linearis I have noticed (in Botanical 
Register, folio 1166) that the dilatation of the mucous matter in w^hich the 
seeds are enveloped, and which, when they are thrown into water, forms 
around them like a cloud, depends upon the presence of an infinite mul- 
titude of exceedingly delicate and minute spiral vessels, lying coiled up, 
spire within spire, on the outside of the testa ; when dry, these vessels are 
confined upon the sm*face of the seed by its mucus, without being able to 
manifest themselves ; but the instant water is applied, the mucus dissolves 
and ceases to counteract the elasticity of the spiral vessels, which then dart 
forward at right angles with the testa, each carrying with it a sheath of mucus, 
in which it for a long time remains enveloped as if in a membranous case. 
The order has been remodelled by Bentham in the place above quoted. 
Bartling refers Retziaceae to Convohiilaceae, from which he distinguishes them 
by their polyspermous cells and straight embiyo. Ord. Nat. 192. 

Geography. Very abundant in both North and South America, in tem- 
perate latitudes, particularly on the north-west side. It is stated by Richard- 
son, that the most northern limit in North America is 54®. Edin. Phil. Journ. 
12. 209. In Europe and Asia they are much more uncommon. They are 
unknown in tropical countries. 

Properties. None, or unknown. 


Polemonium, L. 
Phlox, L. 

Hugelia, Benth. Leptosiphon, Benth. Dactylophyllum, Bent. 

Linanthus, Benth. Fenzlia, Benth. 

* For this list 1 am indebted to Mr. Bentham. 


Gilia, Cav. 

Ipomopsis, Sm. 
Ipomeria, Isutt. 
Navarretia, R. et P. 
CEgochloa, Benth. 

Collomia, Nutt. 
Caldasia, Willd. 

Bonplandia, Cav. 
Hoitzia, Juss. 
Loeselia, L. 

Cantua, Juss. (33) 

Periphragmos, R. et P. 
? Cyananthus, Wall. (34) 

Heteryta, Raf. 

Don distinguishes Cobeeacese from this order ; but the only differences of 
importance between the one and the other appear to consist in the former 
having an unusually large lobed disk, a septicidal dehiscence and climbing 
habit ; distinctions, I fear, of too little moment to be admitted as of ordinal 
value. Tlie characters of Cobseacese, as understood by Don, are these : — 

Cob.s;ace:E, Don in Edinb. Phil. Journ. 10. 111. (1824) ; Link Handb. 1. 822. (1829). 

Essential Character. — Calyx leafy, 5-cleft, equal. Corolla inferior, campanulate, 
regular, 5-lobed, with an imbricate aestivation. Stamens 5, equal, arising from the base of 
the corolla; anthers 2-celled, compressed. Ovary superior, 3-celled, surrounded with a 
fleshy secreting annular disk ; ovules several, ascending ; style simple ; stigma trifid. Fruit 
capsular, 3-celled, 3-valved, with a septicidal dehiscence ; placenta very large, 3 -cornered, 
in the axis, its angles touching the line of dehiscence of the pericarpium. Seeds flat, 
winged, imbricated in a double row ; their integument mucilaginous ; albumen fleshy ; 
embryo straight; cotyledons leafy; radicle inferior. — Climbing shrubs. alteiuate, 

pinnated, their petiole lengthened into a tendril. Flowers axillar>^, solitary. Don. 

Bartling (p. 186) remarks that the type of this order ought, in fact, to be 
referred to Bignoniacese ; hut all the arguments he adduces prove exactly the 


Cobaea, Cav. 


Diapensiace^, Link Handb. 1. 595. (1829) ; a § o/ Convolvulaceae. 

Essential Character. — Calyx composed of 5 sepals which form a broken w'horl, are 
rather unequal, and much imbricated ; scarcely distinguishable from the bracts which are 
closely imbricated round it. Corolla monopetalous, regular, with an imbricated aestivation. 
Stamens 5, equal; the filaments petaloid and arising from the margin of the sinus of the 
corolla; anthers 2-celled, with a broad connective, bursting transversely ; in Pyxidanthera 
awned on the lower valve. Disk 0. Ovary superior, 3 -celled ; each placenta with 7 ovules 
in Pyxidanthera, with an indefinite number in Diapensia; style single, continuous with the 
ovar^' ; stigma sessile with 3 very short decurrent lobes. Capsule membranous or papery, 
surrounded with the permanent sepals, terminated by the rigid style or its base. Seeds 
with a brittle deeply pitted skin, peltate. Embryo filiform, with a long slender radicle and 
two very short cotyledons; lying across the hilum in a mass of fleshy albumen. — Prostrate 
undershrubs, with small densely imbricated leaves which have scarcely any visible veins. 
Motcmsolitar}' terminal. 

Affinities. From the manner in which Diapensia w^as associated by 
Brown {Prodrorrms 482.), when he separated it along with Hydroleaceae from 
Convolvulacese, it has been generally supposed that this profound Botanist in- 
tended to refer Diapensia to the former of those orders. But upon looking 
again at the passage in question I perceive that it does not necessarily bear the 
interpretation that is usually put upon it, and this has led me to reconsider 
the subject. The result has been a persuasion that Diapensia is in reality 
nearer Polemoniacese than Hydroleaceae, and essentially distinct from both. The 
more immediate points of resemblance with Hydroleaceae consist, firstly, in 
Diapensia having the filaments petaloid, and originating not from within the 


corolla but from the margin of the sinuses, so that the corolla might be de- 
scribed as 10-cleft, five of the divisions being broad and coloured, and the 
other five much narrower, and shorter, colourless, and having anthers ; and 
secondly, in the embiyo being a filiform body, slightly 2-lobed at one end. 
But both Diapensia and Pyxidanthera disagree with Hydroleaceae in having a 
calyx consisting of five unequal sepals forming a broken whorl as in the caly- 
cose group of Polypetalous Dicotyledons ; secondly, in having the anthers 
bursting transversely, and with a very broad connective ; thirdly, in having 
only one style instead of two ; fourthly, in being destitute of an hypogynous 
disk ; and finally, in the embryo lying in the midst of fleshy albumen across 
the hilum, so as to be what modern Botanists call heterotropous. At least 
this is certainly the case in Pyxidanthera, and I have no reason to doubt its 
being equally the case with Diapensia. In Hydrolea certainly, and I believe in 
Wigandia also, the embryo is orthotropous, and the quantity of albumen so in- 
considerable as to be of no moment. It is plain, therefore, that Diapensia and 
Pyxidanthera must be separated from Hydi^oleacese. With Polemoniacese I have 
already stated that their atfinity appears to me to be much greater. In the 
first place they are not very difi’erent in habit ; compare Pyxidanthera barbu- 
lata with Phlox setacea. Secondly, they agree in the trimerous structure of 
the ovary, and in the single style. But on the other hand DiapensiaceaB have 
a totally different calyx and embryo, their corolla is not the corolla of Polemo- 
niaceae, and they have no trace of an hypogynous disk. I therefore think it 
absolutely necessary to give them a distinct station. The characters of the 
two genera, usually, but incorrectly, combined, will be found in the Ap- 

Let me add, that although the name of Diapensiaceae originated with Link, 
yet that author in placing it in Convolvulaceae was obviously unacquainted with 
its real structure, and in assigning it for a character “ semina membrana in- 
clusa,” seems to have assumed that in this respect it agrees with Hydroleaceae, 
which is not the fact. 

Geography. Mountain plants of the North of Europe and North Ame- 

Properties. Unknown. 


Diapensia, L. (35) 

' Pyxidanthera, Michx. (36) 


R. Brown Prodr. 482. (1810) without a name; Id. in Congo (1818). — Hydroleace.e, 
Kunth in Humb. N. G. et Sp. 3. 125. (1818) ; Synops. 2. 234. (1823) ; Bartl. Ord. 
Nat. 189. (1830) ; Choisy Descr. des Hydroleacies (no date). 

Essential Character. — Calyx 5-parted, inferior, persistent, with slightly imbricated 
aestivation. Corolla hypogynous, monopetalous, regular, not always agreeing with the calyx 
in the number of its divisions. Stamens arising from between the lobes of the corolla, regu - 
lar, agreeing in number with the segments of the calyx ; anthers deeply lobed at the base, 
opening longitudinally, with a very narrow connective; filaments petaloid at the base. 
Ovary superior, surrounded by a short annular disk, 2- or 3-celled; styles 2 or 3 ; stigmas 
thickened. Fruit capsular, papery, enclosed in the calyx, 2- rarely 3-celled, sometimes 
splitting through the middle of the cells ; placentce either single and fungous, or double 
and thin, sometimes central and loose. Seeds indefinite, very small, with a testa more or 
less loose ; albumen fleshy, in the axis of which lies a taper, straight embryo, which is 
orthotropous and slightly 2-lobed at one end. — Herbaceous plants or under-shrubs, some- 


times spiny. Leaves alternate, entire, or lobed, without stipules, often covered with glan- 
dular or stinging hairs. Flowers numerous, axillary and terminal. Inflorescence gyrate. 

Affinities. Separated from Convolvulacese by Brown, on account of the 
indefinite seeds, and taper embryo with small flat cotyledons in the midst 
of fleshy albumen. To me the order appears equally related to Boraginaceae, 
with some of which Wigandia agrees in habit. Also allied to Hydrophylla- 
ceae, the membranous plates lining the tube of the corolla of that* order being, 
according to Von Martins (iV. G. 2. 138.), analogous to the dilated base of 
the filaments of Hydroleaceae. 

Geography. No particular geographical limits can be assigned to this 
order. Wigandia is found in the Caraccas, Hydrolea in the West Indies, and 
Nama in both the East and West Indies. 

Properties. Unknown, except that a bitter principle exists in Hy- 


Hydrolea, L. Hydi’olia, Pet. Th. ? Romanzovia, Cham. 

Steris, L. Nama, L. 

Sagonea, Aubl. Wigandia, H. B. K. Cervia, Lga. 

Reichelia, Schreb. ' Codon, L. 

Group II. 

Essential Character. — Ovary inferior, usually with an epigynous disk, composed of 
two or more carpels. Anthers never bursting by pores. Stamens always inserted into the 

If attention is paid to the constant absence of a porous dehiscence in the 
anthers, this group can never be confounded with the last, notwithstanding 
that some Polycarpous genera have an inferior ovary. It is here that we have 
one of the most evident transitions from Monopetalous to Polypetalous 
Exogens by way of Galium and other Stellatse to Umbelliferous plants, and 
by way of Caprifoliacese to Cornales. 

Alliance I. CAMPANALES, 

Essential Character. — Stipules absent. Seeds indefinite in number. 

Of this alliance Lobeliaceae pass into Goodenales and Columelliaceae seem 
to have much analogy with Onagracese. Campanulacese may be considered 
to pass into Caprifoliaceee by way of Linnsea and into Ericaceae by way of Ca- 


Campanulace^, § 2. R. Brown Prodr. 562. (1810). — Lobeliace^, Juss. Ann. Mus. 

18. 1. (1811) ; DC. and Duty, 310. (1828) ; Lindl. Synops. 137. 0^29). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5-lobed, or entire. Corolla monopetalous, 
irregular, inserted in the cal^x, 5-lobed, or deeply 5 -cleft. Stamens 5, inserted into the 
calyx alternately with the lobes of the corolla; anthers cohering-, pollen o\di\. Ovary in- 
ferior, with from 1 to 3 cells ; ovules very numerous, attached either to the axis or to the 


lining; style simple ; stigma surrounded by a cup-like fringe. Fruit capsular, 1- or more- 
celled, many-seeded, dehiscing at the apex. Seeds attached either to the lining or the axis 
of the pericarp ; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen ; radicle pointing to the 
hilum. — Herbaceous plants or shrubs. Leaves alternate, without stipules. Flowers axillary 
or terminal. 

Anomalies. Clintonia has a triangular 1-celled ovary, with 2 parietal placentae. Some 
have 5 petals. One species of Lobelia is dioecious. 

Affinities. Different as the plants of this order at first sight appear 
from Compositse, they in fact participate in all the analogies of Campanulaceae 
with that alliance, and perhaps are yet more nearly related to Compositse even 
than Campanulaceee, especially in their cohering anthers and in the irregula- 
rity of their corolla, which is split so that the segments cohere towards one 
side just like the 5 segments that make up the ligulate floret of a Composita. 
The stigma is surrounded by hairs, which are probably analogous to the indu- 
sium of Goodeniacese, to which order Lobeliacese approach closely. Of course 
they participate in any and all the affinities of Campanulaceae. Alphonse De 
Candolle criticises, with much justice, the character assigned to Lobehaceae 
in my Synopsis of the British Flora, particularly in regard to the cnp or fringe 
assigned to their stigma : this was a misprint for cup-like. He also con- 
siders Jasione more properly a Campanulaceous than a Lobeliaceous plant ; 
this genus, however, seems to me to stand upon the limit between the two 

Geography. Unlike Campanulaceae, these seem to prefer countries 
within or upon the border of the tropics to such as have a colder character. 
We find them abounding in the West Indies, Brazil, the Cape of Good 
Hope, and the Sandwich Islands ; they are not uncommon in Chile, and New 

Properties. All dangerous or suspicious, in consequence of the excessive 
acridity of their milk. L. Caoutchouc is so named by the inhabitants of Popayan 
from the tenacity of its juice. Royle. Lobelia tupa yields a dangerous poison in 
Chile. The most active article of the North American Materia Medica is said to 
be the Lobelia inflata : it is possessed of an emetic, sudorific, and powerful ex- 
pectorant effect, especially the first. When given with a view to empty the 
stomach, it operates vehemently and speedily ; producing, however, great re- 
laxation, debility, and perspiration, and even death, if given in over-doses. 
Barton, 1. 189. The anti- syphilitic virtues ascribed to Lobelia syphilitica are 
supposed to have resided in its diuretic property ; they are, however, gene- 
rally discredited altogether. Ibid. 2. 211. Lobelia longiflora, a native of 
some of the West India Islands, is one of the most venomous of plants. The 
Spanish Americans call it Rebenta Cavallos, because it proves fatal to horses 
that eat it, swelling them until they burst. Taken internally, it acts as a 
violent cathartic, the effects of which no remedy can assuage, and which end 
in death. The leaves are an active vesicatory. Lobelia cardinalis is an acrid 
plant which is reckoned an anthelmintic. Ibid. 2. 180. 


Clermcntia, Gaud. 

Moquinia, Spr. 
Rollandia, Gaud. 
Cyanea, Gaud. 
Delissea, Gaud. 
Pratia, Gaud. 

Tupa, D. Don. 
Siphocampylus, Pohl. 
Lobelia, L. 
Dortmanna, Don. 
Parastranthus, Don. 

Isotoma, R. Br. 
Holostigma, Don. 
Lysipoma, H. B. K, 
Monopsis, Salisb. 
Clintonia, Dougl. 

Hippobroma, Don. 
Canonanthus, Don. 
Strumpfia, L. 
Heterotoma, Zucc, 
Jasione, L. 


Ordf.rCLXXX. CAMPANULACE.®. The Campanula Tribe. 

CAMPANULiE, Juss. Gen. 163. (1789) in paH.— C ampanulace^, R. Brown Prodr. 559. 

(1810) ; Lindl. Synops. 135. (1829). — Campanule^, Jlph. DC. Monogr. (1830). 

EsseiJtial Character. — Calyx superior, usually 5-lobed (3-8), persistent. 'Corolla 
monopetalous, inserted into the top of the calyx, usually 5-lobed (3-8), withering on the 
fruit, regular. jEstivation valvate. Stamens inserted into the calyx alternately with the 
lobes of the corolla, to w^hich they are equal in number. Anthers 2-celled, distinct. Pollen 
spherical. Ovary inferior, with 2 or more polyspermous cells opposite the stamens, or 
alternate with them ; style simple, covered with collecting hairs ; stigma naked, simple, or 
with as many lobes as there are cells. Fruit dry, crowned hy the withered calyx and 
corolla, dehiscing by lateral irregular apertures or by valves at the apex, always loculicidal. 
Seeds numerous, attached to a placenta in the axis ; embryo straight, in the axis of 
fleshy albumen ; radicle inferior. — Herbaceous plants or under-shrubs, yielding a white 
milk. Leaves almost always alternate, simple, or deeply divided, without stipules. 
Floivers single, in racemes, spikes, or panicles, or in heads, usually blue or white, very 
rarely yellow. 

Affinities. I gladly avail myself of the valuable remarks of Alphonse De 
Candolle in explaining the affinities of Campanulacese. He considers that they 
differ from Lobeliaceae chiefly in their regular corolla, their stamens being 
almost always distinct, their pollen spherical (not oval), their stigmas gene- 
rally long and velvety externally, in the abundance of collecting hairs on the 
style, and finally in their capsule usually opening laterally. “ It is not only 
in the form,” he proceeds, “ but also in the number of the parts, that the 
flo’wer of Campanulacese is more regular than that of Lobeliacese. Thus, in 
several Campanulas the cells of the ovary are equal in number to the stamens 
and the divisions of the corolla and calyx, which points out the natural sym- 
metry of the flower. In Lobelias abortion is more frequent. In both groups 
the innermost organs are abortive more frequently than the outermost. Thus, 
the number of cells is often smaller (never greater) than that of the stamens ; 
the number of stamens is sometimes smaller (but never larger) than that of the 
lobes of the corolla ; and the same is true of the lobes of the corolla with 
respect to the calyx. Finally, Lobeliacese have sometimes a corolla of a fine 
bright red, a colour unknown among Campanulas ; nine-tenths of the species 
of the latter have blue flowers ; and those in which the colour varies, and into 
which a little red enters (as Canarina), are far from having the brilliancy of 
Lobelia cardinalis for instance. After Lobeliacese, the natural groups with 
which Campanulacese have the most relation are, no doubt, Goodeniacese and 
Stylidiaceae, which formed part of the Campanulacese of Jussieu. Tlie regular 
corolla of Campanulacese distinguishes them, at first sight, from both those 
orders, as v/ell as from Lobeliacese. Besides, Campanulas have not the fringed 
indusium which terminates the style of Goodeniacese, and surrounds their 
stigma. Although this organisation approaches that of Lobeliacese, and so 
Campanulacese, it is not less true that it affords an important mark of distinc- 
tion, and that it is connected with essential differences in the mode of fecunda- 
tion. Brown has also remarked, that the corolla of Goodeniacese is sometimes 
pol\q)etalous, which it never is in Campanulacese or Lobeliacese ; that the 
sestivation of their corolla is induplicate, not valvate ; that its principal veins 
are lateral, or alternate with the lobes, as in Compositae ; that in the species of 
Goodeniacese with dehiscent fruit, the dehiscence is usually septicidal, while 
in the two other groups it is always loculicidal; finally, that Goodeniacese 
have not the milky juice that characterises Campanulacese and Lobeliacese.” 
Notwithstanding the polyspermous fruit and different inflorescence, this order 
approaches very closely to Compositse ; the milky juice is the same as that of 
Cichoracese ; the species have, in many cases, the flowers crowded in heads ; 

the stigma is similar to that of many Compositae ; there are the same collect- 
ing hairs on the style, in both cases intended to clear out the pollen from the 
cells of the anthers ; and, finally, the habit is very like. Tlie curious genus 
Calysphyrum offers a direct transition to Ericaceae. 

Geography. Chiefly natives of the north of Asia, Europe, and North 
America, and scarcely known in the hot regions of the world. In the mea- 
dows, fields, and forests of the countries they inhabit, they constitute the most 
striking ornament. Some curious species are found in the Canaries, St. Helena, 
and Juan Fernandez. Alphonse De Candolle remarks, that “ it is within the 
S6^ and 47° N. lat. that in our hemisphere the greatest number of species is 
found ; the chain of the Alps, Italy, Greece, Caucasus, the Altai range, are 
their true country. In whatever direction we leave these limits, the number 
of species rapidly decreases. In the southern hemisphere, the Cape of Good 
Hope (lat. 34° S.) is another centre of habitation, containing not fewer than 
63 species. This locality has a climate so different from that of our mountains, 
that it may be easily imagined that the species capable of living there differ 
materially from those of our own hemisphere : in fact, they belong to other 
genera.” Of 300 species, only 19 are found within the tropics. The same 
botanist remarks that, with only a single exception, all the species belonging 
to genera that open their capsule by lateral pores are found in the northern 
hemisphere ; while those whose capsules dehisce at the apex chiefly inhabit 
the southern hemisphere. 

Properties. The milky juice is rather acrid, but nevertheless the roots 
and young shoots of some, particularly of Campanula Rapunculus, or Rampion, 
of Phyteuma spicatum, of Canarina Campanula, &c. are an occasional article of 
food. The chief value of the order, however, is its beauty. 


Lightfootia, L’Herit. Microcodon, A. DC. Michauxia, L’Her, 

Cephalostigma, A. DC. Wahlenbergia, Schrad. Mindium, Rhazes 
Campanomsea, Bl. Cervicina, Del. Campanula, L. 

Codonopsis, Wall. Schultesia, Roth. Roucela, Dumort. 

Glossocomia, Don. Prismatocarpus, L’Her. Medium, Fisch. 

Canarina, L. Roella, L. Marianthemum, 

Pernettia, Scop. Phyteuma, L. Schrank. 

Platycodon, A. DC. Petromarula. A^ DC. Specularia, Heist. 

Legouzia, Durand. 
Apenula, Neck. 
Trachelium, L. 
Adenophora, Fisch. 

Flcerkea, Spr. 
Symphiandra, Ad. J. 
Musschia, Dumort. 
Merciera, A. DC. 
Calysphyrum, Bge. 


Sphenocleaceal, Martins Conspectus, No. 162. (183.5). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5-parted, with indexed segments. Corolla 
monopetalous, 5-parted, with the segments indexed and somewhat auricled at the base. 
Stamens 5, sessile in the recesses of the corolla ; anthers roundish two-celled, opening lon- 
gitudinally. Ovary inferior, 2-celled, many-seeded ; style very short, and 2-lobed ; stigma 
hairless. Capsule membranous, 2-celled, many-seeded, with a central fungous placenta, 
circumscissile ; seeds minute ; embryo without albumen, straight, with the radicle next 
the hilum. — Herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, soft, smooth, undivided, without stipules. 
Flowers minute, herbaceous, sessile in a dense subcylindrical head. 

Affinities. This remarkable plant is very much like a Campanulaceous 
genus in structure ; but its exalbuminous seeds, the absence of collecting hairs 
from its styles, and the round sub-sessile anthers, seem to indicate the type of 
a different order ; and the peculiar habit of the only known species seems to 
confirm the propriety of the separation. 


Geography. An Indian marshy annual. 
Properties. Unknown. 


Pongatium, Juss. 
Sphenoclea, Gsertn. 
Gcertnera, Retz. 
Rapinia, Lour. 


Belvisie^e, R. Brown in Linn. Trans. 13. 222. (1820). 

Essential Character. — Calyx of 1 piece, persistent, with a divided limb. Corolla ? 
monopetalous, plaited (many-lobed or undivided, simple or double), deciduous. Stamens 
either definite or indefinite, arising from the base of the corolla. Ovary inferior ; style 1 ; 
stigma lobed or angular. Fruit berried, many-seeded. — Shrubs. Leaves alternate, entire, 
without stipules. Flowers axillary or lateral, solitary. R. Br. 

Affinities. Little is known of this obscure family, except that it is not 
referable to any order at present established. 

Geography. African shrubs or trees. 

Properties. Unknown. 


j Belvisia, Desv. Asterantbus, Desf. 

] Napoleona, P. de B. 





j Columellie^, Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. {Dec. 1828). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, 5-parted. Corolla rotate, 5-8-parted, with 
an imbricated aestivation. Stamens 2, inserted in the throat, alternate with the segments 
of the corolla ; anthers roundish, 3 -lobed, bursting externally, each consisting of three pair 
of narrow somewhat sinuous cells which open longitudinally, and which are placed upon a 
solid fleshy connective. Ovary inferior, 2-celled, with an indefinite number of ovules ; 
style simple, smooth ; stigma capitate, 2-lobed. Disk epigynous, fleshy. Fruit capsular, 
2-celled, many- seeded, with a septicidal dehiscence. — [^Seeds ascending; testa polished; 
embryo taper, erect, in the axis of fleshy albumen. Dow.] — Shrubs, or trees. Leaves oppo- 
\ site, without stipules, entire or serrateL Flowers yellow. 

Affinities. This character has been prepared from excellent specimens 
i of Columellia oblonga sent home by Mathews ; C. obovata does not appear to 
differ in any essential circumstance, so far as I can judge, from a bud given 
i me by M''' Don. This gentleman, who first noticed the order, thinks it near 
: Jasminacese, with which it corresponds “ in the structure and aestivation of 

' the corolla, in the bilocular ovary, and erect (?) ovules ; and it agrees both 

' with them and Syringa in the structure and dehiscence of the capsule. The 

order differs, however, essentially from Jasminaceae, by having an adherent 
i ovary, by the presence of a perigynous (?) disk, by the undivided stigma, and, 

! lastly, by having an inferior capsule with polyspermous cells.” It appears to 

! me, however, that there are objections to this view of the affinities of the 
' order, especially as Menodora which Don included in his Columelliaceae is 



the same as Bolivaria which is a genuine Jasminaceous plant. The first 
thing that strikes one in looking at Columellia oblonga, is its resemblance to 
Onagracese, from which, however, the proportions of the flower, the monope- 
talous corolla, &c. clearly divide it. The next point is its stamens ; these cu- 
rious bodies, rudely represented in the Flora Peruviana, are apparently com- 
posed each of three stamens firmly consolidated ; for each anther has six cells 
arranged in 3 pairs upon a three-lobed fleshy connective, and turned towards 
the coroUa. Now this indicates an irregularity of stmctm'e of a most unusual 
kind, and to which I find no parallel ; in order to reduce such a structure to 
regularity, we must either suppose that 3 more such triple stamens are abor- 
tive, and that consequently the typical number of parts in the androeceum is 
twenty-five, or we must imagine that the typical number is 10, and that each 
of the stamens actually developed is composed of two stamens opposite the seg- 
ments of the corolla and one alternate with them ; in that case three of the 
stamens alternating with the lobes of the corolla, and two of those opposite 
the lobes will have to be supposed undeveloped. Tliis would give us a penta- 
merous monopetalous flower, with twice as many stamens as parts of the co- 
rolla. Among monopetalous orders with an inferior ovaiy we have no such 
structure ; among the regular dicarpous orders with a superior ovary we have 
only Potaliacese with a similar organization, but the plants which constitute 
that order are so very different in habit that it is not probable that it is they 
with which Columelliacese are to be considered allied. Perhaps Don’s idea of 
a connection between Columellia and Halesia may have some foundation : but 
there is as yet too little evidence to enable Botanists to form any decided opi- 
nion upon the subject. 

Geography. Mexican and Peruvian plants. 

Properties. Unknowm. 


Columellia, R. et P. 

Uluxia, Juss. 


Stylide^, R. Brown Prodr. 565. (1810). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, with from 2 to 6 divisions, bilabiate or regu- 
lar, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, falling off late ; its limb irregular, rarely regulai-, 
with from 5 to 6 divisions, imbricated in aestivation. Stamens 2 ; filaments connate with 
the style into a longitudinal column ; anthers twin, sometimes simple, lying over the 
stigma; pollen globose, simple, sometimes angular. Ovary 2-celled, many-seeded, some- 
times ] -celled, in consequence of the contraction of the dissepiment, often surmounted 
with a single gland in front, or two opposite ones : style 1 ; stigma entire or bifid. Capsule 
with 2 valves and 2 cells, the dissepiment between which being sometimes either contracted 
or separable from the indexed margins of the valves, the capsule becomes as it were 1 -celled. 
Seeds small, erect, sometimes stalked, attached to the axis of the dissepiment ; embryo 
minute, enclosed within a fleshy somewhat oily albumen. — Herbaceous plants or under* 
shrubs, without milk, having a stem or scape, their hair, when they have any, simple, acute, 
or headed with a gland. Leaves scattered, sometimes whorled, entire, their margins 
naked or ciliated, the radical ones clustered in the species with scapes. Flowers in spikes, 
racemes, or corymbs, or solitary ; terminal, rarely axillary, the pedicels usually with three 

Affinities. Nearly allied both to Campanulacese and Goodeniaceae, from 
both which they are distinguished by their gynandrous stamens, and from the 
latter by the want of an indusium to the stigma. The structure of the sexual 


organs is highly curious ; the stamens and style are closely combined in a 
solid irritable column, at the top of which is a cavity, including the stigma, 
and hounded by the anthers. A singular blunder was committed by Labil- 
lardiere, who mistook the epigynous gland for the stigma ; and another by 
L. C. Richard, who considered the labellum to be the female organ. 

Geography. Chiefly found in New Holland. Species have been dis- 
covered both in Ceylon and the South Sea Islands. 

Properties. Unknown. 


Stylidium, Sw. Leuwenhoekia, R. Br. 

Ventenatia, Sm. Forstera, Linn. fil. 

Candollea, La Bill. Phyllachne, Forst. 


Essential Character. — Stigma with a cup-like indusium. 

In habit the plants of this alliance are similar to Lobeliaceae ; their peculiar 
stigma, however, sufficiently distinguishes them. 


Campanul^e, Juss. Gen. 163. (1789) in part. — Goodenovi^, R. Brown Prodr. 573. (1810). 

Bartl. Ord. Nat. 148. (1830). 

Essential Character. — Calyx usually superior, rarely inferior, equal or unequal, in 
from 3 to 5 divisions. Corolla always more or less superior, monopetalous, more or less 
irregular, withering; its tube split at the back, and sometimes capable of being separated 
into 5 pieces, when the calyx only coheres with the base of the ovary ; its limb 5 -parted, 
with 1 or 2 lips, the edges of the segments being thinner than the middle, and folded inwards 
in aestivation. Stamens 5, distinct, alternate with the segments of the corolla ; anthers dis- 
tinct or cohering, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally. Pollen simple or compound. Ovary 
2-celled, rarely 4-celled, with indefinite ovules, having sometimes a gland at its base between 
the 2 anterior filaments ; style 1, simple, very rarely divided; stigma fleshy, undivided, or 
2-lobed, surrounded by a membranous cup. Fruit a 2- or 4-celled capsule with many 
seeds, attached to the axis of the dissepiment, which is usually parallel with the valves, 
rarely opposite to them. Seeds usually with a thickened testa, which is sometimes nut^ 
like ; albumen fleshy, enclosing an erect embryo ; cotyledons foliaceous ; plumule incon- 
spicuous. — Herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs, without milk, with simple or glandular hairs, if 
any are present. Leaves scattered, often lobed, without stipules. Inflorescence terminal, 
variable. Flowers distinct, never capitate, usually yellow, or blue, or pink. 

Anomalies. This order offers the singular anomaly of genera having, at the same time, 
an inferior calyx and a superior corolla ; a circumstance which, it has been well observed 
by Brown, points out the real origin of both organs. 

Affinities. We cannot doubt the strict relation of these to Campanu- 
laceae and Lobeliacese, from which they differ in the aestivation of the flower, 
and in the peculiar indusium of the stigma, a trace of which is to be found in 
Lobeliaceae, and which exists in a remarkable degree in the order Brunoniaceae 
of the Aggregose group. Scaevolaceae differ only in their definite seeds. 
Upon the nature of the indusium of the stigma Brown makes the following 

“ Is this remarkable covering of the stigma in these families merely a pro- 
cess of the apex of the stvie r or is it a part of distinct origin, though inti- 



mately cohering with the pistillum ? On the latter supposition, may it not be 
considered as analogous to the glandular disk surrounding or crowning the 
ovarium in many other families ? And, in adopting the hypothesis I have 
formerly advanced respecting the nature of this disk in certain families, — 
namely, that it is composed of a series of modified stamina, — ^has not the part 
in question a considerable resemblance, in apparent origin and division, to the 
stamina of the nearly-related family Stylidiacese ? To render this supposition 
somewhat less paradoxical, let the comparison be made especially between the 
indusium of Brunonia and the imperfect antherae in the female flowers of 
Forstera. Lastly, connected with this view, it becomes of importance to 
ascertain whether the stamina of Stylidiacese are opposite to the segments of 
calyx or of corolla. The latter disposition would be in favour of the hypo- 
thesis. This, however, is a point which will not be very easily determined, 
the stamina being lateral. In the mean time, the existence and division of 
the corona faucis in Stylidium render it not altogether improbable that they 
are opposite to the segments of the corolla.” R. Brown in Linn. Trans. 12. 
134. I am rather inclined to consider the indusium analogous to the collect- 
ing hairs of Campanulacese. In these they occupy the surface of the greater 
part of the style ; in Lobelia they are sometimes arranged in a whorl, forming 
a cup-like fringe ; and in Goodeniacese the hairs, being stiU whorled, are con- 
solidated into a uniform substance by their mutual cohesion. 

Geography. Natives of New Holland, and other islands of the South 
Pacific Ocean. 

Properties. Unknown. 

Goodenia, Sm. 
Selliera, Cav. 


Calogyne, R. Br. Distylis, Gaudich, 

Euthales, R. Br. Lechenaultia, R. Br. 

Velleja, Sm. Anthotium, R. Br. 

CypljUa, Berg. 
Pentaphragma, Wall. 


Goodenovi^, § Scaevolese, R. Brown Prodr. 582. (1810). — Sc^vole.®, Ed. Pr, No. 178. 

(1830) ; Martins Conspectus, No. 167. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, equal or unequal, in 5 divisions, sometimes 
obsolete. Corolla superior, monopetalous, more or less irregular, withering, or deciduous ; 
its tube split at the back ; its limb 5-parted, with 1 or 2 lips, the edges of the segments 
being thinner than the middle, and folded inwards in aestivation. Stamens 5, distinct, alter- 
nate with the segments of the corolla ; anthers distinct or cohering, 2-celled, bursting lon- 
gitudinally; pollen simple. Ovary 1- 2- or 4-celled, with 1, seldom 2, erect ovules in 
each cell ; style 1, simple; stigma fleshy, surrounded by a membranous cup. Fruit inferior, 
indehiscent, drupaceous, or nut-like. Seeds with a thickened testa ; albumen fleshy, enclo- 
sing an erect embryo ; cotyledons foliaceous ; plumule inconspicuous. — Herbaceous plants 
or shrubs, without milk, with simple or stellate hairs, if any are present. Leaves scattered, 
undivided, without stipules. Inflorescence axillary or terminal. Flowers distinct, never 
capitate, white, blue, or yellowish. 

Anomalies. A Molucca species of Scaevola exists, with opposite leaves. R. Br. 

Affinities. Combined, on account of their indusiate stigmas, by Brown, 
with Goodeniacese and Brunoniacese, from the former of which they difier in 
habit, indehiscent fruit, and definite seeds ; from the latter, in their compound 
inferior ovary and habit. 

Geography. Natives of the South Seas and the islands of the Indian 
archipelago. The species are abundant in New Holland. 

Properties. Unknown. 




Scaevola, L. Pogonetes, (37) 

Gerbera, Lour. Diaspasis, R. Br. 

Dampiera, R. Br. 


' Essential Character. — Stipules between the leaves. 

I know of no other good character by which the genera belonging to this 
alliance are to be known from Capriales ; and yet the order that they consist 
I of is, in the opinion of all botanists, distinct. The same character then cuts 
i off Stellales, which is not generally admitted. The principal anomaly in the 
I alliance is in the case of Opercularinese, which have a 1 -celled ovary, and which 
i ought, perhaps, rather to form a distinct order among Aggregosae. 


Order CLXXXVI. CINCHONACE^. The Coffee Tribe. 

RvBiACEMy Juss. Gen. 196. (1789) for the most part; Ann. Mus. 10. 313. (1807) ; Mem. 
Mus. 6. 365. (1820) ; Diet, des Sciences, 46. 385. (1827) ; Schlect. et Chamisso in 
Linncea, 3. 309. (1828) ; Ach. Rich. Dissert, in Mem. Soc. h. n. Par. 5. 81. 
(1830) ; DC. Prodr. 4. 341. (1830) ; Rosie’s Illustration, p. 287. (1835). 

Essential Character. — Calyx superior, simple, with a definite number of divisions 
or none. Corolla superior, tubular, regular, with a definite number of divisions, which are 
valvate or imbricated in aestivation and equal to the segments of the calyx. Stamens arising 
from the corolla, all on the same line, and alternate with its segments ; pollen elliptical. 
Ovary inferior, surmounted by a disk, usually 2-celled, occasionally with several cells ; 
ovules numerous and attached to a central placenta, or few and erect or ascending ; style 
single, inserted, sometimes partly divided ; stigma usually simple, sometimes divided into 
a definite number of parts. Fruit inferior, either splitting into 2 cocci, or indehiscent and 
dry or succulent, occasionally many-celled. Seeds definite or indefinite ; in the former case 
erect or ascending, in the latter attached to a central axis ; embryo small, oblong, sur- 
rounded by horny albumen ; cotyledons thin ; radicle longer, turned, to the hilum. — Trees, 
shrubs, or herbs. Leaves simple, quite entire, opposite or verticillate, with interpetiolary 
stipules. Flowers arranged variously, usually in panicles or corymbs. 

Anomalies. — Opercularia has but 1 cell and 1 seed, and the number of stamens is 
incongruous with the lobes of the corolla. 

Affinities. This well-marked and strictly limited order is nearly allied 
to Compositae, from which its distinct stamens, bilocular or plurilocular ovary, 
and inflorescence, distinguish it ; and consequently it participates in all the 
relationship of that extensive group. From Apocynacese the aestivation of the 
corolla, the presence of stipules, and the inferior ovary, distinctly divide it ; 
yet, according to Brown, there exists a genus in equinoctial Africa which has 
the interpetiolary stipules and seeds of Cinchonaceae, and the superior ovary of 
Apocynaceae, thus connecting these two orders. Congo, 448. The close 
proximity of Caprifoliaceae will be adverted to in speaking of that order. A 
tribe called Opercularineae, referred here by Brown {Ihid. 447) and others 
(A. Rich. Elem. ed. 4. 483), is remarkable for having but 1 seed, and the 
number of stamens unequal to the lobes of the corolla ; it occupies an inter- 
mediate position between genuine Cinchonaceae and Dipsaceae. The order has 
been recently illustrated by Chamisso and Schlechtendahl, Achille Richard, 
and by De Candolle in his invaluable Prodromus. It is, I think, much to be 
regretted that all these authors should have retained the name Rubiaceae ; 


for surely Stellatae, to which the genus Rubia belongs, must be admitted to be 
fully as distinct from Cincbonacese as is the universally recognized order 

Geography. Almost exclusively found in the hotter parts of the world, 
especially within the tropics, where they are said to constitute about l-29th 
of the whole number of flowering plants. In America the most northem 
species is Pinckneya pubens, a shrub inhabiting the southern states of North 
America; the most southern is Nerteria depressa, a small herb found in the 
Straits of Magellan. Tlie order is represented in northern regions by Stellatae. 

Properties. Powerful febrifugal properties in the bark, or emetic in the 
root, are the grand features of this order, the most efficient products of which, 
in these two respects, are Quinquina and Ipecacuanha. TTie febrifugal pro- 
perties depend upon the presence of a bitter, tonic, astringent principle, which 
exists in great abundance in the bark; those of Cinchona are known to 
depend upon the presence of two alkalies, called cinchonia and quina, both of 
which are combined with kinic acid : two principles which, though very 
analogous, are distinctly different, standing in the same relation to each other 
as potassa and soda. Turner, 648. Sertiirner has obtained some other vegeto- 
alkalies from Cinchona, one of wffiich he calls chinioidia. Brands, 12 . 417. 
N. S. But the existence of this is denied by Henry and Delondre. Ibid. 
July, 1830, p. 422. A detailed account of the qualities, synonymes, and com- 
mercial names of the species of Cinchona is given in Lambert’s Illustration 
of the Genera Cinchona, 4to. London, 1821. In the same work is a transla- 
tion of Humboldt’s account of the Cinchona forests of South America ; but 
the most satisfactory information is to be found in a Memoir upon the officinal 
Jesuit’s Barks, published in the Bibl. Univ. de Geneve, June, 1829-1830, quoted 
in Ferussacs Bulletin, June, 1830, p. 437. Buena hexandra bark is an indif- 
ferent febrifuge, known in Brazil under the name of China. Ibid. Three 
species of Remija, the R. ferruginea, Vellozii, and another, are found in 
Brazil, where they are used for the same purposes as the Peruvian bark, to 
■which, however, they are altogether inferior. PI. Usuelles, no. 2. The bark 
of French Guiana, possessing properties analogous to those of Cinchona, is 
obtained from Portlandia hexandra, the Coutarea speciosa of Aublet. Humb. 
Cinch. For. 43. Eng. ed. The Quinquina Piton and Quinquina des Antilles 
are produced by species of the genus Exostema, and are remarkable for pos- 
sessing properties similar to those of true Quinquina, but without any trace of 
either cinchonine or quinine. PI. Usuelles, no. 3. A kind of fever bark is 
obtained at Sieira Leone from Rondeletia febrifuga. Besides these, a great 
number of other species possess barks more or less valuable : Pinckneya pubens 
is the fever bark of Carolina ; Macrocnemum corymbosum, Guettarda coccinea. 
Antirhea, and Morinda Royoc, are all of the same description. Chiococca 
anguifuga and densifolia are most active remedies in cases of snake -poisons. 
Their action is violently emetic and purgative. See Martius, Mat. Med. Bras. 
p. 18. They are recommended by this -writer to be used in hydrophobia. 
Manettia cordifolia, another Brazilian plant, acts in a similar way. The last 
is also used in dropsy and dysenter}^ A lightish brown, bitter, and power- 
fully astringent extract, called Gambeer, is obtained at Malacca by boiling the 
leaves of Nauclea Gambeer ; it is sometimes substituted for Gum Kino. Ainslie, 
2. 106. A decoction of the leaves as well as root of Webera tetrandi*a is pre- 
scribed in India in certain stages of flux, and the last is supposed to have 
anthelmintic qualities, though neither have much sensible taste or smell. The 
bark and young shoots are also used in dysentery. Ibid. 2. 63. Among the 
emetics. Ipecacuanha holds the first rank ; it is the root of Cephaelis 
Ipecacuanha, a little creeping-rooted, half-herbaceous plant, found in damp 
shady forests in Brazil. Similar properties are found in the roots of other 


• Cinchonaceae of the same country, as in Richardsonia rosea and scabra, 
Spermacoce ferruginea and Poaya, &c. A peculiar alkaline principle, called 
Emetia, is found in Ipecacuanha, which contains 16 per cent, of it. Turner, 
653. The Raiz Preta, which is celebrated for its power in curing dropsy, and 
in destroying the dangerous consequences of bites of serpents, is said to be 
related to Ipecacuanha. P. J. 1. 218. Several species of Psychotria, as 

emetica and herbacea, are substitutes for Ipecacuanha. The spurious barks 
called Quinquina Piton are capable of exciting vomiting. The powdered fruit 
of Randia dumetorum is a poweiful emetic. An infusion of the bark of the 
root is administered to nauseate in bowel complaints. AinsUe, 2. 186. 
According to Roxburgh, the root bruised and thrown into ponds vrhere there 
are fish intoxicates them as Cocculus indicus. Ihid. Psychotria noxa and 
Palicourea Maregraavii, both called Erva de rata, are accounted poisonous in 
Brazil; but nothing veiy certain seems to be known of their properties. Ed. 
P. J. 14. 267. The leaves of Oldenlandia umbellata are considered by the 
native doctors of India as expectorant. AinsUe, 2. 101. Coffee is the roasted 
seeds of a plant of this order, Cofiea arabica, and is supposed to owe its cha- 
racters to a peculiar chemical principle called Caffein. Turner, 699. The 
part roasted is the albumen, which is of a hard homy consistence ; and it 
is probable that the seed of aU Cinchonacese or Stellatae whose albumen is of 
the same texture would serve as a substitute. This would not be the case 
with those with fleshy albumen. The fruit of some species of Gardenia, 
Genipa, and of Vangueria, the Voa Vanga of Madagascar, are succulent and 
eatable. Various species of Morinda, Hydrophylax maritima, &c. afl*ord a 
colouring matter analogous to the dye of Madder. 


§ 1. ClNCHONE^, A.R. 
Nauclea, L. 

Uncaria, Schreb. 
Oiiroupana, Aubl. 
Agylophora, Neck. 
Adina, Salisb. 
Stevensia, Poit. 
Coutarea, Aubl. 

Hillia, Jacq. 

Fereiria, Vand. 
Hymenopogon, Wall. 
Lasionema, D. Don. 
Endlichera, Presl. 
Cinchona, DC. 

Kinkina, Adans. 
Buena, Pohl. 

Cosmibuena, R. P. 
Remija, DC. 

Luciilia, Sweet. 
Hymenodictyon, W all. 
Exostemma, DC. 
Danais, Comm. 
Manettia, Mutis. 

Nacihea, Aubl. 
Bouvardia, Salisb. 
jEginetia, Cav. 
Chistimia, Rafin. 
Pinckneya, Michx. 
Calycophyllum, DC. 
Macrocnemum, Vahl. 

§ 2. Gardenie^, 

Ch. et S. 


Ch. et S. 

Sarcocephalus, Afzel. 

Cephalina, Thonn. 
Zuccarinia, Blum. 
Lucinaea, DC. 
Burchellia, R. Br. 

Bubalina, Rafin. 
Amaioua, Aubl. 

Hexactina, Willd. 
Mussaenda, Linn. 

Belilla, Rheed. 
Kutchubaea, Fisch. 
Cassupa, H.B. 
Gynopachys, Blum. 
Tocoyena, Aubl. 

Ucriana, Willd. 
Posoqueria, Aubl. 
Kyrtanthus, Gmel. 
Cyrtanthus, Schreb. 
Solena, Willd. 
Posoria, Rafin. 
Oxyanthus, DC. 
Stylocoryna, Cav. 
iVahlenber^ia, Blum. 
Ceriscus, Is^ees. 
Genipa, Plum. 

Duroia, L. 

Gardenia, Ellis. 
Rothmannia, Thunb. 
Piringa, Juss. 
Sahlbergia, Neck. 

Randia, Houst. 

Oxyceros, Lour. 
Griffithia, W. et A. 

Thieleodoxa, Cham. 
Hyptianthera, W. et A. 
Chapelieria, A. Rich. 
Heinsia, DC. 
Menestoria, DC. 
Helospora, Jack. 
Hippotis, R. P. 
Pomatium, Gsertn.^ 
Bertiera, Aubl. 
Pouchetia, A. Rich. 
Cupia, DC. 

Cupi, Rheed. 
Chomelia, L. 

Webera, Schreb. 
Zamaria, Rafin. 
Tarenna, Gaertn. 
Petesia, P. Brown. 
Coccocypselum, Swtz. 
Sicelium, P. Brown. 
Tontanea, Juss. 
Bellardia, Schreb. 
Condalia, R. et P. 
Fernelia, Comm. 
Petunga, DC. 
Higginsia, Pers. 

0-Higginsia, P. 
Hoffmannia, Swartz. 
Catesbaea, L, 

§ 3. Hedyotide-e, 

Ch. et S. 
Condaminea, DC. 
Macrocnemum, P. Br. 
Chimarrhis, Jacq. 
Augustea, DC. 

Augusta, Pohl. 
Portlandia, P. Browne. 
Bikkia, Reinw. 

Cormigonus, Raf. 
Isidorea, A. Rich. 
Spallanzania, DC. 
Rondeletia, Plum. 
Petesia, P. Brown. 

Lightfootia, Schreb. 
Willdenovia, Gmel. 
Greenea, W. et A. 
Wendlandia, Bartl. 
Adenosacme, Wall. 
Carphalea, Juss. 
Sipanea, Aubl. 

Virecta, DC. 
Ophiorhiza, L. 
Argostemma, Wall. 

Pomangium, Rein\* 
Spiradiclis, Blum. 
Tula, Adans. 

Dentella, Forst. gen. 
Hedyotis, Roxb. 


Oldenlandia, Linn. 
Gerontogea, Cham. 
Listeria, Neck. 
Gonotheca, Blum. 
Kohautia, Cham. 
Kadua, Cham. 

Anotis, DC. 
Rachicallis, DC. 
Lucya, DC. 

Dunalia, Spreng. 

? Polypremum, L. 

§ 4. ISERTIE^, A. R. 
Metabolos, Blum. 

Sclerococcus, Bartl. 
Gonzalea, Pers. 

R. et P. 

Isertia, Schreb. 

Phosanthus, Rafin. 

§ 5. Hamelie.®. a. R. 
Tepesia, Gaertn. 
Evosmia, H. B. 
Sabicea, Aubl. 
Olostyla, DC. 

Stylocoryna, La B. 
Axanthes, Blume. 
Wallichia, Reinw. 

Laugeria, Jack. 
Halesia, P. Brown. 
Viviania, Rafin. 
Malanea, Aubl. 
Antirhoea, Comm. 

Saldinia, A. Rich, 
Scolosanthus, Vahl. 

Antacanthus, Rich. 
Chomelia, Jacq. 
Baconia, DC. 

Verulamia, DC. 
Ixora, Linn. 

Stenostomum, Gaertn. Pavetta, Linn. 

Chione, DC. 

Crusea, A. Rich. 
Timonius, Rumph. 
Bobea, Gaudich. 
Bobcea, A. Rich. 
Burney a, Cham. 
Hamiltonia, Roxb. 

Leptodermis, Wall. 
Psathura, Comm. 
Chicoincea, Comm. 
Psatura, Poir. 
Psathyra, Spreng. 
Myonima, Comm. 
Pyrostria, Comm. 
Octavia, DC. 
Litosanthes, Blume. 

Pavate, Ray. 
Saprosma, Blum. 
Coussarea, Aubl. 
Frcelichia, Juss. 
Billardiera, Vahl. 
Pecheya, Scop. 
Polyozus, Lour. 
Grumilea, Gaertn. 
Rutidea, DC. 

Rytidea, Spreng. 
Faramea, A. Rich. 

Tetramerium, Juss. 
Strempelia, A. Rich. 
Coffea, Linn. 
Rudgea, Salisb. 
Antherula, Lour. 
Ronabea, Aubl. 
Antonia, P 

Lithosanthes, A.Rich. Psychotria, L. 

Maschalanthe, Blum. Erithalis, P. Brown. 

Herrera, Adan